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Microbiology Chapter 24 Essay

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1. Many scientists see the recovery of Domagk’s daughter as a turning point to usher in the modern age of chemotherapy. What did he do to save her life from septicemia? A. He injected her with a dye. B. He gave her the first sulfa drug. C. He gave her the first penicillin drug. D. He gave her the first toxin based vaccine.
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A
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2. Which of the following is the best definition of an antibiotic? A. a chemical that is made in the pharmaceutical laboratory B. a product derived from the metabolism of living microorganisms C. a chemotherapeutic agent that harms the infectious organism D. the concentration of the drug that destroys the pathogen
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B
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3. Sulfanilamide is active against those bacteria that A. form granular lesions in the body. B. synthesize folic acid. C. induce allergic reaction. D. are commonly found in polluted water.
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B
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4. In competitive inhibition, sulfanilamide is used by a bacterium in an aborted attempt to A. resist the effect of tetracycline. B. synthesize PABA. C. undergo transformation to a resistant form. D. form folic acid.
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D
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5. Isoniazid is of particular value A. for determining the MIC of a drug. B. for performing the Kirby-Bauer test. C. for separating gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. D. for treating tuberculosis.
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D
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6. The two major drawbacks to the use of penicillin are A. kidney damage and immune complex formation. B. allergic reactions and development of drug-resistant bacteria. C. aplastic anemia and anaphylactic hypersensitivity. D. loss of hearing and cytotoxic hypersensitivity.
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B
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9. The beta lactam nucleus is the basic structure of A. penicillin. B. tetracycline. C. chloramphenicol. D. aminoglycosides.
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A
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10. Ampicillin is preferable to penicillin because it A. stimulates fewer allergic reactions. B. is absorbed more easily from the intestine when taken orally. C. is more active against gram (+) bacteria. D. cannot be detoxified by penicillinase.
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B
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11. Penicillin is most effective against A. log phase gram (-) bacteria. B. stationary phase gram (-) bacteria. C. log phase gram (+) bacteria. D. stationary phase gram (+) bacteria.
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C
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12. Carbenicillin is best classified as a A. synthetic chemotherapeutic agent. B. natural antibiotic. C. natural fungicide. D. semisynthetic antibiotic.
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D
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13. MRSA is resistant to A. minocycline. B. methicillin. C. macrolides. D. moxalactam.
answer

B
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14. Both the cephalosporin and penicillin antibiotics A. are produced by mold-like bacteria. B. are used primarily for gram-negative bacteria. C. act on the cell wall of bacteria. D. are related to sulfanilamide.
answer

C
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8. Carbenicillin and methicillin should not be used to treat disease if A. a patient has a penicillin allergy. B. gram-positive bacteria are present. C. staphylococci are present. D. the bacteria causing the disease have cell walls.
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A
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15. Cephalosporin antibiotics may be used A. when tuberculosis is the disease treated. B. as alternatives to penicillin. C. when typhoid fever is the disease treated. D. in children but not in adults.
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B
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16. Cephalosporins act by A. inhibiting protein synthesis. B. interfering with cell-wall biosynthesis. C. competitively inhibiting folic acid biosynthesis. D. inhibiting RNA synthesis.
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B
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17. Members of the genus Streptomyces A. produce sulfanilamide. B. are commonly found in the urinary tract. C. produce many well-known antibiotics. D. are used to test the MIC of an antibiotic.
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C
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18. A common feature of bacitracin and polymyxin B is that both antibiotics A. are effective against fungi. B. contain four benzene rings and several carbohydrate side-groups. C. are produced by Bacillus species. D. lead to anaphylaxis reactions.
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C
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19. All aminoglycoside antibiotics function by A. interfering with cell wall synthesis. B. attaching irreversibility to bacterial ribosomes. C. blocking absorption at the cell membrane. D. blocking DNA transcription.
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B
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20. The tubercle bacillus is usually susceptible to A. moxalactam but not streptomycin. B. streptomycin but not penicillin. C. penicillin but not nystatin. D. cefoxitin but not isoniazid.
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B
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21. Chloramphenicol A. inhibits RNA synthesis. B. cannot be absorbed from the intestine. C. interferes with protein synthesis in microorganisms. D. is effective only against gram (-) infections.
answer

C
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22. All the following apply to the tetracycline antibiotics except A. they are associated with discoloration of the teeth. B. they are used for rickettsial and chlamydial diseases. C. they are broad-spectrum antibiotics. D. they may cause aplastic anemia or the gray syndrome.
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D
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23. The range of activity of tetracycline antibiotics A. includes the viruses. B. is limited to the fungi. C. includes viruses, protozoa, and fungi. D. is essentially similar to chloramphenicol’s range.
answer

D
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24. The indiscriminate use of tetracyclines were enhanced in the 1950s and 1960s by the fact that the antibiotics A. can be taken orally. B. must be injected. C. do not lose their potency in the blood. D. are chemically alike the penicillins.
answer

A
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25. Tetracycline antibiotics interfere with A. protein synthesis. B. RNA synthesis. C. cell wall biosynthesis. D. DNA replication.
answer

A
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26. Tetracycline is the drug of choice in treating most A. gram (+) bacterial infections. B. fungal infections. C. gram (-) infections. D. rickettsial infections.
answer

D
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7. A person who displays a penicillin allergy may be treated with A. bacitracin but not cephalosporin. B. erythromycin but not ampicillin. C. amoxicillin but not erythromycin. D. ampicillin but not amoxicillin.
answer

B
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27. Primary atypical pneumonia and Legionnaires’ disease may both be treated effectively with A. any of the aminoglycoside antibiotics. B. erythromycin. C. any of the monobactam antibiotics. D. penicillin derivatives.
answer

B
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28. Which of the following is a new antibiotic just released in 2005? A. clarithromycin, (Biaxin) B. azithromycin (Zithromax) C. tigecycline (Tygacil) D. ceftriaxone (Rocephin)
answer

C
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29. Pseudomembranous colitis is a condition of the intestine that may be related to A. the anaphylaxis associated with penicillin. B. aplastic anemia. C. overuse of lincomycin and clindamycin. D. cell-wall inhibition caused by vancomycin.
answer

C
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30. Lincomycin and clindamycin are alternative antibiotics for use with infections that prove to be resistant to A. streptomycin. B. erythromycin. C. penicillin. D. tetracycline.
answer

C
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31. One notable side effect of rifampin therapy is A. an orange-red color in urine, tears, and other body secretions. B. pseudomembranous colitis. C. whole body allergic reactions called anaphylaxis. D. interruption of the auditory response.
answer

A
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32. Nystatin is the recommended drug for A. infections of the intestine due to gram-negative bacteria. B. viral infections of the skin. C. malaria and tuberculosis. D. Candida albicans infections of the intestine or oral cavity.
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D
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33. Flucytosine, clotrimazole, and ketoconazole typify the A. drugs for treating leprosy. B. modern sulfonamide drugs. C. antifungal antibiotics. D. cell wall inhibitors.
answer

C
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34. A physician wants to treat a fungal infection of the skin. An antibiotic he might prescribe is A. penicillin. B. streptomycin. C. griseofulvin. D. chloramphenicol.
answer

C
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35. Chloroquine, primaquine, and quinine are of value for the treatment of A. urinary tract infections. B. cases of malaria. C. infections caused by bacteria of the intestinal tract. D. fungal diseases.
answer

B
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36. The Kirby-Bauer test is useful for determining A. the minimum inhibitory concentration of an antibiotic. B. whether side effects will result from use of an antibiotic. C. which antibiotic may be employed to treat an infection. D. the origin of an antibiotic.
answer

C
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37. Which one of the following does not need to be standardized to a constant value before two MICs can be compared? A. Temperature of incubation B. Inoculum size C. Incubation time D. Concentration of drug
answer

A
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_____ 38. is used for Candida albicans infection of the vaginal tract. A. Tetracycline B. Sulfanilamide C. Penicillin D. Nystatin
answer

D
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_____ 39. is a molecule that contains four benzene rings. A. Tetracycline B. Sulfanilamide C. Penicillin D. Nystatin
answer

A
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_____ 40. use is restricted in pregnant women and in young children. A. Tetracycline B. Sulfanilamide C. Penicillin D. Nystatin
answer

A
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_____ 41. was the first of the modern chemotherapeutic agents. A. Tetracycline B. Sulfanilamide C. Penicillin D. Nystatin
answer

B
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_____ 42. interferes with folic acid metabolism in susceptible bacteria. A. Tetracycline B. Sulfanilamide C. Penicillin D. Nystatin
answer

B
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_____ 43. retards fungal overgrowth of the human intestine. A. Tetracycline B. Sulfanilamide C. Penicillin D. Nystatin
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D
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_____ 44. interferes with protein synthesis in bacteria. A. Tetracycline B. Sulfanilamide C. Penicillin D. Nystatin
answer

A
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_____ 45. is not produced by a living organism. A. Tetracycline B. Sulfanilamide C. Penicillin D. Nystatin
answer

B
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_____ 46. is a molecule that contains a beta-lactam nucleus. A. Tetracycline B. Sulfanilamide C. Penicillin D. Nystatin
answer

C
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_____ 47. acts by changing the permeability of the fungal cell membrane. A. Tetracycline B. Sulfanilamide C. Penicillin D. Nystatin
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D
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_____ 48. prevents the cross linking of carbohydrates in peptidoglycan in cell walls. A. Tetracycline B. Sulfanilamide C. Penicillin D. Nystatin
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C
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_____ 49. is active against rickettsiae, chlamydiae, and gram-negative bacteria. A. Tetracycline B. Sulfanilamide C. Penicillin D. Nystatin
answer

A
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_____ 50. can cause a yellow-gray-brown discoloration of teeth. A. Tetracycline B. Sulfanilamide C. Penicillin D. Nystatin
answer

A
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_____ 51. overuse can lead to Candida albicans infection. A. Tetracycline B. Sulfanilamide C. Penicillin D. Nystatin
answer

A
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_____ 52. can cause an anaphylactic reaction in sensitive individuals. A. Tetracycline B. Sulfanilamide C. Penicillin D. Nystatin
answer

C
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_____ 53. is an example of a true chemotherapeutic agent. A. Tetracycline B. Sulfanilamide C. Penicillin D. Nystatin
answer

B
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_____ 54. is an antibacterial drug related to Streptomyces-produced drugs. A. Tetracycline B. Sulfanilamide C. Penicillin D. Nystatin
answer

A
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_____ 55. includes semisynthetic derivatives such as amoxicillin and ampicillin. A. Tetracycline B. Sulfanilamide C. Penicillin D. Nystatin
answer

C
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_____ 56. was isolated from prontosil by Pasteur Institute investigators. A. Tetracycline B. Sulfanilamide C. Penicillin D. Nystatin
answer

B
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_____ 57. MIC A. A chemical substance used in the synthesis of nucleic acids B. Effective against gram-positive, gram-negative bacteria, rickettsiae, and fungi C. Process where a drug molecule is similar to substrate and competes for enzyme action D. The lowest drug concentration that inhibits bacterial growth E. Microbial enzyme that destroys penicillin F. Chemicals used in treating disease G. Drug used in tuberculosis therapy H. Procedure for determining the antibiotic susceptibility pattern of a bacterial species I. Inhibits cell wall synthesis by gram-positive bacteria J. Dye that contains sulfa molecule; its use began practice of treating diseases with drugs
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D
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_____ 58. Prontosil A. A chemical substance used in the synthesis of nucleic acids B. Effective against gram-positive, gram-negative bacteria, rickettsiae, and fungi C. Process where a drug molecule is similar to substrate and competes for enzyme action D. The lowest drug concentration that inhibits bacterial growth E. Microbial enzyme that destroys penicillin F. Chemicals used in treating disease G. Drug used in tuberculosis therapy H. Procedure for determining the antibiotic susceptibility pattern of a bacterial species I. Inhibits cell wall synthesis by gram-positive bacteria J. Dye that contains sulfa molecule; its use began practice of treating diseases with drugs
answer

J
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_____ 59. Penicillin G A. A chemical substance used in the synthesis of nucleic acids B. Effective against gram-positive, gram-negative bacteria, rickettsiae, and fungi C. Process where a drug molecule is similar to substrate and competes for enzyme action D. The lowest drug concentration that inhibits bacterial growth E. Microbial enzyme that destroys penicillin F. Chemicals used in treating disease G. Drug used in tuberculosis therapy H. Procedure for determining the antibiotic susceptibility pattern of a bacterial species I. Inhibits cell wall synthesis by gram-positive bacteria J. Dye that contains sulfa molecule; its use began practice of treating diseases with drugs
answer

I
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_____ 60. Kirby-Bauer test A. A chemical substance used in the synthesis of nucleic acids B. Effective against gram-positive, gram-negative bacteria, rickettsiae, and fungi C. Process where a drug molecule is similar to substrate and competes for enzyme action D. The lowest drug concentration that inhibits bacterial growth E. Microbial enzyme that destroys penicillin F. Chemicals used in treating disease G. Drug used in tuberculosis therapy H. Procedure for determining the antibiotic susceptibility pattern of a bacterial species I. Inhibits cell wall synthesis by gram-positive bacteria J. Dye that contains sulfa molecule; its use began practice of treating diseases with drugs
answer

H
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_____ 61. PAS A. A chemical substance used in the synthesis of nucleic acids B. Effective against gram-positive, gram-negative bacteria, rickettsiae, and fungi C. Process where a drug molecule is similar to substrate and competes for enzyme action D. The lowest drug concentration that inhibits bacterial growth E. Microbial enzyme that destroys penicillin F. Chemicals used in treating disease G. Drug used in tuberculosis therapy H. Procedure for determining the antibiotic susceptibility pattern of a bacterial species I. Inhibits cell wall synthesis by gram-positive bacteria J. Dye that contains sulfa molecule; its use began practice of treating diseases with drugs
answer

G
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_____ 62. Folic acid A. A chemical substance used in the synthesis of nucleic acids B. Effective against gram-positive, gram-negative bacteria, rickettsiae, and fungi C. Process where a drug molecule is similar to substrate and competes for enzyme action D. The lowest drug concentration that inhibits bacterial growth E. Microbial enzyme that destroys penicillin F. Chemicals used in treating disease G. Drug used in tuberculosis therapy H. Procedure for determining the antibiotic susceptibility pattern of a bacterial species I. Inhibits cell wall synthesis by gram-positive bacteria J. Dye that contains sulfa molecule; its use began practice of treating diseases with drugs
answer

A
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_____ 63. Chemotherapeutic agent A. A chemical substance used in the synthesis of nucleic acids B. Effective against gram-positive, gram-negative bacteria, rickettsiae, and fungi C. Process where a drug molecule is similar to substrate and competes for enzyme action D. The lowest drug concentration that inhibits bacterial growth E. Microbial enzyme that destroys penicillin F. Chemicals used in treating disease G. Drug used in tuberculosis therapy H. Procedure for determining the antibiotic susceptibility pattern of a bacterial species I. Inhibits cell wall synthesis by gram-positive bacteria J. Dye that contains sulfa molecule; its use began practice of treating diseases with drugs
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F
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_____ 64. Chloramphenicol A. A chemical substance used in the synthesis of nucleic acids B. Effective against gram-positive, gram-negative bacteria, rickettsiae, and fungi C. Process where a drug molecule is similar to substrate and competes for enzyme action D. The lowest drug concentration that inhibits bacterial growth E. Microbial enzyme that destroys penicillin F. Chemicals used in treating disease G. Drug used in tuberculosis therapy H. Procedure for determining the antibiotic susceptibility pattern of a bacterial species I. Inhibits cell wall synthesis by gram-positive bacteria J. Dye that contains sulfa molecule; its use began practice of treating diseases with drugs
answer

B
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_____ 65. Penicillinase A. A chemical substance used in the synthesis of nucleic acids B. Effective against gram-positive, gram-negative bacteria, rickettsiae, and fungi C. Process where a drug molecule is similar to substrate and competes for enzyme action D. The lowest drug concentration that inhibits bacterial growth E. Microbial enzyme that destroys penicillin F. Chemicals used in treating disease G. Drug used in tuberculosis therapy H. Procedure for determining the antibiotic susceptibility pattern of a bacterial species I. Inhibits cell wall synthesis by gram-positive bacteria J. Dye that contains sulfa molecule; its use began practice of treating diseases with drugs
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E
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_____ 66. Competitive inhibition A. A chemical substance used in the synthesis of nucleic acids B. Effective against gram-positive, gram-negative bacteria, rickettsiae, and fungi C. Process where a drug molecule is similar to substrate and competes for enzyme action D. The lowest drug concentration that inhibits bacterial growth E. Microbial enzyme that destroys penicillin F. Chemicals used in treating disease G. Drug used in tuberculosis therapy H. Procedure for determining the antibiotic susceptibility pattern of a bacterial species I. Inhibits cell wall synthesis by gram-positive bacteria J. Dye that contains sulfa molecule; its use began practice of treating diseases with drugs
answer

C
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_____ 67. Penicillin A. Competitive inhibition B. Inhibits nucleic acid synthesis C. Inhibits protein synthesis D. Inhibits function of cell membrane E. Inhibits cell wall synthesis F. Affects protozoal metabolism
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E
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_____ 68. Sulfanilamide A. Competitive inhibition B. Inhibits nucleic acid synthesis C. Inhibits protein synthesis D. Inhibits function of cell membrane E. Inhibits cell wall synthesis F. Affects protozoal metabolism
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A
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_____ 69. Erythromycin A. Competitive inhibition B. Inhibits nucleic acid synthesis C. Inhibits protein synthesis D. Inhibits function of cell membrane E. Inhibits cell wall synthesis F. Affects protozoal metabolism
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C
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_____ 72. Cephalosporin A. Competitive inhibition B. Inhibits nucleic acid synthesis C. Inhibits protein synthesis D. Inhibits function of cell membrane E. Inhibits cell wall synthesis F. Affects protozoal metabolism
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E
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_____ 71. Rifampin A. Competitive inhibition B. Inhibits nucleic acid synthesis C. Inhibits protein synthesis D. Inhibits function of cell membrane E. Inhibits cell wall synthesis F. Affects protozoal metabolism
answer

B
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_____ 73. Griseofulvin A. Competitive inhibition B. Inhibits nucleic acid synthesis C. Inhibits protein synthesis D. Inhibits function of cell membrane E. Inhibits cell wall synthesis F. Affects protozoal metabolism
answer

D
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_____ 70. Chloramphenicol A. Competitive inhibition B. Inhibits nucleic acid synthesis C. Inhibits protein synthesis D. Inhibits function of cell membrane E. Inhibits cell wall synthesis F. Affects protozoal metabolism
answer

C
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_____74. Vancomycin A. Competitive inhibition B. Inhibits nucleic acid synthesis C. Inhibits protein synthesis D. Inhibits function of cell membrane E. Inhibits cell wall synthesis F. Affects protozoal metabolism
answer

E