Microbiology Chapter 1: History of Microbiology – Flashcards

question
Which of the following taxonomic kingdoms were recognized by Linnaeus? A. protozoa, plants, and animals B.fungi, plants, and animals C.plants and animals D.plants, animals, and bacteria
answer
C.
question
Which of the following is NOT an example of a fungus? A.algae B.yeasts C. mushrooms D.molds
answer
A.
question
Microbiologists study parasitic worms because __________. A.they usually contain bacteria and other microbes B.they cause diseases that are diagnosed by finding microscopic eggs in clinical specimens C.they were not studied by early microbiologists D.they are microscopic as adults
answer
B.
question
Which of the following is a true statement concerning bacteria and archaea? A.Bacteria and archaea have identical types of cell walls. B.Bacteria reproduce asexually, while archaea reproduce sexually. C.Bacteria are often found in sufficiently dry environments. D.No archaea are known to cause disease in humans.
answer
D.
question
What was Leeuwenhoek's contribution to the science of microbiology? A.He developed the vaccine for smallpox. B.He discovered some of the ways in which microbes can be transmitted between individuals. C.He developed the first microscope. D.He did experiments supporting the idea of spontaneous generation.
answer
C.
question
How are the bacteria and the archaea different from all the other cellular microbes? A.They reproduce asexually. B.They can move. C.They have cell walls. D.They have no nucleus.
answer
D.
question
A microorganism has the following characteristics: eukaryotic, multicellular, has cell walls, and grows in long filaments. What is its general classification? A.protozoan B.fungus C.bacterium D. parasitic worm
answer
B.
question
Modern biologists had to revise Linnaeus's system of taxonomy because __________. A.he did not know that some organisms reproduce asexually B.he only classified organisms found in Sweden C.he thought all organisms spontaneously generated D.he grouped all organisms into only two categories
answer
D.
question
Antoni van Leeuwenhoek was the first person in history to A.prove the germ theory. B.develop a taxonomic system. C.use a magnifying glass. D.disprove spontaneous generation. E.view protozoa and bacteria.
answer
E.
question
The microbes commonly known as ________ are single-celled eukaryotes that are generally motile. A.bacteria B.archaea C.fungi D.viruses E.protozoa
answer
E.
question
Which of the following statements about algae is FALSE? A.they provide most of the oxygen on Earth. B.they are photosynthetic organisms. C.they are a source of food for aquatic and marine animals. D.they are important in the degradation of dead plants and animals. E..the group includes seaweeds and kelps.
answer
D.
question
Which of the following statements about fungi is FALSE? A.yeast are unicellular. B.fungi have a cell wall. C.molds form hyphae. D.fungi are eukaryotes. E.fungi are photosynthetic.
answer
E.
question
Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of viruses? A.they are visible with a light microscope. B.they are composed of genetic material and protein. C.they are obligatory parasites. D.they are acellular. E.they are smaller than prokaryotic cells.
answer
A.
question
Microbiology
answer
study of organisms too small to be seen without magn.
question
Prokaryotes
answer
lack nucleus and other intern struc, small, simple ( bact. And arch.)
question
Eukaryote
answer
have nucleus, internal memb., large, complex, (alg.,pro., fun. Anim, pl)
question
major groups of microorganisms
answer
Bacteria Archaea Algae Protozoa Animals Plants
question
Leeuwenhoek
answer
to observe microbes, magnified 300X, 1674-1723
question
Redi
answer
1668, meat in jar, flies, disproove spontaneous generation
question
Schwann
answer
air was source of microbes, prove by air flask, strong chemicals, prevention.
question
Pasteur
answer
disproved spont. Gen., by prevent dust part.,1861 complete exper
question
Jablot
answer
hay infusion, opened vessel develop microor, help disprove, spon. Gen.
question
Tyndall
answer
after pasteurs' results,sterilize thigns, heat resistant forms of life...
question
Cohn
answer
1876, also discovered heat resist. Form of bacteria, now termed ENDOSPORES!!!
question
Needham
answer
boiled beef gravy, and plantinfus, seald, still develp bact. Pool
question
Spallanzani
answer
- boiled longer, and sealed to disprove (maybe air was needed to grow)
question
Jenner
answer
worked with smallpox, noticed milkmaids contract similar cowpox didn't get it, inoculated gardener's son with cowpoz lesion, boy contracted mild cowpox, (intentionally exposed boy and found was immune.
question
"Golden Age of Microbiology"
answer
1860-1900, rapid advances, b Pasteur and Koch. ..as a science
question
Pasteur
answer
1864, microbes and disease in preventing wine from spoil as pasteurization...kills bacteria in alcohol by heat. ( vinegar)
question
Lister
answer
medical procedures and microbe diseases, spracyed (phenol) in dressings, wounds instruments, reduced deaths by 66%. Aseptic technique
question
Koch
answer
1876, proved germ theory of disease, show bacteria actually caused disea. Developed experimental steps a specific microbe to a specific disease. Postulates!!! 1884, developed more staining technique, dyes, purple = +, neg.+ -
question
Koch's postulates
answer
1.Find evidence of particular microbs in every case. 2.Isolate microbe from infect subj, and cultivate in lab. 3.Inoculate a susceptible healthy subj. with isolated from lab. 4.Reisolate microb from the subj.
question
Ehrlich
answer
1890's, magic bullet would find and destroy pathogens but not harm host...discovered chemicals could treat sleeping sickness and syphilis, chemotherapy!!!
question
Fleming
answer
1928,observed growth of staphyloccus aureus, inhibit in colony of nold, mold identitifed and active penicillin ERA OF ANTIBIOTICS WAS BEGINNING!!!
question
atomic structure
answer
protons+, neutrons (neutral) [nucleus], electrons - surrounding.
question
Ionic
answer
have positive(cation) and negative (anion) charges, attract eachother, for ionic bonds....NO ELECTRONS SHARED, ..form salts
question
Hydrogen
answer
weak forces comb with polar coval bond, electrical attraction between H+ and full or partial nega on same molecule or differ., weaker than covalent, essential for life.
question
Carbohydrates
answer
carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, longterm storage of chemical energy, ready energy sourc, backbones of nucleic acid, converts to amino acids, form cell wall, (types (mono-, Di-, and Poly-saccharides)
question
Proteins
answer
carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, structure, enzymatic catalysis, regulation, transport, defense and offense.
question
Lipids
answer
no reg subunits, hydrophobic (groups fats, phospholipids, waxes, steroids)
question
Amino acids
answer
-monomers make up proteins, use 21 amino acids in synthesis of proteins, covalent bond (peptid btwn amino acids by dehydration
question
Nucleic acids
answer
DNA and RNA, genetic material, RNA als is enzyme binds amino acids forms polypeptides. nucleotides are monomers make up nucleic acids, (phosphate, pentose, one of 5 cyclic nitrogenous bases)
question
Glycocalyx
answer
sticky, surrounds outside of cell contains polysaccharide, polypept, or both.
question
Two Types of Glycocalyx
answer
Capsule, Slime layer
question
Capsule
answer
=repeating units of organic chem., firmly attached to surface of cell,, may prevent bact. to be recogn. By host
question
Slime Layer
answer
loosely attached, water soluble, sticky layer allows prokaryotes to attach to surfaces.
question
Flagella
answer
movement, long structures extend beyond cell surface, not on all bact. Structure=filament, book, basal body (anchors filament and hook to cell wall by a rod..) Function=rotation propels bact through environment, rotation reversible or clockwise, Runs tumbles
question
Fimbriae
answer
sticky bristlelike projections,shorter than flagella,used to adhere, important for biofilms.
question
Pili
answer
special type of fimbria, conjugation pili, longer than fimbria but shorter than flagella, have only one or 2 per cell, mediate transfer of DNA from 1 cell to another.
question
Bacterial Cell walls
answer
provide structure, protect, assist some in attaching to other cells or resist antimicrobial drugs, target bacteria with antibiotics, composed of peptidoglycan,
question
Gram-positive
answer
= thick layer of peptidoglycan, contain polyalcohols (teichoic acids), purple, 60% mycolic acid in acid fast bacteria...helps survive desiccation.
question
Gram-negative
answer
thin layer of peptidoglycan, bilayers outside peptide...contains phospholipids, proteins, and LPS, may be impediment to treatment of diseas, pink!!!
question
NAG
answer
= N-acetylglucosamine, similar to glucose, "glycan"
question
NAM
answer
= N-acetylmuramic acid, similar to glucose, "glycan"
question
Teichoic acid
answer
chemical in peptidoglycan
question
Lipotechoic acid
answer
= formed when teichoic acids are covalently linked to lipids.
question
LPS=
answer
Lipopolysaccharide, outerleaflet
question
Lipid A
answer
lipid portion of LPS.
question
Endotoxin
answer
toxic released by lipid A, killing drug, cause fever, vasodialation.
question
Fluid Mosaic Model
answer
describes our current understanding of membrane structure, membrane proteins arrangedin a way that resembles the tiles ina mosaic, fluid free to flow
question
Cytoplasmic membrane
answer
= separate contents of cell from outside, produce moleculses for energy storage,
question
Diffusion
answer
net movement of a chemical down its concentration, high to low.
question
Facilitated DIffusion
answer
proteins provide a pathway for diffusion, no energy,
question
Osmosis
answer
diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane, but it not to solutes, high to low, water follows salt.
question
Group Translocation
answer
an active process that occurs only in some bacteria., actively transport across membrane chemically changed...
question
Cytoplasm
answer
gelatinous material inside a cell, fluid, elastic, aqueous.
question
Inclusion
answer
Deposits, within bacterial cytosol.
question
Ribosomes
answer
= sites of protein synthesis in cells
question
Edospores
answer
durability and pathogenicity
question
Cytoskeleton
answer
an internal network of fibers, plays a role in cell's shape.
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question
Which of the following taxonomic kingdoms were recognized by Linnaeus? A. protozoa, plants, and animals B.fungi, plants, and animals C.plants and animals D.plants, animals, and bacteria
answer
C.
question
Which of the following is NOT an example of a fungus? A.algae B.yeasts C. mushrooms D.molds
answer
A.
question
Microbiologists study parasitic worms because __________. A.they usually contain bacteria and other microbes B.they cause diseases that are diagnosed by finding microscopic eggs in clinical specimens C.they were not studied by early microbiologists D.they are microscopic as adults
answer
B.
question
Which of the following is a true statement concerning bacteria and archaea? A.Bacteria and archaea have identical types of cell walls. B.Bacteria reproduce asexually, while archaea reproduce sexually. C.Bacteria are often found in sufficiently dry environments. D.No archaea are known to cause disease in humans.
answer
D.
question
What was Leeuwenhoek's contribution to the science of microbiology? A.He developed the vaccine for smallpox. B.He discovered some of the ways in which microbes can be transmitted between individuals. C.He developed the first microscope. D.He did experiments supporting the idea of spontaneous generation.
answer
C.
question
How are the bacteria and the archaea different from all the other cellular microbes? A.They reproduce asexually. B.They can move. C.They have cell walls. D.They have no nucleus.
answer
D.
question
A microorganism has the following characteristics: eukaryotic, multicellular, has cell walls, and grows in long filaments. What is its general classification? A.protozoan B.fungus C.bacterium D. parasitic worm
answer
B.
question
Modern biologists had to revise Linnaeus's system of taxonomy because __________. A.he did not know that some organisms reproduce asexually B.he only classified organisms found in Sweden C.he thought all organisms spontaneously generated D.he grouped all organisms into only two categories
answer
D.
question
Antoni van Leeuwenhoek was the first person in history to A.prove the germ theory. B.develop a taxonomic system. C.use a magnifying glass. D.disprove spontaneous generation. E.view protozoa and bacteria.
answer
E.
question
The microbes commonly known as ________ are single-celled eukaryotes that are generally motile. A.bacteria B.archaea C.fungi D.viruses E.protozoa
answer
E.
question
Which of the following statements about algae is FALSE? A.they provide most of the oxygen on Earth. B.they are photosynthetic organisms. C.they are a source of food for aquatic and marine animals. D.they are important in the degradation of dead plants and animals. E..the group includes seaweeds and kelps.
answer
D.
question
Which of the following statements about fungi is FALSE? A.yeast are unicellular. B.fungi have a cell wall. C.molds form hyphae. D.fungi are eukaryotes. E.fungi are photosynthetic.
answer
E.
question
Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of viruses? A.they are visible with a light microscope. B.they are composed of genetic material and protein. C.they are obligatory parasites. D.they are acellular. E.they are smaller than prokaryotic cells.
answer
A.
question
Microbiology
answer
study of organisms too small to be seen without magn.
question
Prokaryotes
answer
lack nucleus and other intern struc, small, simple ( bact. And arch.)
question
Eukaryote
answer
have nucleus, internal memb., large, complex, (alg.,pro., fun. Anim, pl)
question
major groups of microorganisms
answer
Bacteria Archaea Algae Protozoa Animals Plants
question
Leeuwenhoek
answer
to observe microbes, magnified 300X, 1674-1723
question
Redi
answer
1668, meat in jar, flies, disproove spontaneous generation
question
Schwann
answer
air was source of microbes, prove by air flask, strong chemicals, prevention.
question
Pasteur
answer
disproved spont. Gen., by prevent dust part.,1861 complete exper
question
Jablot
answer
hay infusion, opened vessel develop microor, help disprove, spon. Gen.
question
Tyndall
answer
after pasteurs' results,sterilize thigns, heat resistant forms of life...
question
Cohn
answer
1876, also discovered heat resist. Form of bacteria, now termed ENDOSPORES!!!
question
Needham
answer
boiled beef gravy, and plantinfus, seald, still develp bact. Pool
question
Spallanzani
answer
- boiled longer, and sealed to disprove (maybe air was needed to grow)
question
Jenner
answer
worked with smallpox, noticed milkmaids contract similar cowpox didn't get it, inoculated gardener's son with cowpoz lesion, boy contracted mild cowpox, (intentionally exposed boy and found was immune.
question
"Golden Age of Microbiology"
answer
1860-1900, rapid advances, b Pasteur and Koch. ..as a science
question
Pasteur
answer
1864, microbes and disease in preventing wine from spoil as pasteurization...kills bacteria in alcohol by heat. ( vinegar)
question
Lister
answer
medical procedures and microbe diseases, spracyed (phenol) in dressings, wounds instruments, reduced deaths by 66%. Aseptic technique
question
Koch
answer
1876, proved germ theory of disease, show bacteria actually caused disea. Developed experimental steps a specific microbe to a specific disease. Postulates!!! 1884, developed more staining technique, dyes, purple = +, neg.+ -
question
Koch's postulates
answer
1.Find evidence of particular microbs in every case. 2.Isolate microbe from infect subj, and cultivate in lab. 3.Inoculate a susceptible healthy subj. with isolated from lab. 4.Reisolate microb from the subj.
question
Ehrlich
answer
1890's, magic bullet would find and destroy pathogens but not harm host...discovered chemicals could treat sleeping sickness and syphilis, chemotherapy!!!
question
Fleming
answer
1928,observed growth of staphyloccus aureus, inhibit in colony of nold, mold identitifed and active penicillin ERA OF ANTIBIOTICS WAS BEGINNING!!!
question
atomic structure
answer
protons+, neutrons (neutral) [nucleus], electrons - surrounding.
question
Ionic
answer
have positive(cation) and negative (anion) charges, attract eachother, for ionic bonds....NO ELECTRONS SHARED, ..form salts
question
Hydrogen
answer
weak forces comb with polar coval bond, electrical attraction between H+ and full or partial nega on same molecule or differ., weaker than covalent, essential for life.
question
Carbohydrates
answer
carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, longterm storage of chemical energy, ready energy sourc, backbones of nucleic acid, converts to amino acids, form cell wall, (types (mono-, Di-, and Poly-saccharides)
question
Proteins
answer
carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, structure, enzymatic catalysis, regulation, transport, defense and offense.
question
Lipids
answer
no reg subunits, hydrophobic (groups fats, phospholipids, waxes, steroids)
question
Amino acids
answer
-monomers make up proteins, use 21 amino acids in synthesis of proteins, covalent bond (peptid btwn amino acids by dehydration
question
Nucleic acids
answer
DNA and RNA, genetic material, RNA als is enzyme binds amino acids forms polypeptides. nucleotides are monomers make up nucleic acids, (phosphate, pentose, one of 5 cyclic nitrogenous bases)
question
Glycocalyx
answer
sticky, surrounds outside of cell contains polysaccharide, polypept, or both.
question
Two Types of Glycocalyx
answer
Capsule, Slime layer
question
Capsule
answer
=repeating units of organic chem., firmly attached to surface of cell,, may prevent bact. to be recogn. By host
question
Slime Layer
answer
loosely attached, water soluble, sticky layer allows prokaryotes to attach to surfaces.
question
Flagella
answer
movement, long structures extend beyond cell surface, not on all bact. Structure=filament, book, basal body (anchors filament and hook to cell wall by a rod..) Function=rotation propels bact through environment, rotation reversible or clockwise, Runs tumbles
question
Fimbriae
answer
sticky bristlelike projections,shorter than flagella,used to adhere, important for biofilms.
question
Pili
answer
special type of fimbria, conjugation pili, longer than fimbria but shorter than flagella, have only one or 2 per cell, mediate transfer of DNA from 1 cell to another.
question
Bacterial Cell walls
answer
provide structure, protect, assist some in attaching to other cells or resist antimicrobial drugs, target bacteria with antibiotics, composed of peptidoglycan,
question
Gram-positive
answer
= thick layer of peptidoglycan, contain polyalcohols (teichoic acids), purple, 60% mycolic acid in acid fast bacteria...helps survive desiccation.
question
Gram-negative
answer
thin layer of peptidoglycan, bilayers outside peptide...contains phospholipids, proteins, and LPS, may be impediment to treatment of diseas, pink!!!
question
NAG
answer
= N-acetylglucosamine, similar to glucose, "glycan"
question
NAM
answer
= N-acetylmuramic acid, similar to glucose, "glycan"
question
Teichoic acid
answer
chemical in peptidoglycan
question
Lipotechoic acid
answer
= formed when teichoic acids are covalently linked to lipids.
question
LPS=
answer
Lipopolysaccharide, outerleaflet
question
Lipid A
answer
lipid portion of LPS.
question
Endotoxin
answer
toxic released by lipid A, killing drug, cause fever, vasodialation.
question
Fluid Mosaic Model
answer
describes our current understanding of membrane structure, membrane proteins arrangedin a way that resembles the tiles ina mosaic, fluid free to flow
question
Cytoplasmic membrane
answer
= separate contents of cell from outside, produce moleculses for energy storage,
question
Diffusion
answer
net movement of a chemical down its concentration, high to low.
question
Facilitated DIffusion
answer
proteins provide a pathway for diffusion, no energy,
question
Osmosis
answer
diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane, but it not to solutes, high to low, water follows salt.
question
Group Translocation
answer
an active process that occurs only in some bacteria., actively transport across membrane chemically changed...
question
Cytoplasm
answer
gelatinous material inside a cell, fluid, elastic, aqueous.
question
Inclusion
answer
Deposits, within bacterial cytosol.
question
Ribosomes
answer
= sites of protein synthesis in cells
question
Edospores
answer
durability and pathogenicity
question
Cytoskeleton
answer
an internal network of fibers, plays a role in cell's shape.