Medieval kingdoms in europe

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The Carolingian Empire started to fall apart after the death of what leader in 814?
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Charlemagne
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Who did the common people turn to for protection and service?
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to the nobles.
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Define feudalism
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political and social order that developed during the middle ages when royal governments were no longer able to defend their subjects. noble offered protection and land in return for service.
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Define vassal
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a man who served a lord in a military capacity.
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Define knight
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a heavily armed calvary
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The land given to a vassal from his lord was known as a
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fief
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What was the chief virtue in the relationship between a lord and his vassal?
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loyalty
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Define feudal contract
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under feudalism, the unwritten rules that determinate the relationship between the lord and his vassal.
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What was the major obligation of a vassal to his lord?
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military service
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What were the responsibilities of a lord to his vassal?
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to give him land and to protect him.
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The European feudal system in the Middle Ages was dominated by men whose chief concern was
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warfare
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Nobles included what groups of people?
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kings, dukes, counts, barons, bishops.
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Define chivalry:
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the ideal of civilize behavior that developed amount the nobility was a code of ethics to follow.
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The most famous women at this time who managed the estate while her husband was gone?
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aristocratic women and the most famous was Eleanor of aquitaine
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Which two sons of Eleanor and King Henry II would become king?
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Richard and john
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What two agricultural advancements improved farming and led eventually to population growth possible?
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improvement in climate and technological innovations
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define manor
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estate owned by a lord and farmed by a peasant.
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define serfs
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owned rent and labor. and lived under the manor lord’s feudal.
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What two European cities became leaders in trade?
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venice and flanders
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Explain the Hanseatic League
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100 cites in the Baltic sea area banded together for mutual protection and economic opportunity.
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Define money economy
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based on gold and silver coins.
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Define commercial capitalism
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investment in trade and goods for profit
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Define bourgeoisie (and who it includes)
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merchants and artisans settled in old roman cities and founded new towns and cities near castles for more protection. and along trade routes. bourgeoisie included merchants, industrialist and professional people.
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To ensure freedoms they needed, what would the townspeople purchase from the lords that controlled their lands?
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they purchase their rights, and eventually the cities developed into their own government.
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Define guild
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associations that trained artisans, controlled the cavality of manufactured goods and set prices.
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Ever since King Alfred the Great united the various European kingdoms, England has been ruled by what types (of religious) kings?
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anglosaxon
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Where did William of Normandy beat the English, also allowing him to become the King of England?
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at the battle of hastings
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Which King increased the power of the monarchy (the power of the king) by expanding control over the courts; he would later have trouble over power with the Church?
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henry the second
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Define common law and what it replaced
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law that was common to the whole kingdom was created and replaced law codes that varied from place to place.
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Who was the Canterbury archbishop that opposed (went against) King Henry II, claiming that only the Church could try clerics? (he would later be murdered in the cathedral)
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Thomas a becket.
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What King was forced to sign that Magna Carta?
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king john
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What did the Magna Carta do (what is another name for it, whose power did it limit, who did it give rights to)?
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another name is ” great charter” and it gave right to the nobles and limited the power to the monarch.
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Under what king was the (English) Parliament established?
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Edward the first
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Explain Parliament:
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representative government of the basic institutions of democratic government.
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Who made up the- House of Lords:
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nobles and church officials
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who made up the house of commons:
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the knights and townspeople.
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What ruler was able to regain control of French territories from the English and strengthen the French monarchy?
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Philip the second augustus
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Which ruler expanded the royal bureaucracy and improved royal governance; AND ALSO created the French Parliament called the Estates-General?
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Philip the fourth.
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In the Estates-General who made up the- First Estate:
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clergy
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in the estates general who made up the second estate?
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the nobles.
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In the estates general who made up the third estate?
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townspeople and peasants.
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Who was named Holy Roman Emperor in exchange for protection of the Church
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otto the first
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The western Slavs who set up kingdoms in Poland and Bohemia became part of what (religion)?
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the roman catholic church
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The eastern Slavs who set up kingdoms in Moravia, and the southern Slavs embraced what(religion)
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the eastern orthodox
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Whose descendents became leaders of Russia?
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prince alexander nevsky
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During this time, the Church became an increasingly feudal structure because who selected the Church officials?
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the nobles
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What pope ended the practice of secular (lay, worldly) rulers choosing church officials; claiming that the pope had authority over the Christian world- including kings and nobles?
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pope Gregory the seventh
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Which pope ended the practice of lay investiture, putting him in conflict with King Henry IV, eventually resulting in the pope excommunicating the king?
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pope Gregory the seventh
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The Catholic Church reached the height of its political power under whom?
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pope innocent the third
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Define interdict:
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forbids priests from offering someone sacraments, such as communion.
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What is the name of the strict new order of activist monks in southern France, who lived simple lives and took religion to the people?
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the cistercians
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Who was the most widely known female composer and abbess?
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Hildegard of bingen
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This group was founded by St. Francis of Assisi; friars vowed to preach in poverty and work as missionaries
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the franciscans
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This group was founded by Dominic de Guzman; a priest who wished to defend Church teachings from heresies
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dominican
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List some of the sacraments a priest administered
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baptism, marriage and the eucharist or communion
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. Which saint came to be seen by many as the most important saint?
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Mary mother of jesus.
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Why were relics worshiped?
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because they provided a link between god and life on earth.
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Which two cities were among the most popular pilgrimage sites?
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Jerusalem and rome
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What was the primary motive of the Crusades?
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to drive Muslims out of the regions they had conquered.
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Which Crusade was the ONLY successful one?
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the first
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Which pope called upon European Christians to join in the holy war?
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pope urban the second
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During the First Crusade, what important holy city were the European Christians able to capture?
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jerusalem
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Who was the Egyptian sultan during the Crusades, who was able to gain command of the Muslim armies and make them stronger?
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saladin
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. What type of architecture had an arched stone vault to form the roof and the cathedral was built in the shape of a cross?
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romannesque
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What type of architecture had ribbed vaults and pointed arches, flying buttresses and thin walls with large stained glass windows?
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gothic
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University comes from the Latin word, universitas, meaning what?
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universitas means universities and its meaning its ” corporation ” and ” guilt”
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What were the first three European universities?
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bologna in Italy, university of paris and oxford in England.
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Define theology
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the study of religion and god.
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Define scholasticism
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tried to bring together faith and reason Christian teaching can go with the work of greek philosophers.
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Who wrote Summa Theologica and most famously tried to reconcile Aristotle with Christianity?
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Thomas aquinas
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Define Vernacular
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the language of everyday speech in a particular region. Spanish, English, French and german.
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What was the most popular type of vernacular literature; the product of knights and nobles?
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the troubadour poetry
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What was another type of vernacular literature; the earliest and finest example was The Song of Roland?
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chanson de geste.
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Who wrote The Canterbury Tales, the collection of stories collected by 29 pilgrims on a journey to visit the tomb of St. Thomas a Becket?
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Geoffrey chaucer
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. Where did the Black Death start?
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caffa
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Some people blamed the Jews for the Black Death, this hostility towards Jews is known as what?
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anti-semitism
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What two countries were there popes located in during the Great Schism?
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france and rome
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Explain the Great Schism and how did it make people feel?
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the division of the papacy into two. it caused people to lose faith in church authority.
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During the Hundred Years’ War, how was England able to have early victories at Crecy and Agincourt?
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because they had a high number of peasants and foot soldiers.
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Who was the peasant girl who gained allegiance to the French by claiming to have been spoken toby saints?
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joan of arc
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Which country won the Hundred Years’ War?
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france
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How did Louis XI pave the way for many years of strong French monarchs?
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establishing a reliable tax revenue and by curbing the power of the nobles
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The marriage of which two people unified Spain into a formidable power?
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Ferdinand and Isabella.

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