Medical Terminology, Chapter 12, The Integumentary System

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abrasion
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an injury in which superficial layers of skin are scraped or rubbed away
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abscess
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a closed pocket containing pus that is caused by a bacterial infection
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acne vulgaris
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a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by pustular eruptions of the skin caused by an overproduction of sebum
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actinis keratosis
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a precancerous skin growth that occurs on sun-damaged skin; It often looks like a red, tan or pink scaly patch and feels like sandpaper.
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adipose tissue
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fat
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albinism
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a genetic condition characterized by a deficiency or the absence of pigment in the skin, hair, and irises of the eyes.This condition is the result of a missing enzyme that is necessary for the production of melanin.
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alopecia
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the partial or complete loss of hair, most commonly on the scalp
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alopecia areata
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an autoimmune disorder that attacks the hair follicles, causing well-defined bald areas on the scalp or elsewhere on the body
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alopecia capitis totalis
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an uncommon condition characterized by the loss of all the hair on the scalp
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alopecia universalis
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the total loss of hair on all parts of the body
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anhidrosis
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the abnormal condition of lacking sweat in response to heat
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arrector pili
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tiny muscle fibers attached to the hair follicles that cause the hair to stand erect
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basal cell carcinoma (BCC)
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a malignant tumor of the basal cell layer of the epidermis; this is the most common and least harmful type of skin cancer because it is slow growing and rarely spreads to other parts of the body. The lesions, which occur mainly on the face or neck and tend to bleed easily, are usually pink, smooth and are raised with a depression in the center.
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biopsy
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the removal of a small piece of living tissue for examination to confirm or establish a diagnosis
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blepharoplasty
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the surgical reduction of the upper and lower eyelids by removing excess fat, skin, and muscle. A small amount of fat from the patient’s thighs or buttocks is sometimes injected in the hollow below the eye.
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botox
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a formulation of botulinum toxin type A; injections that temporarily block the nerve signals to the injected muscle, reduce moderate to severe frown lines for up to 3-4 months
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bulla
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a large blister that is usually more than 0.5 cm in diameter
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burn
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an injury to body tissues caused by heat, flame, electricity, sun, chemicals, or radiation
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callus
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a thickening of part of the skin on the hands or feet caused by repeated rubbing
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carbuncle
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a cluster of connected furuncles (boils)
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cauterization
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the destruction of tissue by burning
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cellulitis
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an acute, rapidly spreading infection within the connective tissues that is characterized by malaise, swelling, warmth, and red streaks
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chemabrasion
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the use of chemicals to remove the outer layers of skin to treat acne scarring, fine wrinkling, and keratoses
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chloasma
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a pigmentation disorder characterized by brownish spots on the face.This can occur during pregnancy, especially among women with dark hair and fair skin, and usually disappears after delivery
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cicatrix
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a normal scar resulting from the healing of a wound
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clubbing
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abnormal curving of the nails that is often accompanied by enlargement of the fingertips
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collagen
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a tough, yet flexible, fibrous protein material found in the skin and in the bones, cartilage, tendons, and ligaments
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collagen replacement therapy
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a form of soft-tissue augmentation used to soften facial lines or scars or to make lips appear fuller
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comedo
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a noninfected lesion formed by the buildup of sebum and keratin in a hair follicle often associated with acne vulgaris. This in addition to an obstructed opening is called a whitehead. A sebum plus that is exposed to air often oxidizes and becomes a blackhead.
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contact dermatitis (CD)
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a localized allergic response caused by contact with an irritant
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contusion
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an injury to underlying tissues without breaking the skin and is characterized by discoloration and pain
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cosmetic surgeon
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a physician who specializes in the surgical restoration and reconstruction of body structures
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crust
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a collection of dried serum and cellular debris; a scab
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cryosurgery (cryo)
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the destruction or elimination of abnormal tissue cells through the application of extreme cold by using liquid nitrogen
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curettage
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the removal of material from the surface by scraping; One use of this technique is to remove basal cell tumors.
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cutaneous
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relating to the skin
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cuticle
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a narrow band of epidermis attached to the surface of the nail just in front of the root, protecting the new keratin cells as they form
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cyst
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an abnormal sac containing gas, fluid, or a semisolid material
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debridement (debm)
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the removal of dirt, foreign objects, damaged tissue, and cellular debris from a wound to prevent infection and to promote healing
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dermabrasion
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a form of abrasion involving the use of a revolving wire brush or sandpaper; It is used to remove acne and chickenpox scars as well as for facial skin rejuvenation.
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dermatitis
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an inflammation of the skin; this condition, which takes many forms, is usually characterized by redness, swelling, and itching.
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dermatologist
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a physician who specializes in diagnosing and treating disorders of the skin
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dermatoplasty
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the replacement of damaged skin with healthy tissue taken from a donor site on the patient’s body; also known as a skin graft
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dermatosis
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a general term used to denote skin lesions or eruptions of any type that are not associated with inflammation
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dermis
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the thick layer of living tissue directly below the epidermis
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diaphoresis
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profuse sweating; this is a normal condition when brought on by heat or exertion but can also be the body’s response to emotinal or physical distress
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dysplastic nevi
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atypical moles that may develop into skin cancer
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ecchymosis
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a large, irregular area of purplish discoloration due to bleeding under the skin; a bruise
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eczema (Ez,Ecz)
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a form of persistent or recurring dermatitis that is usually characterized by redness, itching, and dryness, with possible blistering, cracking, oozing, or bleeding; this chronci condition most often seen in infants and children, appears to be the best result of a malfunction of the body’s immune system.
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electrolysis
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the use of electric current to destroy hair follicles in order to produce the relatively permanent removal of undesired hair
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epidermis
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the outermost layer of the skin
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epithelial tissues
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form a protective covering for all of the internal and external surfaces of the body
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erythema
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redness of the skin due to capillary dilation
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erythroderma
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abnormal redness of the entire skin surface
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exfoliative cytology
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a technique in which cells are scraped from the tissue and examined under a microscope
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exfoliative dermatitis
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a condition in which there is widespread scaling of the skin, often with pruritus, erythroderma, and hair loss. It may occur in severe cases of many common skin conditions, including eczema, psoriasis and allergic reactions.
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female pattern baldness
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a condition in which the hair thins in the front and on the sides of the scalp and sometimes on the crown
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first-degree burn
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superficial burn; no blisters, superficial damage to the epidermis
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fissure
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a groove or crack-like break in the skin
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folliculitis
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an inflammation of the hair follicles. This condition is especially common on arms, legs and in the beard area of men. One of the many causes is a bacterium found in poorly chlorinated hot tubs or whirlppols.
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furuncles
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large, tender, swollen areas caused by a staphylococcal infection around hair follicles or sebaceous glands; boils
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gangrene
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tissue necrosis most commonly caused by a loss of circulation to the affected tissues
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granulation tissue
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the tissue that normally forms during the healing of a wound
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granuloma
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a general term used to describe small, knot-like swellings of granulation tissue in the epidermis. THey can result from inflammation, injury or infection
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hair
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rod-like structures composed of tightly fused, dead protein cells filled with hard keratin
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hair follicles
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the sacs that hold the root of the hair fibers
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hematoma
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a swelling of clotted blood trapped in the tissues, usually caused by an injury. The body eventually reabsorbs this blood. It is named for the area where it occurs.
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heparin
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an anticoagulant released in response to an injury
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hidrosis
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the production and excretion of sweat
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hirsutism
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the presence of excessive body and facial hair in women, usually occurring in a male pattern. This condition can be hereditary or caused by a hormonal imbalance.
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histamine
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released in response to allergens, causes the signs of an allergic response, including itching and increased mucus secretion
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hyperhidrosis
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a condition of sweating in one area or over the whole body
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ichthyosis
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a group of hereditary disorders characterized by dry, thickened, and scaly skin. These conditions are caused either by the slowing of the skin’s natural shedding process or by a rapid increase in the production of the skin’s cells.
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impetigo
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a highly contagious bacterial skin infection that commonly occurs in children. This condition is characterized by isolated pustules that become crusted and rupture.
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incision and drainage (I&D)
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involves incision (cutting open) of a lesion, such as an abscess, and draining the contents
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infestation
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the dwelling of microscopic parasites on external surface tissue
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keloid
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an abnormally raised or thickened scar that expands beyond the boundaries of the incision; A tendency to form keloids is often inhereited and is more common among people with dark-pigmented skin.
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keratin
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a fibrous, water-repellant protein
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keratosis
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any skin growth, such as a wart or a callus, in which there is overgrowth and thickening of the skin
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koilonychia
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a malformation of the nails in which the outer surface is concave or scooped out like the bowl of a spoon; Indication of iron-deficiency anemia.
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laceration
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a torn or jagged wound, or an accidental cut wound
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laser
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light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation
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lesion
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a pathologic change of the tissues due to disease or injury
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lipectomy
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the surgical removal of fat beneath the skin to improve physical appearance.
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lipedema
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a chronic abnormal condition that is characterized by the accumulation of fat and fluid in the tissues just under the skin of the hips and legs. This condition usually affects women and even with weight loss, this localized excess fat does not go away.
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lipocytes
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fat cells
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lipoma
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a benign, slow-growing fatty tumor located between the skin and the muscle layer; This fatty tumor is usually harmless and treatment is rarely necessary unless the tumor is in a bothersome location, is painful or is growing rapidly.
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liposuction
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the surgical removal of fat beneath the skin with the aid of suction
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lunula
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a pale half-moon-shaped region at every nail root that is generally most easily seen in the thumbnail
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lupus erythematosus
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an autoimmune disorder characterized by a red, scaly rash on the face and upper trunk
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macule
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a discolored, flat spot that is less than 1 cm in diameter; freckles or flat moles are examples.
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male pattern baldness
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a common hair-loss pattern in men, with the hairline receding from the front to the back until only a horseshoe-shaped area of hair remains in the back and at the temples
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malignant melanoma (MM)
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a type of skin cancer that occurs in the melanocytes; this is the most serious type of skin cancer and often the first signs are changes in size, shap or color of mole.
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mast cells
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found in the connective tissue of the dermis; respond to injury, infection, or allergy by producing and releasing substances, including heparin and histamine
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melanocytes
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cells that produce and contain a dark brown to black pigment called melanin
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melanosis
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any condition of unusual deposits of black pigment in different parts of the body
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miliaria
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an intensely itchy rash caused by blockage of the sweat glands by bacteria and dead cells; also known as heat rash and prickly heat (do not confuse with malaria)
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Mohs surgery
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a technique used to treat skin cancer
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nail root
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fastens the nail to the finger or toe by fitting into a groove in the skin
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nails
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protect the dorsal surface of the last bone of each toe and finger
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necrotizing fasciitis
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a severe infection caused by Group A strep bacteria also known as flesh eating bacteria. These bacteria normally live harmlessly on the skin; however, they enter the body through a skin wound, thisserious infection can result . If untreated, the infected body tissue is destroyed and the illnes can be fatal.
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nevi
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small, dark skin growths that develop from melanocytes in the skin; also known as moles
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nodule
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a solid, raised skin lesion that is larger than 0.5 cm in diameter and deeper than a papule
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onychia
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an inflammation of the matrix of the nail that usually results in the loss of the nail
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onychocryptosis
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the edges of a toenail, usually on the big toe, curve inward and cut into the skin; also known as an ingrown toenail. the infected area is prone to inflammation or infection
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onychomycosis
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a fungal infection of the nail; This condition can cause the nails to turn, white, yellow, green or black and to become thick or brittle.
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onychophagia
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nail biting or nail eating
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papilloma
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a benign, superficial wart-like growth on the epithelial tissue or elsewhere in the body
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papule
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a small, raised red lesion that is less than 0.5 cm in diameter and does not contain puss
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paronychia
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an acute or chronic infection of the skin fold around a nail
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pediculosis
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an infestation with lice
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pediculosis capitis
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an infestation with head lice
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pediculosis corporis
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an infestation with body lice
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pediculosis pubis
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an infestation with lice in the pubic hair and pubic region
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perspiration
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secreted by sweat glands and is made up of 99% water plus some salt and metabolic waste products; sweat
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perspiring
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sweating; one way in which the body excretes excess water
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petechiae
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very small, pinpoint hemorrhages that are less than 2 mm in diameter; sometimes result from very high fevers.
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plaque
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a scaly, solid raised area of closely spaced papules
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polyp
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a general term used most commonly to describe a mushroom-like growth from the surface of a mucous membrane, such a polyp in the nose; these growths have many causes and are not necesarily malignant
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pores
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openings on the surface of the skin for the ducts of the sweat glands
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port-wine stain
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a large, reddish-purple discoloration of the face or neck. This type of birthmark will not resolve without treatment.
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pressure sore
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an open ulcerated area in which prolonged pressure has caused tissue death; Without proper care, these sores quickly become seriously infected and can result in tissue death.
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pruritus
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also known as itching and is associated with most forms of dermatitis
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psoriasis
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a common skin disorder characterized by flare-ups in which red papules covered with silvery scales occur on the elbows, knees, scalp, back, or buttocks
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puncture wound
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a deep hole made by a sharp object such as a nail
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purpura
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the appearance of multiple purple discolorations on the skin caused by bleeding underneath the skin. These areas of discoloration are smaller than an ecchymosis and larger than ptechiae.
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purulent
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producing or containing pus
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pustule
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a small, circumscribed lesion containing pus; a pimple
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pyoderma
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any acute, inflammatory, pus-forming bacterial skin infection such as impetigo
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rhinophyma
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a condition characterized by hyperplasia (overgrowth) of the tissues of the nose and is associated with advanced rosacea; usually occurs in older men
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rhytidectomy
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the surgical removal of excess skin and fat around the face to eliminate wrinkles; also known as a facelift
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rosacea
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characterized by tiny red pimples and broken blood vessels; this condition is unknown and can usually develop in individuals with fai skin between 30 and 60 years of age.
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scabies
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a skin infection caused by an infestation with the itch mite. These tiny mites cause samll itchy bumps and blisters by burrowing into the top layer of human skin to lay their eggs.
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scales
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flakes or dry patches made up of excess dead epidermal cells; some shedding is normal; however, excessive shedding is associated with skin disorders such as psoriasis.
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scleroderma
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an autoimmune disorder in which the connective tissues become thickened and hardened, causing the skin to become hard and swollen. This condition can also affect the joints and internal organs.
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sclerotherapy
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used in the treatment of spider veins by injecting a saline sclerosing solution into the vein. This solution irritates the tissue causing the veins to collapse and dissapear.
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sebaceous cyst
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a closed sac associated with a sebaceous gland that is found just under the skin
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sebaceous glands
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secrete sebum (oil) that lubricates the skin and discourages the growth of bacteria on the skin
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seborrhea
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overactivity of the sebaceous glands that results in the production of an excessive amount of sebum
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seborrheic dermatitis
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an inflammation that causes scaling and itching of the upper layers of the skin or scalp; Extensive dandruff is a form of it, as is the scalp rash in infants known as cadle cap.
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seborrheic keratosis
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a benign skin growth that has a waxy or “pasted on” look
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sebum
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released through ducts opening into the hair follicles
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second-degree burn
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partial thickness burn; blisters, damage to the epidermis and dermis
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sensory nerve endings
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sensory receptors stimuli such as touch, temperature, pain, and pressure
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skin
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covers the external surfaces of the body
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skin cancer
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a harmful, malignant growth on the skin
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skin tags
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small, flesh-colored or light brown polyps that hand from the body by fine stalks
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sleep hyperhidrosis
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the occurrence of excessive hyperhidrosis during sleep; also known as night sweats
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squamous cell carcinoma (SCC)
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originates as a malignant tumor of the scaly squamous cells of the epithelium; however, it can quickly spread to other body systems. These cancers begin as skin lesions that appear to be sores that will not heal or that have a crusted look.
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squamous epithelial tissue
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forms the upper layer of the epidermis
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strawberry hemangioma
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a soft, raised, dark-reddish-purple birthmark
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subcutaneous layer
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located just below the skin, connects the skin to the surface muscles
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sunburn
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a form of erythema in which skin cells are damaged by exposure to the ultraviolet rays in sunlight
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sunscreen
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blocks out the harmful ultraviolet B (UVB) rays of the sun
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sweat glands
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tiny, coiled glands found on almost all body surfaces, help regulate body temperature and water content by secreting sweat
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third-degree burn
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full thickness burn; damage to the epidermis, dermis, and subcutaneous layers, and possibly also the muscle below
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tinea
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a fungal infection that can grow on the skin, hair, or nails; also known as ringworm
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tinea capitis
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found on the scalps of children
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tinea corporis
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a fungal infection of the skin on the body
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tinea cruris
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found in the genital area; also known as jock itch
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tinea pedis
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found between the toes and on the feet; athlete’s foot
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tinea versicolor
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a fungal infection that causes painless, discolored areas on the skin
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ulcer
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an open lesion of the skin or mucous membrane resulting in tissue loss around the edges
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unguis
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fingernail or toenail; the keratin plate protecting the dorsal surface of the last bone of each finger and toe
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urticaria
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itchy wheals caused by an allergic reaction
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verrucae
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small, hard skin lesions caused by the human papilloma virus; warts
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vesicle
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a small blister, less than 0.5 cm in diameter, containing watery fluid
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vitiligo
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a skin condition resulting from the destruction of the melanocytes due to unknown causes
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wheal
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a small bump that itches; a welt
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xeroderma
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excessively dry skin
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actin/o
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light
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albin/o
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white
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alopec/o
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baldness, mangy
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ante-, pre-
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before, in front of, forward
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bi/o
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life
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cicatric/o
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scar
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crypt/o
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hidden
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cutane/o, dermat/o, derm/o
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skin
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diaphor/o
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sweat
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furuncul/o
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furunculus, a boil, an infection
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granul/o
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granule(s)
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hidr/o
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sweat
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hirsut/o
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hairy, rough
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ichthy/o
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dry, scaly
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kel/o
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growth, tumor
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kerat/o
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horny, hard, cornea
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koil/o
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hollow or concave
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lip/o
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fat, lipid
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macul/o
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spot
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myc/o
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fungus
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necr/o
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death
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nev/o
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birthmark, mole
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onych/o, ungu/o
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fingernail or toenail
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pedicul/o
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louse, lice
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petechi/o
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skin spot
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pil/i, pil/o
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hair
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post-
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after, behind
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prurit/o, psor/i, psor/o
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itching
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purpur/o
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purple
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purul/o
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pus-filled
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rhytid/o
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wrinkle
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seb/o
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sebum
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tine/o
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gnawing worm, ringworm
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urtic/o
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nettle, rash, hives
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verruc/o
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wart
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viti/o
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blemish, defect
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xer/o
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dry
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exanthem
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refers to widespread rash, usually in children.
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excisional biopsy
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the entire tumor or lesion and a margin of surrounding tissue are removed
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incisional biopsy
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a piece, but not all, of the tumor or lesion is removed.
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needle biopsy
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a hollow needle is used to remove a core of tissue for examination
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photodynamic therapy (PDT)
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is a technique used to treat damaged and precancerous skin, as well as various types of cancer.
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retinoids
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chemical compounds derived from vitamin A used in skin care treatment
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systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)
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Chronic disease of the connective tissue that injures the skin, joints, kidneys, nervous system, and mucous membranes. May produce a characteristic butterfly rash across the cheeks and nose.

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