Medical Terminology Ch 7 Urinary System

cali/o, calic/o
combining form for Calyx
(cup-like collecting region of the renal pelvis)
glomerul/o
combining form for glomerulus
(tiny ball of capillaries in the kidney)
meat/o
combining form for meatus
(opening or canal)
nephr/o, ren/o
combining forms for kidney
(two bean-shaped organs on either side of the backbone in the lumbar region that filters waste from the bloodstream to form urine)
pyel/o
combining form for renal pelvis
trigon/o
combining form for trigone
(triangular area in the urinary bladder)
ureter/o
combining form for ureter
(2 tubes leading from the kidney to the urinary bladder)
urethr/o
combining form for urethra
(tube from urinary bladder to outside the body)
vesic/o, cyst/o
combining forms for urinary bladder
albumin/o
combining form for albumin
azot/o
combining form for nitrogen
bacteri/o
combining form for bacteria
dips/o
combining form for thirst
kal/o
combining form for potassium
ket/o, keton/o
combining form for Ketone bodies
lith/o
combining form for stone
natr/o
combining form for sodium
noct/o
combining form for night
olig/o
combining form for scanty (very little)
py/o
combining form for pus
ur/o
combining form for urine ((urea) – major nitrogenouse wast excreted in urine)
urin/o
combining form for urine
-poietin
suffix – substance that forms
-tripsy
suffix – crushing
-uria
suffix – urination; urine condition
caliectasis
medical term for widening/dialation fo calyx
caliceal
medical term meaning PT the calyx
cystitis
medical term meaning inflammation of the urinary bladder
cystectomy
medical term for excision of the urinary bladder
cystostomy
medical term for a new opening in the urinary bladder
glomerular capsule
medical term for the enclosing structure that surrounds each glomerulus; also known as the Bowman capsule – collects the material that is filtered from the blodd through the walls of the glomerulus.
meatal stenosis
medical term for narrowing of the opening or canal
paranephric
medical term for PT near the kidney
nephropathy
medical term meaning kidney disease
nephroptosis
medical term for sagging, drooping of kidney
nephrolithotomy
medical term for an incision into the kidney to remove a stone
hydronephrosis
medical term for abnormal condition of water in the kidney
nephrostomy
medical term for new opening in the kidney
pyelolithotomy
medical term meaning to cut into the renal pelvis to remove a stone
renal ischemia
medical term for holding back blood from the kidney
renal colic
medical term meaning intermittent spasms of pain in the kidney
trigonitis
medical term meaning inflammation of the trigone
ureteroplasty
medical term meaning surgical repair of the ureter
ureteroileostomy
medical term for the formation of a new bladder from a peice of ileum (also called ileal conduit)
urethritis
medical term for inflammation of the urethra
urethroplasty
medical term for surgical repair of the urethra
urethral stricture
medical term for abnormal narrowing of the urethro
intravesical
medical term for PT within the urinary bladder
vesicoureteral reflux
medical term for PT urine flowing back up into the ureters
albuminuria
medical term for albumin in the urine
microalbuminuria
medical term for leakage of a very small amount of albumin through the glomeruli
azotemia
medical term for excessive nitrogen in te blood
bacteriuria
medical term for bacteria in the urine (usually a sign of a UTI)
polydipsia
medical term for excessive thirst (usually a sign of diabetes
hyperkalemia
medical term for excessive potassium in the blood
ketosis
medical term for elevated Ketones in the blood (often called ketoacidosis becaue acids accumulate in the blood and tissues – often patients iwth ketosis have a sweet of fruity ordor)
ketonuria
medical term for condition of ketones in the urine
nephrolithiasis
medical term for kidney stones (remal calculi)
hyponatremia
medical term for low sodium in the blood
nocturia
medical term for excessive urination at night
oliguria
medical term for scanty (very little) urine
erythropoietin
medical term for substance (hormone) that forms red blood cells (secreted by the kidney)
pyuria
medical term for puss in the urine
lithotripsy
medical term for crushing of stones
uremia
medical term for urine in the blood
enuresis
medical term for bed wetting (literally means condition of being in urine)
diuresis
medical term meaning complete urination
antidiuretic hormone
medical term for a hormone that prevents the formatin of urine (also called vasopressin)
urinary incontinence
medical term meaning not able to hold urine
stress incontinence
medical term – occurs with strain on the bladder opening during soughing or sneezing
urgency incontinence
medical term – occurs with inability to hold back urination when feeling the urge to void
urinary retention
medical term meaning unable to urinate
dysuria
medical term meaning painful urination
anuria
medical term meaning no urine (commonly caused by urinatry tract obstruction
hematuria
medical term meanng blood in the urine
glycosuria
medical term meaning sugar in the urine
polyuria
medical term meaning excessive urination (often a sympton of diabetes )
glomerulonephritis
medical condition – inflammatoin of the glomeruli within the kidney
polycystic kidney disease
medical condition – multiple fluid-filled sacs (cysts) within the kidney
pyelonephritis
medical condition – inflammation of the lining of the renal pelvis and renal parenchyma
renal hypertension
medical condition – high blood pressure resulting from kidney disease
diabetes insipidus
medical condition – antidiuretic hormone is not secreted adequately, or the kidney is resistant to its effect (linked to obesity)
diabetes mellitus
medical condition – insulin is not secreted adequately or not used properly in the body
blood urea nitrogen
test/procedure – measurement of urea levels in the blood
renal angiography
test/procedure – x-ray examination (with contrast) of the blood vessels of the kidney
cystoscopy
test/procedure – direct visualization of the urethra and urinary bladder with an endoscope (cystoscope)
hemodialysis (HD)
test/procedure – uses an artificial kidney machine that receives waste-filled blood from the patients bloodstream, filters it, and returns the dialyzed blood to the patients body
peritoneal dialysis (PD)
test/procedure – uses a peritoneal catheter to introduce fluid into the peritoneal cavity
lithotripsy
test/procedure – urinary tract stones are crushed
renal angioplasty
test/procedure – dilatino of narrowed areas in renal arteries
renal biopsy
test/procedure – removal of kidney tissue for microscopic examiniation
renal transplantation
test/procedure – surgical transfer of a kidney from a donor to a recipient
urinary catheterization
test/procedure – passage of a flexible, tubular instrument through the urethra into the urinary bladder
ADH
abbreviation – antidiuretic hormone – vassopressin
BUN
abbreviation – blood urea nitrogen
CRF
abbreviation – chronic renal failure
cysto
abbreviation – cystoscopic examination
HD
abbreviation – hemodialysis
KUB
abbreviation – kidney, ureter and bladder
PKD
abbreviation – polycystic kidney disease
UA
abbreviation – urinalysis
UTI
abbreviation – urinary tract infection
cortex
vocabuluary – outer region of an organ (cortical means PT the cortex)
catheter
vocabulary – tube for injecting or removing fluids
creatinine
vocabulary – nitrogenous waste excreted in the urine
electrolyte
vocabulary – chemical element that carries and electrical charge when dissolved in water (necessary for the functioning of muscles and nerves)
filtration
vocabulary – process whereby some but not all substances pass through a filter
hilum
vocabulary – depression in an organ where blood vessels and nerves enter and leave
medulla
vocabulary – inner region or an organ (medullary means PT to the medulla)
nephron
vocabulary – combination of glomerulus and renal tubule where filtration, reabsorption and secretion take place in the kidney
nitrogenous waste
vocabulary – substance containing nitrogen ad excreted in urine
potassium (K+)
vocabulary – electrolyte regulated by the kidney so that a proper concentration is maintained within the blood (potassium is essential for allowing muscle contraction and conduction of nervous impulses)
renal artery
vocabulary – blood vessel that carries blood to the kidney
renal pelvis
vocabulary – central collecting region in the kidney
renal tubule
vocabulary – microscopic tubes inthe kidney where urine if formed after filtration
renal vein
vocabulary – blood vessel that carries blood away from the kidney and toward the heart
renin
vocabuary – hormone secreted by the kidney; raises blood pressure influencing narrowing of the blood vessels
sodium (Na+)
vocabulary – electrolyte regulated in the blood and urine by the kidneys; needed for poper transmission of nerve impulses, heart activity and other metabolic functions
uric acid
vocabulary – nitrogenous wast excreted in the urine
urinary bladder
vocabulary – hollow, muscular sac that holods and stores urine