Medical Terminology Ch 7 Urinary System

cali/o, calic/o
combining form for Calyx
(cup-like collecting region of the renal pelvis)

glomerul/o
combining form for glomerulus
(tiny ball of capillaries in the kidney)

meat/o
combining form for meatus
(opening or canal)

nephr/o, ren/o
combining forms for kidney
(two bean-shaped organs on either side of the backbone in the lumbar region that filters waste from the bloodstream to form urine)

pyel/o
combining form for renal pelvis

trigon/o
combining form for trigone
(triangular area in the urinary bladder)

ureter/o
combining form for ureter
(2 tubes leading from the kidney to the urinary bladder)

urethr/o
combining form for urethra
(tube from urinary bladder to outside the body)

vesic/o, cyst/o
combining forms for urinary bladder

albumin/o
combining form for albumin

azot/o
combining form for nitrogen

bacteri/o
combining form for bacteria

dips/o
combining form for thirst

kal/o
combining form for potassium

ket/o, keton/o
combining form for Ketone bodies

lith/o
combining form for stone

natr/o
combining form for sodium

noct/o
combining form for night

olig/o
combining form for scanty (very little)

py/o
combining form for pus

ur/o
combining form for urine ((urea) – major nitrogenouse wast excreted in urine)

urin/o
combining form for urine

-poietin
suffix – substance that forms

-tripsy
suffix – crushing

-uria
suffix – urination; urine condition

caliectasis
medical term for widening/dialation fo calyx

caliceal
medical term meaning PT the calyx

cystitis
medical term meaning inflammation of the urinary bladder

cystectomy
medical term for excision of the urinary bladder

cystostomy
medical term for a new opening in the urinary bladder

glomerular capsule
medical term for the enclosing structure that surrounds each glomerulus; also known as the Bowman capsule – collects the material that is filtered from the blodd through the walls of the glomerulus.

meatal stenosis
medical term for narrowing of the opening or canal

paranephric
medical term for PT near the kidney

nephropathy
medical term meaning kidney disease

nephroptosis
medical term for sagging, drooping of kidney

nephrolithotomy
medical term for an incision into the kidney to remove a stone

hydronephrosis
medical term for abnormal condition of water in the kidney

nephrostomy
medical term for new opening in the kidney

pyelolithotomy
medical term meaning to cut into the renal pelvis to remove a stone

renal ischemia
medical term for holding back blood from the kidney

renal colic
medical term meaning intermittent spasms of pain in the kidney

trigonitis
medical term meaning inflammation of the trigone

ureteroplasty
medical term meaning surgical repair of the ureter

ureteroileostomy
medical term for the formation of a new bladder from a peice of ileum (also called ileal conduit)

urethritis
medical term for inflammation of the urethra

urethroplasty
medical term for surgical repair of the urethra

urethral stricture
medical term for abnormal narrowing of the urethro

intravesical
medical term for PT within the urinary bladder

vesicoureteral reflux
medical term for PT urine flowing back up into the ureters

albuminuria
medical term for albumin in the urine

microalbuminuria
medical term for leakage of a very small amount of albumin through the glomeruli

azotemia
medical term for excessive nitrogen in te blood

bacteriuria
medical term for bacteria in the urine (usually a sign of a UTI)

polydipsia
medical term for excessive thirst (usually a sign of diabetes

hyperkalemia
medical term for excessive potassium in the blood

ketosis
medical term for elevated Ketones in the blood (often called ketoacidosis becaue acids accumulate in the blood and tissues – often patients iwth ketosis have a sweet of fruity ordor)

ketonuria
medical term for condition of ketones in the urine

nephrolithiasis
medical term for kidney stones (remal calculi)

hyponatremia
medical term for low sodium in the blood

nocturia
medical term for excessive urination at night

oliguria
medical term for scanty (very little) urine

erythropoietin
medical term for substance (hormone) that forms red blood cells (secreted by the kidney)

pyuria
medical term for puss in the urine

lithotripsy
medical term for crushing of stones

uremia
medical term for urine in the blood

enuresis
medical term for bed wetting (literally means condition of being in urine)

diuresis
medical term meaning complete urination

antidiuretic hormone
medical term for a hormone that prevents the formatin of urine (also called vasopressin)

urinary incontinence
medical term meaning not able to hold urine

stress incontinence
medical term – occurs with strain on the bladder opening during soughing or sneezing

urgency incontinence
medical term – occurs with inability to hold back urination when feeling the urge to void

urinary retention
medical term meaning unable to urinate

dysuria
medical term meaning painful urination

anuria
medical term meaning no urine (commonly caused by urinatry tract obstruction

hematuria
medical term meanng blood in the urine

glycosuria
medical term meaning sugar in the urine

polyuria
medical term meaning excessive urination (often a sympton of diabetes )

glomerulonephritis
medical condition – inflammatoin of the glomeruli within the kidney

polycystic kidney disease
medical condition – multiple fluid-filled sacs (cysts) within the kidney

pyelonephritis
medical condition – inflammation of the lining of the renal pelvis and renal parenchyma

renal hypertension
medical condition – high blood pressure resulting from kidney disease

diabetes insipidus
medical condition – antidiuretic hormone is not secreted adequately, or the kidney is resistant to its effect (linked to obesity)

diabetes mellitus
medical condition – insulin is not secreted adequately or not used properly in the body

blood urea nitrogen
test/procedure – measurement of urea levels in the blood

renal angiography
test/procedure – x-ray examination (with contrast) of the blood vessels of the kidney

cystoscopy
test/procedure – direct visualization of the urethra and urinary bladder with an endoscope (cystoscope)

hemodialysis (HD)
test/procedure – uses an artificial kidney machine that receives waste-filled blood from the patients bloodstream, filters it, and returns the dialyzed blood to the patients body

peritoneal dialysis (PD)
test/procedure – uses a peritoneal catheter to introduce fluid into the peritoneal cavity

lithotripsy
test/procedure – urinary tract stones are crushed

renal angioplasty
test/procedure – dilatino of narrowed areas in renal arteries

renal biopsy
test/procedure – removal of kidney tissue for microscopic examiniation

renal transplantation
test/procedure – surgical transfer of a kidney from a donor to a recipient

urinary catheterization
test/procedure – passage of a flexible, tubular instrument through the urethra into the urinary bladder

ADH
abbreviation – antidiuretic hormone – vassopressin

BUN
abbreviation – blood urea nitrogen

CRF
abbreviation – chronic renal failure

cysto
abbreviation – cystoscopic examination

HD
abbreviation – hemodialysis

KUB
abbreviation – kidney, ureter and bladder

PKD
abbreviation – polycystic kidney disease

UA
abbreviation – urinalysis

UTI
abbreviation – urinary tract infection

cortex
vocabuluary – outer region of an organ (cortical means PT the cortex)

catheter
vocabulary – tube for injecting or removing fluids

creatinine
vocabulary – nitrogenous waste excreted in the urine

electrolyte
vocabulary – chemical element that carries and electrical charge when dissolved in water (necessary for the functioning of muscles and nerves)

filtration
vocabulary – process whereby some but not all substances pass through a filter

hilum
vocabulary – depression in an organ where blood vessels and nerves enter and leave

medulla
vocabulary – inner region or an organ (medullary means PT to the medulla)

nephron
vocabulary – combination of glomerulus and renal tubule where filtration, reabsorption and secretion take place in the kidney

nitrogenous waste
vocabulary – substance containing nitrogen ad excreted in urine

potassium (K+)
vocabulary – electrolyte regulated by the kidney so that a proper concentration is maintained within the blood (potassium is essential for allowing muscle contraction and conduction of nervous impulses)

renal artery
vocabulary – blood vessel that carries blood to the kidney

renal pelvis
vocabulary – central collecting region in the kidney

renal tubule
vocabulary – microscopic tubes inthe kidney where urine if formed after filtration

renal vein
vocabulary – blood vessel that carries blood away from the kidney and toward the heart

renin
vocabuary – hormone secreted by the kidney; raises blood pressure influencing narrowing of the blood vessels

sodium (Na+)
vocabulary – electrolyte regulated in the blood and urine by the kidneys; needed for poper transmission of nerve impulses, heart activity and other metabolic functions

uric acid
vocabulary – nitrogenous wast excreted in the urine

urinary bladder
vocabulary – hollow, muscular sac that holods and stores urine