Medical Terminology Ch. 7 – The Respiratory system Essay

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Nose
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nas/o. primary functions: exchanges air during inhaling and exhaling;warms, moisturizes, and filters inhaled air.
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Sinuses
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sinus/o primary functions: produce mucus for the nasal cavities, make bones of the skull lighter, aid in sound production.
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Pharynx
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pharyng/o primary functions: transports air back and forth between the nose and the trachea.
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Larynx
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laryng/o primary functions: makes speech possible.
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Epiglottis
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epiglott/o primary functions: closes off the trachea during swallowing.
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Trachea
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trache/o primary functions: transports air back and forth between the pharynx and the bronchi.
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Bronchi
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bronch/o, bronchi/o primary functions: transport air from the trachea into the lungs.
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Alveoli
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alveol/o primary functions: Air sacs that exchange gases with the pulmonary capillary blood.
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Lungs
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pneum/o, pneumon/o, pulmon/o primary functions: bring oxygen into the body, and remove carbon dioxide and some water waste from the body.
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bronch/o, bronchi/o
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bronchial tube, bronchus
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laryng/o
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larynx, throat
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nas/o
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nose
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ox/i, ox/o, ox/y
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oxygen
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pharyng/o
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throat, pharynx
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phon/o
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sound, voice
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pleur/o
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pleura, side of the body
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-pnea
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breathing
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pneum/o, pneumon/o, pneu-
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lung, air
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pulm/o, pulmon/o
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lung
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sinus/o
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sinus
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somn/o
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sleep
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spir/o
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to breathe
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thorac/o, -thorax
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chest, pleural cavity
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trache/o, trachea
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windpipe
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alveoli
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also known as air sacs, are the very small grapelike clusters found at the end of each bronchiole.
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anoxia
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the absence of oxygen from the body’s tissues or organs despite adequate flow of blood.
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antitussive
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commonly known as cough medicine, is administered to prevent or relieve coughing
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anti-
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against
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tuss
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cough
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-ive
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performs
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aphonia
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is the loss of the ability of the larynx to produce normal speech sounds.
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a-
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without
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phon
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sound or voice
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-ia
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abnormal condition
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asbestosis
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is caused by asbestos particles in the lungs and usually accurs after working with asbestos
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asbest
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asbestos
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-osis
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abnormal conditon or disease
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asphyxia
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is the loss of consciousness that occurs when the body cannot get the oxygen it needs to function.
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asthma
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is a chronic inflammatory disease of the bronchial tubes, often triggered by an allergic reactions.
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atelectasis
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or collapsed lung, is the incomplete expansion of part or all of a lung due to a blockage of the air passages or pneumothorax
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atel
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incomplete
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-estasis
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stretching or enlargement
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bradypnea
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is an abnormally slow rate of resipration, usually of less than 10 breaths per minute.
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brady-
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slow
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-pena
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breathing
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bronchodilator
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a medication that relaxes and expands the bronchial passages into the lungs
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bronchorrhea
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is an excessive discharge of mucus from the bronchi
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bronch/o
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bronchus
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-rrhea
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abnormal
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bronchoscopy
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is the visual examination of the bronchi using a bronchoscope
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bronch/o
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bronchus
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-scpoy
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direct visual examination
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bronchospasm
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is a contraction of the smooth muscle in the walls of the bronchi and bronchioles, tightening ans squeezing the airway shut
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broncho/o
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bronchi
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-spasm
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involuntary contraction
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Cheyne-Stokes respiration
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is an irregular pattern of breathing characterized by alternating rapid or shallow repiration followed by slower respiration or apnea.
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Croup
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is an acute respiratory infection in children and infants characterized by obstruction of the larynx, hoarseness, and swelling around the vocal cords resulting in a barking cough and stridor.
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Cyanosis
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is a bluish discoloration of the skin and mucous membranes caused by a lack of adequate oxygen in the blood
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cyan
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blue
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-osis
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abnormal condition or disease
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Cystic fibrosis
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is a life-threatening genetic diorder in which the lungs and pancreas ae clogged with large quantities of abnormally thick mucus.
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Diphtheria
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is an acute bacterial infection of the throat and upper respiratory tract.
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Dysphonia
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is difficulty in speaking, which may include any impariment in vocal quality, including hoarseness, weakness, or the cracking of boy’s voice during puberty,
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-ia
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abnormal condition
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dyspnea
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also known as shortnes of breath (SOB), is difficult or labored breathing
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dys-
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painful
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-pena
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breathing
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emphysema
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is the progressive, long-term of lung function, usually due to smoking.
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Empyema
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refers to a collection of pus in a body cavity.
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Endotracheal intubation
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is the passage of a tube through the mouth into the trachea to establish or maintain an open airway, especially when a patient is on a ventilator
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endo-
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within
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trache
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trachea
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-al
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pertaining to
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Epistaxis
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also known as a nose-bleed, is bleeding from the nose that may be caused by dry air, an injury, medication to prevent blood clotting, or high blood pressure.
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Hemoptysis
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is the expectoration of blood or blood-stained sputum derived from the lungs or bronchial tubes as the result of a pulomonary or bronchial hemorrhage
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hem/o
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blood
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-ptysis
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spitting
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Hemothorax
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is a collection of blood in the pleural cavity
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hem/o
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blood
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-thorax
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chest
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Hypercapnia
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is the abnormal buildup of carbon dioxide in the blood
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hyper-
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excessive
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capn
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carbon dioxide
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-ia
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abnormal condition
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Hyperpnea
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which is commonly associated with exertion, is breathing that is deeper and more rapid than is normal ar rest
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hyper-
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excessive
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-pnea
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breathing
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Hypoxemia
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is the condition of having low oxygen levels in the blood, usually due to respiratory disorders or heart conditions
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hyp-
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deficient
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ox
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oxygen
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-emia
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blood
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hypoxia
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is the condition of having deficient oxygen levels in the body’s tissues and organs; however, it is less severe than anoxia
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laryngectomy
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is the surgical removal of the larynx
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laryng
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larynx
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-otomy
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surgical incision
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Laryngitis
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is an inflammation of the larynx, this term is also commonly used to describe voice loss that is caused by this inflammation.
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Laryngoscopy
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is the visual examination of the larynx and vocal cords using a flexible or rigid laryngoscope inserted through the mouth
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-sxopy
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direct visual examination
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laryngospasm
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is the sudden spasmodic closure of the larynx
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-spasm
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a sudden involuntary contraction
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mediastinum
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is the middle section of the chest cavity and is located between the lungs.
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Nebulizer
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is an electronic device that pumps air or oxygen through a liquid medicine to turn it into a mist, which is then inhaled by the patient via a face mask or mouthpiece
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otolaryngologist
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also known as an ENT (ear, nose,throat) is a physician with specialzed training in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases and disoders of the head and neck
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perussis
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also known as whooping cough, is a contagious bacterial infection of the upper respiratory tract that is characterized by recurrent bouts of paroxysmal cough, followed by breathlessness and a noisy inspiration.
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Pharyngitis
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also known as a sore throat, is an inflammation of the pharynx.
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Phlegm
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is thick mucus secreted by the tissues lining the respiratory passages.
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Pleurisy
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also known as pleuritis, is an inflammation of the pleura, the membranes that cover the lungs and line the pleural cavity.
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Pleurodynia
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is a sharp pain that occurs when the inflamed membranes rub against each other with each inhalation
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-dynia
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pain
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Pneumoconiosis
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is any fibrosis of the lung tissues caused by dust in the lungs after prolonged environmental or occupational contact
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Pneumonectomy
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is the surgical removal of all or part of a lung
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Pneumonia
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is a serious inflammation of the lungs in which the alveoli and air passages fill with pus and other fluids
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Pneumothorax
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is the accumulation of air in the pleural
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polysomnograpy
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also known as a sleep study measures physiological activity during sleep and is often performed to detect nocturnal defects in breathing associated with sleep apnea
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pulmonologist
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is a physician who specializes in diagnosing and treating diseases and disorders of the respiratory system
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pulse oximeter
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is an external monitor placed on the patient’s fingertip or earlobe to measure the oxygen saturation level in the blood
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pyothorax
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also known as empyema of the pleural cavity is the presence of pus in the pleural cavity between the layers of the pleural membrane
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sinusitis
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is an inflammation of the sinuses
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sleep apnea
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is a potentially serious disoder in which breathing repeatedly stops
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spirometer
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is a recording device that measure the amount of air inhaled or exhaled (volume) and the length of time required for each breath
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Tachypnea
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is an abnormally rapid rate of respiration usually of more than 20 breaths per minute
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Thoracentesis
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is the surgical puncture of the chest wall with a needle to obtain fluid from the pleural cavity
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thoracotomy
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is a surgical incision into the chest walls to open the pleural cavity for biopsy or treatment
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Tracheostomy
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is the surgical creation of a stoma into the trachea to insert a temporary or permanent tube to facilitate breathing
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tracheotomy
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is a procedure in which an incision is made into the trachea to gain access to the airway below a blockage
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tuberculosis
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which is an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis usually attacks the lungs; however, it can also affect other parts of the body.

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