Med Term II Chapter 15

Flashcard maker : Tommy Mason
brain
major portion of the central nervous system
cerebrum
largest portion of the brain, divided into left and right hemispheres. The cerebrum controls the skeletal muscles, interprets general senses, and contains centers for sight and hearing. Intellect, memory, and emotional reactions also take place in the cerebrum
ventricles
spaces within the brain that contain a fluid called cerebrospinal fluid
cerebellum
located under the posterior portion of the cerebrum. Its function is to assist in the coordination of skeletal muscles and to maintain balance (hindbrain)
brainstem
stemlike portion of the brain that connects with the spinal cord. Ten out of 12 cranial nerves originate in the brainstem
pons
literally means bridge. It connects the cerebrum with the cerebellum and brainstem.
medulla oblongata
located between the pons and the spinal cord. It contains centers that control respiration, heart rate, and the muscles in the blood vessel walls, which assist in determining blood pressure
midbrain
most superior portion of the brainstem
cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)
clear, colorless fluid contained in the ventricles that flows through the subarachnoid space around the brain, and spinal cord. It cushions the brain and spinal cord from shock, transports nutrients, and clears metabolic waste
spinal cord
passes through the vertebral canal extending from the medulla oblongata to the level of the second lumbar vertebra. The spinal cord conducts nerve impulses to and from the brain and initiates reflux action to sensory information without input from the brain
meninges
three layers of membrane that cover the brain and spinal cord
dura mater
tough outer layer of the meninges
arachnoid
delicate middle layer of the meninges. The arachnoid membrane is loosly attached to the pia mater by weblike finers, whichallow for the subarachnoid space
pia mater
thin inner layer of the meninges
nerve
cordlike structure that carries impulses from one part of the body to another. There are 12 pairs of cranial nerves and 31 pairs of spinal nerves
ganglion (ganglia)
group of nerve cell bodies located outside the central nervous system
glia
cells that form support and nourish nervous tissue. Some cells assist in the secretion of cerebrospinal fluid and other assist with phagocytosis. They do not conduct impulses. Three types of glia are astroglia, oligodendroglia, and microglia. Also called neuroglia
neuron
conducts nerve impulses to carry out the function of the nervous system. Destroyed neurons can not be replaced
Alzheimer disease (AD)
disease characterized by early senility, confusion, loss of recognition of persons or familiar surroundings, restlessness, and impaired memory
amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)
progressive muscle atrophy caused by hardening of the nerve tissue on the lateral columns of the spinal cord (Lou Gehrig disease)
Bell palsy
paralysis of muscles on one side of the face, usually a temporary condition. Symptoms include a sagging mouth on the affected side and the nonclosure of the eyelid
cerebral aneurysm
aneurysm in the cerebrum
cerebral embolism
an embolus (usually a blood clot or a piece of atherosclerotic plaque arising from a distant site) lodges in a cerebral artery, causing sudden blockage of blood supply to the brain tissue. A common cause of cerebral embolism, a type of ischemic stroke, is atrial fibrillation
cerebral palsy (CP)
condition characterized by lack of muscle control and partial paralysis, caused by a brain defect or lesion present at birth or shortly after
dementia
cognitive impairment characterized by a loss of intellectual brain function. Patients have difficulty in various ways, including difficulty in performing complex tests, reasoning, learning, and retaining new information, orientation, word finding, and behavior. Dementia has several causes and is not considered part of normal aging
epilepsy
disorder in which the main symptom is recurring seizures
hydrocephalus
increased amount of cerebrospinal fluid in the ventricles of the brain, which can cause enlargement of the cranium in infants
intracerebral hemorrhage
bleeding from the brain as a result of a ruptured blood vessel within the brain. Symptoms vary depending on the location of the hemorrhage, is a type of ishemic stroke, frequently associated with high blood pressure
multiple sclerosis (MS)
degenerative disease characterized by sclerotic patches along the brain and spinal cord
Parkinson’s disease (PD)
chronic degenerative disease of the central nervous system. Symptoms include resting tremors of the hands and feet, rigidity, expressionless face, and shuffling gait.
sciatica
inflammation of the sciatic nerve, causing pain that travels from the thigh through the leg to the foot and toes; can be caused by injury, infection, athritis, herniated disk, or from prolonged pressure on the nerve from sitting for long periods of time
shingles
viral disease that effects the peripheral nerves and causes blisters on the skin that follow the course of the affected nerves. (herpes zoster)
stroke
occurs when there is an interruption of blood supply to a region of the brain, depriving nerve cells in the affected area of oxygen and nutrients. Ischemic-blocked blood vessels, hemorrhagic-result of bleeding also called cerebrovascular accident (CVA) or brain attack
subarachnoid hemorrhage
bleeding caused by a ruptured blood vessel just outside the brain that rapidly fills the space between the brain and the skull with blood. (hemorrhagic stroke)
transient ischemic attack (TIA)
sudden deficient supply of blood to the brain lasting a short time.symptoms are like stroke but temporary
computed tomography of the brain (CT scan)
process that includes the use of a computer to produce a series of brain tissue images at any desired depth. noninvasive- helpful in diagnosing brain tumors
magnetic resonance imaging of the brain or spine (MRI scan)
a noninvasive technique that produces sectional images of soft tissue of the brain or spine through a strong magnetic field. Unlike a CT scan, MRI produces images without use of radiation. It is used to visualize tumors, edema, MS, and herniated disks
positron emission tomography of the brain (PET scan)
an imaging technique with a radioactive substance that produces sectional imaging of the brain to examine blood flow and metabolic activity. Images are projected on a viewing screen.
evoked potential studies (EP studies)
a group of diagnostic tests that measure changes and responses in brain waves elicited by visual, auditory, or somatosensory stimuli. Visual evoked response (VER) is a response to visual stimuli. Auditory evoked response (AER) is a response to auditory stimuli
lumbar puncture (LP)
insertion of a needle into the subarachnoid space usually between the third and fourth lumbar vertebrae. It is performed for many reasons, including the removal of CSF for diagnostic purposes (spinal tap)
afferent
conveying toward a center (for ex. afferent nerves carry impulses to the central nervous system)
ataxia
lack of muscle control
cognitive
state of profound unconsciousness
concussion
jarring or shaking that results in an injury
conscious
awake, alert, aware of one’s surroundings
convulsion
sudden, involuntary contraction of a group of muscles (seizure)
disorientation
a state of mental confusion as to time, place, or identity
dysarthria
the inability to use speech that is distinct and connected because of loss of muscle control after damage to the peripheral or central nervous system
efferent
conveying away from the center
gait
a manner or style of walking
incoherent
unable to express one’s thoughts or ideas in an orderly, intelligible manner
paraplegia
paralysis from the waist down caused by damage to the lower level of the spinal cord
seizure
sudden attack with an involuntary series of contractions (convulsion)
shunt
tube implanted in the body to redirect flow of a fluid
syncope
fainting or sudden loss of consciousness caused by lack of blood supply to the cerebrum
unconsciousness
state of being unaware of surroundings and incapable of responding to stimuli as result of injury, shock ,or illness
anorexia nervosa
an eating disorder characterized by a disturbed perception of the body image resulting in failure to maintain body weight, intensive fear in gaining weight, desire for thinness
anxiety disorder
an emotional disorder characterized by feelings of apprehension, tension, or uneasiness arising typically from the anticipation of unreal danger
attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
a disorder of learning and behavioral problems characterized by marked inattention, distractability, impulsiveness, and hyperactivity
autism
a mental disorder, the features if which include onset during infancy or childhood, preoccupation with subjective mental activity, inability to interact socially, impaired communication, and repetitive body movements
bipolar disorder
a major psychological disorder typified by a disturbance in mood. manic and depressive episodes
bulimia nervosa
and eating disorder characterized by uncontrolled binge eating followed by purging
major depression
a mood disturbance characterized by feeling sad, despair, discouragement, hopelessness, lack of joy, etc
obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD)
a disorder characterized by intrusive, unwanted thoughts that result in the tendency to perform repetitive acts or rituals
panic attack
an episode of sudden onset of acute anxiety, occurring unpredictably, with feelings of acute apprehension, dyspnea, dizziness, sweating, and/or chest pain, depersonalization, paresthesia and fear of dying, loss of mind control
phobia
a marked and persistent fear that is excessive or unreasonable cued by a presence or anticipation of a specific situation or object
pica
compulsive eating of nonnutritive substances
posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
a disorder characterized by an acute emotional response to a traumatic event perceived as life threatening or severe emotional stress such as an airplane crash, or military combat
schizophrenia
anyone of a large group of psychotic disorders characterized by gross distortions of reality
somatoform disorders
disorders characterized by physical symptoms for which no know cause exists
AD
Alzheimer disease
ADHD
attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
ALS
amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
CNS
central nervous system
CP
cerebral palsy
CSF
cerebrospinal fluid
CVA
cerebrovascular accident
EEG
electroencephalogram-record of electrical impulses of the brain
EP studies
evoked potential studies
LP
lumbar puncture
MRI scan
magnetic resonance imaging scan
MS
multiple sclerosis
OCD
obsessive-compulsive disorder
PD
Parkinson disease
PET scan
positron emission tomography scan
PNS
peripheral nervous system
PTSD
posttraumatic stress disorder
TIA
transient ischemic attack

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