Mechanics of Breathing

Flashcard maker : Lily Taylor
1. Which is NOT considered to be a primary function of the respiratory system?
c. protection against pathogens
2. Ventilation is also known as
a. breathing.
***3. The upper respiratory tract includes all EXCEPT which of the following?
b. lungs
4. The lower respiratory tract includes
a. all of the bronchial branches.
b. the lungs.
c. the trachea.
5. Pulmonary ventilation refers to the
a. movement of air into and out of the lungs.
6. Alveolar ventilation refers to the
b. movement of air into and out of the alveoli.
7. The actual sites of gas exchange within the lungs are
d. alveoli
8. Place the following structures of the respiratory tree in the order in which air passes through them.
1.) primary bronchi
2.) secondary bronchi
3.) bronchioles
4.) terminal bronchioles
5.) alveoli
9. The airway between the larynx and the primary bronchi is the

85. Which part of pulmonary tract comes between the Larynx and the bronchi?

c. trachea
10. The lungs are enclosed in __________ membranes.
c. pleural
11. The lungs are located in the __________ cavity.
d. thoracic
12. Pressure and volume of gas in a container are related to temperature and number of gas molecules. This is known as __________ law.
a. the ideal gas
13. Type II alveolar cells
b. secrete a chemical known as surfactant.
14. Type I alveolar cells
a. allow rapid diffusion of gases through their thin membranes.
15. Surfactant
d. helps prevent the alveoli from collapsing.
16. The common passageway shared by the respiratory and digestive systems is the
d. pharynx
17. When the diaphragm and external intercostal muscles contract,
a. the volume of the thorax increases.
***18. Air moves into the lungs because
a. the gas pressure in the lungs is less than outside pressure.
***19. Air moves out of the lungs because
b. the volume of the lungs decreases with expiration.
***20. In quiet breathing,
c. inspiration involves muscular contractions and expiration is passive.
21. Boyle’s law states that gas volume is
c. inversely proportional to pressure
22. Air entering the body is filtered, warmed, and humidified by the
a. upper respiratory tract
23. A typical value for intrapleural pressure is __________ mm Hg.
d. -3
24. Active expiration is produced by contraction of
a. abdominal muscles

c. internal intercostals

25. When the diaphragm and external intercostal muscles contract,
a. The gas pressure in the lungs is less than outside pressure.

c. intrapleural pressure decreases

***26. If a student inhales as deeply as possible and then blows the air out until he cannot exhale any more, the amount of air that he expelled is his
c. Expiratory reserve volume.
e. vital capacity.
27. Total cross-sectional area __________ with each division of the airways.
a. increases
***28. Blood vessels cover approximately __________% of the alveolar surface.
a. 80-90
29. In the lungs, the
a. blood flow rate is higher and the blood pressure is lower, respectively, than the blood flow rate and the blood pressure in other tissues.
30. The distance between the alveolar air space and capillary endothelium is __________, allowing gases to diffuse __________ between them.
a. short, rapidly
31. Flow of air
a. is directly proportional to a pressure gradient, and flow decreases as the resistance of the system increases.
32. An increase in PCO2 would cause
c. the bronchioles to constrict and the systemic arterioles to dilate.
33. Chronic inhalation of fine particles that reach the alveoli leads to __________ lung disease.
c. fibrotic
34. Histamine’s primary role in the respiratory system is as a
c. bronchoconstrictor
35. the additional air inhaled after a normal inspiration
inspiratory reserve volume
36. the minimum amount of air always present in the respiratory system, after blowing out all you can
residual volume
37. the extra amount actively (forcibly) exhaled after a normal exhalation
expiratory reserve volume
38. the amount of air taken in during a single normal inspiration
tidal volume
40. the amount of air remaining in the lungs after a normal breath
functional residual capacity
41. the sum of all the lung volumes
total lung capacity
42. the amount of air inhaled during an active (forced) inspiration
inspiratory capacity
43. the total amount of air that can be exchanged at will
vital capacity
44. During normal expiration,
a. elastic recoil of stretched muscles helps return the thorax to its resting volume.
***45. Damage to the type II cells of the lungs would contribute to
d. alveolar collapse
a. Increased surface tension in the water lining of alveoli.
46. Harry suffers from cystic fibrosis and frequently has periods where he can hardly breathe. The problem is the result of
c. thick secretions that exceed the ability of the mucus elevator to transport them.
47. Breathing that involves active inspiratory and expiratory movements is called
b. hyperpnea
***48. The respiratory rate times the tidal volume corrected for dead space is the
d. alveolar ventilation rate.
49. Increasing the alveolar ventilation rate will
a. increase the partial pressure of oxygen in the alveoli.
50. Joe is playing in an intramural football game when he is tackled so hard that he breaks a rib. He can actually feel a piece of the rib sticking through the skin, and he is having a difficult time breathing. Joe probably is suffering from
c. a pneumothorax.
51. In a condition known as pleurisy, there is excess fluid in the pleural space. How would you expect this to affect the process of pulmonary ventilation?
b. Breathing would be labored and difficult.
***52. cessation of breathing
apnea
53. increased respiratory rate and/or volume without increased metabolism
hyperventilation
***54. increased respiratory rate and/or volume due to increased metabolism
hyperpnea
***55. rapid breathing
tachypnea
***56. difficulty breathing
dyspnea
65. The pleural pressure is
a. Subatmospheric.
***67. Vital capacity is
d. Inspiratory reserve volume plus tidal volume plus the expiratory reserve volume.
***68. The compliance of the lungs will be impaired in advanced stage of this pathological condition in the lungs.
a. Fibrosis.
***71. Which part of the lungs is more profused with blood (get more blood)?
a. The part of the lungs that is more ventilated.

d. The base of the lungs.

***72. The volume of the air in the anatomic dead space is
a. 150 mL
***79. How the lungs are kept all the time expanded in the chest cavity?
a. By the subatmospheric pressure in pleural cavity.
***80. Which is not a function of the upper respiratory organs?
e. Absorb the oxygen.
**^81. The pulmonary blood circulation and the systemic blood circulation have in common measure wise.
a. The volume of the blood that circulates in system.
***82. Which part of respiratory tract we encounter the highest resistance for the passage of the air?
e. Trachea.
***86. How many times the total cross-section of the bronchioles is wider than the trachea?
d. 2000
***87. The ability of a lung to recoil or recover from stretch is called.
a. Elastance.
***88. Julia is breathing 14 times per minute, with a tidal volume of 520mL and a dead space volume of 152mL, Lyle is breathing 15 times per minute, with a tidal volume of 400mL and a dead space of 175mL. Which patient has better alveolar ventilation?
a. Julia
***Know this formula for ventilation:
Ventilation rate:

x(tidal vol. – dead space)
Julia’s VR:
14(520-152)
14(368)
5,152

Lyle’s VR:
15(400-175)
15(325)
4,875

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