Matter and Energy



 A type of solid matter in which atoms or molecules do not have long-range order (e.g., glass and plastic).






The smallest identifiable unit of an element.



calorie (cal):



the amount of energy required to raise the temperature of 1 g of water by 1 °C.



Calorie (Cal):



 An energy unit equivalent to 1000 little-c calories



Celsius (C) scale:


  A temperature scale often used by scientists.  On this scale, water freezes at 0 °C and boils at 100 °C at 1 atm pressure.  Room temperature is approximately 22 °C.



Chemical change:


A change in which matter changes its composition.



Chemical energy: 



The energy associated with chemical changes. 



Chemical property:


Properties that a substance can display only through changing its composition.



Chemical reaction:


 The process by which one or more substances transform into different substances via a chemical change.  Chemical reactions often emit or absorb energy.





A substance composed of two or more elements in fixed, definite proportions.




 Able to occupy a smaller volume when subjected to increased pressure.  Gasses are compressible because in the gas phase, atoms or molecules are widely separated.




  A type of solid matter with atoms or molecules arranged in a well-ordered, three-dimensional array with long-range, repeating order (e.g., salt and diamond).





The act of carefully pouring off one substance from another (as in pouring the oil off water).






The process in which a mixture is heated to boil off the more volatile (easily vaporized) liquid.



Electrical energy: 


Energy associated with the flow of electric charge.





A substance that cannot be broken down into simpler substances.





Describes a process that absorbs heat energy. 






The capacity to do work.






Describes a process that releases heat energy.



Fahrenheit (F) scale:

 The temperature scale that is most familiar in the United States; water freezes at 32 °F and boils at 212 °F at 1 atm pressure.




The process of pouring a mixture though filter paper to separate the solids from the liquid.






A state of matter in which atoms or molecules are widely separated and free to move relative to one another.






The transfer or exchange of thermal energy caused by a temperature difference.



Heat capacity: 



The quantity of heat energy required to change the temperature of a given amount of substance by 1 °C.



Heterogeneous mixture: 


A mixture, such as oil and water, that has two or more regions with different compositions.



Homogeneous mixture:

 A mixture, such as salt water, that has the same composition throughout.



Kelvin (K) scale :

The temperature scale that assigns 0 K to the coldest temperature possible, absolute zero (-273 °C or -459 °F), the temperature at which molecular motion stops.  The size of the kelvin is identical to that of the Celsius degree. 



Kilowatt-hour (kWh):


A unit of energy equal to 3.6 million joules.



Kinetic energy:


Energy associated with the motion of an object. 



Law of Conservation of Energy: 

A law stating that energy can be neither created nor destroyed.  The total amount of energy is constant and cannot change; it can only be transferred from one object to another or converted from one form to another.




  A state of matter in which atoms or molecules are packed close to each other (about as closely as in a solid) but are free to move around and by each other.


 Anything that occupies space and has mass.  Matter exists in three different states:  solid, liquid and gas.


 A substance composed of two or more different types of atoms or molecules combined in variable proportions.




 Two or more atoms joined in a specific arrangement by chemical bonds.  A molecule is the smallest identifiable unit of a molecular compound.



Physical change:


  A change in which matter does not change its composition, even though its appearance might change.

Physical property:


Those properties that a substance displays without changing its composition.

Potential energy:



 The energy of a body that is associated with its position or the arrangement of its parts.





  The final substances produced in a chemical reaction; represented on the right side of a chemical equation.






  The characteristics we use to distinguish one substance from another.



Pure substance:



A substance composed of only one type of atom or molecule.






 The initial substances in a chemical reaction, represented on the left side of a chemical equation.






A state of matter in which atoms or molecules are packed close to each other in fixed locations.



Specific heat capacity (specific heat):



 The heat capacity of a substance in joules per gram degree Celsius (J/g °C)


State of matter:



 The three forms in which matter can exist: solid, liquid, and gas.






 The measure of a substance’s thermal energy.



Thermal energy:



 Energy associated with the random motions of atoms and molecules in matter.






  Tending to vaporize easily.






 The result of a force acting on a distance.

Tagged In :

Get help with your homework

Haven't found the Essay You Want? Get your custom essay sample For Only $13.90/page

Sarah from studyhippoHi there, would you like to get such a paper? How about receiving a customized one?

Check it out