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Mastering AP Ch. 19 Blood

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Blood
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Consists of plasma (46-63%) and formed elements (37-54%)
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Plasma
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Consists of: plasma proteins (7%) other solutes (1%) Water (92%)
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Formed elements
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Consists of: Platelets (.1%) White blood cells (.1%) Red Blood cells (99.9%)
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55 percent
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Plasma makes up approximately what percentage of whole blood?
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Protein
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EXCEPT for the amount of __________, plasma and interstitial fluid differ little in composition.
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Carbon dioxide; oxygen
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Red blood cells carry __________ to the lungs and __________ to the tissues
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Lipopprotein
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A triglyceride + globulin complex is termed a(n) __________.
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Albumin
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The most abundant plasma protein is __________.
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Oxygen
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What binds to this structure on the hemoglobin molecule? (heme group)
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It transports iron ions in the plasma.
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What is the role of transferrin in the cycle shown above?
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red bone marrow
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The site of red blood cell production in an adult is the __________.
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Fetal red blood cell exposure causes an autoimmune response in the mother.
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Which of the following does NOT describe the cause of hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN)?
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An Rh- mother gives birth to her first child, who is Rh+, and then becomes pregnant with her second child, who is Rh+. An Rh- mother gives birth to her first child, who is Rh-, and to her second child, who is Rh+, and then becomes pregnant with her third child, who is Rh+
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In which of the following scenarios is HDN likely to develop without medical treatment?
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RhoGAM prevents the mother’s immune system from actively producing antibodies against fetal Rh antigens by destroying fetal red blood cells that cross the placenta during delivery.
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How does RhoGAM prevent HDN?
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aggluntinins
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The antibodies that attack antigens on foreign RBCs are called __________.
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their red blood cells lack A and B surface antigens
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People with type O blood are considered “universal donors” for transfusions because __________.
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WBCs demonstrate all of the listed properties, allowing them to locate the wound.
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Suzie was sewing when she accidently punctured her finger with the needle. Several days later, it is filled with pus. Which statement provides an explanation of how the WBCs were able to populate that wound?
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purified platelets
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If a patient has thrombocytopenia, the best therapy is infusion of __________.
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Lack of clotting factors VIII and IX results in a deficiency in factor X production. Thus, this deficit in the intrinsic pathway leads to compromised blood clotting.
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Once platelets arrive at the site of injury, they secrete chemicals to promote the clotting process. Hemophiliacs lack clotting factor VIII or IX. Which of the following would be the most likely hypothesis to best describe the underlying problem with their condition?
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the liver
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Most of the plasma proteins required in the coagulation process are produced by __________.
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conversion of soluble fibrinogen to insoluble fibrin
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The common pathway in coagulation ends with __________.
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formed elements
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RBC, WBC, and platelets all constitute what part of whole blood?
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hematocrit
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What other common blood test would have provided information about the level of formed elements a person has?
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The erythropoietin would have little effect on Jasmine’s blood cell production.
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The hematologist performs a bone marrow biopsy by inserting a large bore needle into the red bone marrow of Jasmine’s posterior iliac crest and extracting cells. Jasmine’s red bone marrow shows very little hemopoiesis and virtually no hemocytoblasts, myeloid stem cells, or lymphoid stem cells. What would happen if Jasmine received a shot of erythropoietin?
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megakaryocyte
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The hematologist diagnoses Jasmine with aplastic anemia, a serious red bone marrow failure. Jasmine’s hemopoietic marrow was replaced by adipose tissue, and no red cells, white cells, or platelets are being produced. To produce platelets, myeloid stem cells have to differentiate into what kind of cell?