Marriage and Family Midterm

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Which category (all ages) is least likely to live alone?
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Asians and Hispanics
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With a group of other married couples, Melissa and Bobby regularly exchange partners in order to engage in purely recreational sex. This reflects a practice known as
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“swinging”
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Adults with a(n) __________ attachment style exhibit possible negative behaviors such as unwarranted jealousy or attempts to control one’s partner due to “fear of abandonment.”
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Insecure/anxious
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Rhonda and Javier have recently married and have agreed that they will only have sexual relations with each other. This agreement reflects the expectations of
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Sexual exclusivity
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Native American women’s political power ________ with European invasion.
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Today, women compose __________ percent of Congress.
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17
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Polls show that both male and female spouses are far more likely than others to say that they are “very happy.” Nearly __________ of marrieds say they are “very happy,” compared to less than half of unmarrieds.
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Two-thirds
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The proportion of children under age eighteen living with two married parents __________ over the past 30 years.
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Declined steadily
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Research suggests that physical violence occurs in about __________ percent of dating relationships.
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In 2011, the median age at first marriage was __________ for both men and women.
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Between 21 and 24
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The divorce rate
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The conflict perspective is the opposite of the___________; it assumes that not all family behaviors and practices contribute to family well-being.
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Structure-functional theory
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The text indicates that perhaps the most important task for unmarried individuals of both genders is
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The development of strong social networks
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Those who view individualized marriage as __________ assert that our culture’s unchecked individualism has cause widespread moral weakening and self-indulgence.
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Family decline
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Those who view individualized marriage as __________ say that those who look back with nostalgia to the good old days may be idealizing the past.
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Family change
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What we today call the __________ family, is characterized by tolerance and diversity, rather than a single family ideal.
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Postmodern
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The increasing independence of Asian women in the U.S. has been attributed to _________.
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Which of the following is NOT listed by your text as a major family function?
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Offering emotional security
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About __________ percent of children live in single-parent households.
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60
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Over the past four decades, fertility in the United States has
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Increased dramatically
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Those who favor defining legal marriage as only heterosexual are more likely to value.
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Traditional gender roles
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________ percent of the never-married tell pollsters that they do want to marry.
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Consider the statement: “Due to social pressures, firms frequently have to hire underqualified women.” This illustrates __________ sexism.
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Contemporary
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Consider this statement: “If I can get him/her to do what I want done, then I’ll be sure he/she loves me.” This reflects
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Manipulation
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Compared to the recent past, children are __________ likely to live with a grandparent today.
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More
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According to the family development life course theory, the __________ stage of the family life cycle comes to an end with the arrival of the first child.
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Newly established couple
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In an experiment, the ______ group receives no special intervention.
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Experimental
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In 1957, the total fertility rate was about 3.6 children per woman. For the last decade and a half, it has been __________ child/children per woman.
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Around two
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Parents, brothers, and sisters are part of a person’s family of
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Suppose that a Puerto Rican marries a Cuban. The situation reflects
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Interethnic marriage
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_______, or having more than one spouse, is culturally accepted in many parts of the world.
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Polygamy
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The _________ hypothesis proposes that work-marriage-family sequence is thought to be best for mental health and happiness.
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Family systems
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A person who believed in the “family decline” theory might say the following:
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“There has been a serious breakdown in marriage and family value.”
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In general, social scientists find that the most stable marriages are those that are homogamous in
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age, education, religion, and race
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Exchange theory stresses the importance of __________ in family relationships.
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Among Americans age 18 and older, _____ percent of college grads are married.
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On the societal level, __________ is the assignment to men of greater control and influence over society’s institutions.
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Male dominance
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The proportion of middle-aged cohabiters has___over the past two decades.
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Increased
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One reason for the decline in marriages in the U.S. is that Americans increasingly expect to find __________ in marriage.
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The process by which family identity, traditions, and commitment emerge through interaction within a particular family, is an important part of which perspective?
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Interaction-constructionist
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Americans tend to marry people of similar race, age, education, religious background, and social class. This behavior reflects
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Homogamy
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The concept of “household” is broader than that of “family” as it includes
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Any person residing in the home
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We live in a society characterized by ________________ change, including increased ethnic, economic, and family diversity.
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Considerable
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From interviews and observations, the authors reveal that:
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There are many definitions given for “family”
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In one study of cohabiting gay male, lesbian, heterosexually married, and dating couples, psychologist Lawrence Kurdek concluded that the gay and lesbian couples
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Experienced relationship quality similar to that of the marrieds.
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Before 1980, the cultural expectations for men include all but which of the following?
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Nurturing and tenderness
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__________ refers to male or female anatomy and physiology.
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Sex
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Today, approximately____million U.S. heterosexual couples cohabit.
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5.5
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Communal living is designed to provide___.
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Social support and companionship
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__________ refers to marriage between those who are different in race, age, education, religious background, or social class.
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Heterogamy
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When unmarried partners decide to move in together, there are
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Certain legal guidelines to follow
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Children are __________ likely than the general population or the elderly to be living in poverty.
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More
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Those with a “family change” perspective view the family as ________________.
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Declining
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An emerging alternative to marriage is________, where a couple is engaged in a long-term relationship, but each partner also maintains a separate dwelling.
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Living alone together
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Valuing personal happiness and goals and the development of distinct identity is a ________ value.
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individualistic
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According to the text, more and more women are entering nontraditional occupations such as
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The military
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According to the U.S. Census Bureau, in the last 50 years, the marriage rate has __________.
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________promote recognition of women’s unpaid work and the greater involvement of men in childcare and housework.
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Feminist perspective
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An important goal from the marital __________ perspective is to return to a society more in line with the values and norms of companionate marriage.
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Decline
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“Jumping the broom,” is an __________ wedding tradition that symbolized the wife’s commitment to her new household.
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African American
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Deciding about, rather than sliding into, a situation involves looking at the alternatives, not just picking the ________ choice.
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Easiest
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A recent study among immigrants found that relationships “based not on blood or marriage but rather on religious rituals or close friendship ties” can serve as a functional alternative to the nuclear family. According to the text, what are these relationships called?
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Fictive Kin
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Date rape is also known as __________ rape.
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Conjugal.
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A key difference between swinging and polyamory is that in the case of polyamory, outside relationships
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Are always emotional as well as sexual.
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In Kimmel’s typology of camps within the men’s movement, which group supports feminists in their opposition to patriarchy?
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Profeminists
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Other societies, and past societies, tended to be more __________, where people identify with and conform to the expectations of their extended kin.
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Collectivistic
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Dorothy perceives herself as being ultra-feminine, based on society’s definitions of appropriate gender roles. Dorothy’s perceptions are linked to her
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Gender identity
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In Robert Sternberg’s typology, __________ love is composed of all three dimensions of his theory.
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Consummate
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What is the key function of marriage for most Americans?
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Netherlands
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Research over the past twenty years has consistently shown that marriages that are preceded by more than one instance of cohabitation are __________ likely to end in separation or divorce than are marriages in which the spouses had not previously cohabited at all.
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More
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Spouses and children are part of a person’s family of
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Extension
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Which of the following reflects the relationship between personal decision making and society?
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Society impacts personal decision, but rarely do our decisions impact society
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Propinquity is also known as
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Geographic availability
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The _______ family became common in industrial societies because it was better suited for city life.
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Nuclear
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Studying social change in the family can be best understood through _______ data
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longitudinal
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According to the text, employed women earned __________ percent of what employed men did.
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82
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Warmth, sensitivity, tenderness, and placing concern about others’ welfare above self-interest can be classified as __________ character traits.
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Expressive
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On average, cohabiting relationships are
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Relatively short term
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Compared to marrieds, cohabitants report that they are____happy with their relationships.
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less
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Collecting data over a period of years using documented materials would reflect a(n)
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longitudinal study
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A legally or policy-defined relationship between two individuals who live together and share a domestic life but are not married is called a
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Domestic partnership
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There is___evidence that children of same-sex parents are confused about their gender identity, either in childhood or adulthood, or that they are more likely to be homosexual.
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no
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The National Organization of Women (NOW) was founded in 1966, and a similar Latina organization was established in 1974. What is the name of this grassroots community?
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MANA
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Family togetherness, stability, and loyalty are all examples of
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familistic (communal) values.
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The text points out that some music videos broadcast shockingly violent misogynist messages, meaning that these presentations communicate which sentiment toward women?
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Social scientists have defined the family as a(n) __________—a fundamental component of social organization.
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Social institution
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The __________ perspective looks at the family as a whole; where change in one part sets in motion a process to restore equilibrium.
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Family systems
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Which of the following is true about the age at marriage today?
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In the United States, __________ remains the most socially acceptable—and stable—gateway to family life.
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Marriage
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Which term is used by the text to describe societal attitudes and behaviors expected of and associated with the two sexes?
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Gender
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A feminine expectation that has emerged over the past twenty years is that of the “__________ woman:” independent, ambitious, and self-confident.]
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professional
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The text reports that _________ percent of marriages were preceded by cohabitation.
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over 50
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Adults with a(n) __________ attachment style are inclined to trust that their relationships will provide ongoing emotional support.
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Secure
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The U.S. Census Bureau defines a family as
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Two more more persons charing a household and who are related by blood, marriage, or adoption
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Which is the correct term for a person who has been raised as one sex, while emotionally identifying with the other?
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Transsexual
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Latino mean are stereotyped as extremely patriarchal, following a cultural ideal of
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Machismo
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Sometimes the marriage exchange is accompanied by a dowry, a sum of money or property brought to the marriage by the __________.
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Female
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In Europe, requirements for women’s sexual exclusivity emerged to maintain the ______ line of descent.
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Patraiarchal
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Same-sex couple adoption is explicitly prohibited in only which state?
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Mississippi
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Parents and children, along with other relatives such as in-laws, grandparents, aunts and uncles, and cousins are included in the __________ family.
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Extended
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The view that the family is an enduring social institution because of the important tasks it performs for society—economic security, emotional support, socialization of children—is the __________ perspective.
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Structure-functional
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Transgender and _______ individuals challenge the existing classifications of gender.
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Bigendered
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_____ is a type of polygamy wherein a woman has multiple husbands.
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Polygyny
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Family researchers will often generate a __________, or “educated guess” about the way things are, based on their theoretical orientation.
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Hypothesis
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About ____of all nonmarital births occur to cohabiting couples.
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Half
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The United States is increasingly __________, where romantic love is valued in marriage.
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Individualistic
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One of the things love isn’t is __________, which involves maintaining relationships by consistently minimizing one’s own needs while trying to satisfy those of a partner.
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Martyring
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In __________________ the researcher spends extensive time with respondents and carefully records their activities, conversations, gestures, and other aspects of everyday life.
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Naturalistic observation
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Through the lens of social scientific research, individual choices are shaped by
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Social factors
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Men are expected to have _________ character traits like strength, self-confidence, assertiveness, and ambition.
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agentic
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Economic _________has affected bread-winning and consumption in American families.
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Globalization
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The __________ perspective focuses on how the family influences and is influenced by the environments that surround it.
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Family ecology
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The sex ratio is the ratio of___in a given society or subgroup of a society.
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men to women
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According to the__________ perspective, dating couples choose either to stay committed or to break up by weighing the rewards of their relationship against its costs.
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Exchange
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The __________ perspective argues that human physiology, genetics, and hormones predispose individuals to certain behaviors.
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Biosocial
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In a(n) __________ marriage, which dominates Americans’ goals for marriage today, partners expect companionship and intimacy as well as more practical benefits.
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Institutional
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With few cross-cultural or historical exceptions, marriages have been expected to
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Be lifelong undertaking
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The text cites four social factors that may encourage young people today to postpone marriage or not to marry at all. Which of the following is NOT one of these?
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Personal experience provides us with information, but it can also act as _________, which is why we need scientific study.
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Evidence
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Individuals living alone constitute about ______ percent of American households.
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26
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What is meant by the term postmodern family?
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A family which is on the cutting edge of technology and current trends
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According to the family development perspective, each developmental task has “on-time” transitions and a certain order in which major transitions to adult roles take place, called _______.
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Role Sequencing
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Parents, teachers, and pediatricians wrestle with issues of ________ and how much a child should be able to define themselves if it is like the “other” gender.
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Gender variance
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The definition of___usually includes criteria of joint residence and finances, plus a statement of loyalty and commitment.
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Domestic Partner
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In much of the world, particularly in parts of Asia and Africa that are less Westernized, parents have traditionally __________ their children’s marriages.
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Arranged
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Research has shown that individuals gradually filter, or sort out, those who they think would not make the best life partner; for instance, women place importance on potential financial success in a mate. This is an example of which concept?
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Assertive mating
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Someone who is a “family change” advocate might say the following:
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“The family is better than ever at adapting to new challenges.”
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_____allow any two single adults-including samesex partners-to have access to virtually all marriage rights and benefits on the state level, but none on the federal level.
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Civil unions
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The most generalizable findings are most likely to be found in a survey with
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questionnaires that gather data analyzable using computers.
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Traditionally, both law and social science specified that the family consisted of people related by
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Blood, marriage, or adoption
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The text lists three proposals to help boys to adjust better to our educational system. Which of the following is NOT one of these?
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accepting a certain level of boys’ rowdy play as not deviant
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What is assisted reproductive technology (ART)?
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the manipulation of sperm and/or egg in the absence of sexual intercourse that may involve a third party
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Images of men as instrumental and women as expressive are based on
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white, middle-class, heterosexuals.
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Children learn social roles by imitating the behaviors of parents, siblings, and family members through a type of play called ___________.
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Role taking
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Individuals living alone now make up percent of U.S. households.
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17
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Statistics on women in politics highlight that women – who make up over 50 percent of the U.S. population – are ________ in high government positions.
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Slightly underrepresented
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In 1970, less than 28 percent of U.S. adults were single. Today that number is about___percent.
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23
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Today there are approximately___same-sex couple households in the United States
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500,000 to 600,000
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Traditional gender roles cause both men and women
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To dependent on their spouse
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While family members increasingly encourage girls to develop instrumental skills,
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Boys are still discouraged from cultivating tenderness
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In a(n) __________ marriage, the husband was expected mainly to be a hard-working provider, and the wife a good housekeeper and cook.
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companionate
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Theoretical perspectives are ways of
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viewing reality; or ways an observer may view, organize and interpret reality
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Some groups have friends who are so close that they are hardly distinguished from actual relatives. These relationships are referred to as “__________” kin.
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Fictive
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Around 1950, family sociologists described a standard pattern of marriage at about age 20 for women and ____ for men
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22
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The ideas of bargaining, market, and resources used to describe relationships such as marriage come to us from ___________ theory.
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exchange
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The American family takes on many forms today. The ______ approach encourages researchers to ask how well these new forms perform basic family functions.
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