Marketing Metrics and Analysis

revenue market share
construction: sales revenue as a percentage of market sales revenue
considerations: scope of market definition. channel level analyzed. before/after discounts. time period covered.
purpose: measure of competitiveness
unit market share
construction: unit sales as a percentage of market unit sales
considerations: scope of market definition. channel level analyzed. time period covered
purpose: measure of competitiveness
relative market share
construction: brand market share divided by largest competitors market share
considerations: can use either unit or revenue shares
purpose: assess comparative market strength
brand development index
construction: brand sales in a specified segment, compared with sales of that brand in the market as a whole
considerations: can use either unit or revenue shares
purpose: regional or segment differences in brand purchases and consumption
category development index
construction: category sales in a specified segment, compared with sales of that category in the market as a whole
considerations: can use either unit or revenue shares
purpose: regional or segment differences in category purchases and consumption
decomposition of market share
construction: penetration share *share of requirements* heavy usage index
considerations: can be based on unit or revenue shares. time period covered
purpose: calculation of market share. competitive analysis. historical trends analysis. formulation of marketing objectives
market penetration
construction: purchasers of a product category as a percentage of the total population
considerations: based on population. therefore unit/revenue consideration not relevant
purpose: measures category acceptance by a defined population. useful in tracking acceptance of new product categories
brand penetration
construction: purchasers of a brand as a percentage of the total population
considerations: based on population. therefore unit/revenue consideration not relevant
purpose: measures brand acceptance by a defined population
penetration share
construction: brand penetration as a percentage of market penetration
considerations: a component of the market share formula
purpose: comparative acceptance of brand within category
share of requirements
construction: brand purchases as a percentage of total category purchases by buyers of that brand
considerations: can use either unit or revenue shares. may rise even as sales decline, leaving only most loyal customers
purpose: level of commitment to a brand by its existing customers
heavy usage index
construction: category purchases by customers of a brand, compared with purchases in that category by average customers in the category
considerations: can use either unit or revenue sales
purpose: measures relative usage of a category by customers for a specific brand
hierarchy of effects
construction: awareness; attitudes, beliefs; importance; intentions to try; buy; trial, repeat
considerations: strict sequence is often violated and can be reversed
purpose: set marketing and advertising objectives. understand progress in stages of customer decision process
construction: percentage of total population that is aware of a brand
considerations: is this prompted or unpromted awareness?
purpose: consideration of who has heard of the brand
top of mind
construction: first brand to consider
considerations: may be subject to most recent advertising experience
purpose: saliency of brand
ad awareness
construction: percentage of total population that is aware of a brand’s advertising
considerations: may vary by schedule, reach and frequency of advertising
purpose: one measure of advertising effects. may indicate “stopping power” of ads
construction: percentage of population that is aware of a brands advertising
considerations: not a formal metric. is this prompted or unpromted knowledge?
purpose: extent of familiarity with product beyond name recognition
construction: customers’/consumers’ view of product, generally captured via survey responses, often through ratings on a scale
considerations: customers/consumers may hold beliefs with varying degrees of conviction
purpose: perception of brand by attribute
purchase intentions
construction: probability of intention to purchase
considerations: to estimate probability of purchase, aggregate and analyze ratings of stated intentions
purpose: measures pre shopping disposition to purchase
purchase habits
construction: frequency of purchase. quantity typically purchased
considerations: may vary widely among shopping trips
purpose: helps identify heavy users
construction: measures include share of requirements, willingness to pay premium, willingness to search
considerations: “loyalty” itself is not a formal metric, but specific metrics measure aspects of this dynamic. new product entries may alter loyalty levels
purpose: indication of base future revenue stream
construction: generally measured vida ratings across a number of scales
considerations: often believed to correlate with persuasion
construction: shows overall preference prior to shopping
willingness to recommend
construction: generally measured via ratings across a 1-5 scale
considerations: non-linear impact
purpose: shows strength of loyalty, potential impact on others
customer satisfaction
construction: generally measured on a 1-5 scale, in which customers declare their satisfaction with brand in general or specific attributes
considerations: subject to response bias. captures views of current customers, not lost customers. satisfaction is a function of expectations
purpose: indicates likelihood of repurchase. reports of dissatisfaction show aspects that require improvement to enhance loyalty
willingness to search
construction: percentage of customers willing to delay purchases, change stores or reduce quantities to avoid switching brands
considerations: hard to capture
purpose: indicates importance of distribution coverage
unit margin
C: unit price less the unit cost
C: what are the standard units in the industry? may not reflect contribution margin if some fixed costs are allocated
P: determine value of incremental sales. guide pricing and promotion
margin (%)
C: unit margin as a percentage of unit price
C: may not reflect contribution margin if some fixed costs are allocated
P: compare margins across different products/sizes/forms of product. determine value of incremental sales. guide pricing and promotion decisions
channel margins
C: channel profits as percentage of channel selling price
C: distinguish margin on sales (usual) from mark-up on cost (also encountered)
P: evaluate channel value added in context of selling price. calculate effect of price changes at one level of channel on prices and margins at other levels in the same channel (supply chain)
average price per unit
C: can be calculated as total revenue divided by total unit sales
C: some units may have greater relevance from producer’s perspective than consumers (ounces of shampoo vs bottles) changes may not be result of pricing decision
P: understand how average prices are affected by shifts in pricing and product mix
pricer per statistical unit
C: SKU prices weighted by relevant percentage of each SKU in a statistical unit
C: percentage SKU mix should correspond over medium term to actual mix of sales
P: isolate effect of price changes from mix changes by standardizing the SKU mix of a standard unit
variable and fixed cost
C: divide costs into two categories: those that vary with volume (variable) and those that do not (fixed)
C: variable costs may include production, marketing and selling expenses. some variable costs depend on units sold; others depend on revenue
P: understand how costs are affected by changes in sales volume
marketing spending
C: Analyze costs that comprise marketing spending
C: can be divided into fixed and variable marketing costs
P: understand how marketing spending changes with sales
contribution per unit
C: unit price less unit variable cost
C: ensure that marketing variable costs have not already been deducted from price
P: understand profit impact of changes in volume. calculate break-even level of sales
contribution margin (%)
C: contribution per unit divided by unit price
C: ensure that variable costs are consistently based on units or revenue, as appropriate
P: same as above, but applies to financial sales
break-even sales level
C: for unit break-even, divide fixed costs by contribution per unit. for revenue break-even, divide fixed costs by contribution margin (%)
C: variable and fixed cost estimates may be valid only over certain ranges of sales and production
P:rough indicator of project attractiveness and ability to earn profit
target volume
C: adjust break-even calculation to include target profit
C: variable marketing costs must be reflected in contribution margins. sales increases often require increased investment or working capital
P: ensure that unit sales objectives will enable firm to achieve financial hurdle rates for profit, ROS or ROI
target revenues
C: convert target volume to target revenues by using average prices per unit. alternatively, combine cost and target data with knowledge of contribution margins
C: variable marketing costs must be reflected in contribution margins. sales increases often require increased investment or working capital
P: ensure that revenue sales objectives will achieve financial hurdle rates for profit, ROI
C: first-time users as a percentage of the total population
C: distinguish “ever tried” from “new” triers in current period
P: over time, sales should rely less on trial and more on repeat purchases
repeat volume
C: repeat buyers, multiplied by the number of products they buy in each purchase, multiplied by the number of times they purchase per period
C: depending on when trial was achieved, not all triers will have an equal opportunity to make repeat purchases
P: measure of the stability of a brand franchise
C: users in the previous period, multiplied by the repeat rate for the current period, plus new triers in the current period
C: the length of the period will affect norms, that is, more customers buy in a year than in a month
P: measure of the population buying in the current period
volume projections
C: combine trial volume and repeat volume
C: adjust trial and repeat rates for time frame. not all triers will have time or opportunity to repeat
P: plan production and inventories for both trade sales and consumer off take
year-on-year growth
C: percentage change from one year to the next
C: distinguish unit and money growth rates
P: plan production and budgeting
compound annual growth rate (CAGR)
C: ending value divided by starting value to the power of 1/N, in which N is the number of periods
C: may not reflect individual year-on-year growth rates
P: useful for averaging growth rates over long periods
cannibalization rate
C: percentage of new product sales taken from existing product line
C: market expansion effects should also be considered
P: useful to account for the fact that new products often reduct the sales of existing products
fair share draw
C: assumption that new entrants in a market capture sales from established competitors in proportion to established market shares
C: may not be reasonable assumption if there are significant differences among competing brands
P: useful to generate an estimate of sales and shares after entry of new competitor
brand equity metrics
C: numerous measures, for example, conjoint utility attributed to brand
C: metrics tracing essence of rand may not track health and value
P: monitor health of brand. diagnose weaknesses, as needed
conjoint utilities
C: regression coefficients for attribute levels derived from conjoint analysis
C: may be function of number, level, and type of attributes in study
P: indicates the relative values that customers place on attributes of which product offerings are composed
segment utilities
C: clustering individuals into market segments on the basis of sum-of-squares distance between regression coefficients drawn from conjoint analysis
C: may be function of number, level and type of attributes in conjoint study. assumes homogeneity within segments
P: uses customers valuations of product attributes to help define market segments
conjoint utilities and volume projection
C: used within conjoint simulator to estimate volume
C: assumes awareness and distribution levels are known or can be estimated
P: forecast sales for alternative products, designs, prices and branding strategies
C: hours required to service clients and prospects
C: prospect numbers may be debatable. time spent trying to convert prospects can vary by territory, salesperson and potential client
P: to assess the number of sales people required to service a territory and to ensure balanced workloads
sales potential forecast
C: this comprises the number of prospects and their buying power
C: doesn’t assess the likelihood of converting “potential” accounts. definitions of buying power are more an art than a science
P: to determine sales targets. can also help identify territories worthy of an allocation of limited sales resources
sales total
C: individual sales projections may be based on a salesperson’s share of forecasted sales on prior year sales and a share of increased district projections, or on a management designed weighting system
C: setting individual targets on the basis of prior year sales can discourage optimal performance, as strong performance in one year leads to more aggressive targets in the next
P: to set targets for individual salespeople and for territories
sales force effectiveness
C: effectiveness metrics analyze sales in the context of various criteria, including calls, contacts, potential accounts, active accounts, buying power of territory, and expenses
C: depends on factors that also affect sales potential and workload
P: to assess the performance of a salesperson or team
C: total payments made to a salesperson, typically consisting of a base salary, bonus and/or commission
C: perceived relationship between incentive reward and controllable activities may vary widely among industries and firms
P: to motivate maximum sales effort. to enable salespeople and management to track progress toward goals
break-even number of employees
C: sales revenue, multiplied by margin net of commission, divided by cost per staff member
C: margins may vary across products, time and salespeople. sales are not independent of the number of salespeople
P: to determine the appropriate personnel level for a projected sales volume
sales funnel, sales pipeline
C: portrayal of the number of clients and potential clients at various stages of the sales cycle
C: funnel dimensions depend on type of business and definition of potential clients
P: to monitor sales effort and project future sales
numeric distribution
C: percentage of outlets in a defined universe that stock a particular brand or product
C: outlets size or sales levels are not reflected in this measure. boundaries by which distribution universe is defined may be arbitrary
P: to assess the degree to which a brand or product has penetrated its potential channels
all commodity volume (ACV)
C: numeric distribution weighted by penetrated outlets’ share of sales of all product categories
C: reflects sales of “all commodities” but may not reflect sales of the relevant product or category
P: to assess the degree to which a brand or product has access to retail traffic
product category volume (PCV)
C: numeric distribution weighted by penetrated outlets’ share of sales of the relevant product category
C: strong indicator of share potential, but may miss opportunities to expand category
P: to assess the degree to which a brand or product has access to established outlets for its category
total distribution
C: usually based on ACV or PCV. sums of the relevant measures for each SKU in a brand or product line
C: strong indicator of the distribution of a product line, as opposed to an individual SKU
P: to assess the extent to which a product line is available
C: generally, an average of the total number of package views available in a typical stocking outlet
C: reflects visibility at retail. may reflect inventory as well, depending on whether “backroom” inventory is available
P: to determine stock levels and visibility within stores
C: percentage of outlets that “list” or normally stock a product or brand, but have none available for sale
C: out-of-stocks can be measure in numeric of ACV or PCV terms
P: to monitor the ability of logistics systems to match supply with demand
C: total amount of product or brand available for sale in a channel
C: may be held at different levels and valued in ways that may or may not reflect promotional allowances and discounts
P: to calculate ability to meet demand and determine channel investments
C: percentage discount from the regular selling price
C: for many products, a certain percentage of mark-downs are expected. too few mark-downs may reflect “under ordering”. if mark-downs are too high the opposite may be true.
P: to determine whether channel sales are being made at planned margins
direct product profitability (DPP)
C: the adjusted gross margin of products, less direct product costs
C: cost allocation is often imprecise. some products may be intended not to generate profit but to drive traffic
P: to identify profitable SKUs and realistically calculate their earnings
gross margin return on inventory investment (GMROII)
C: margin divided by the average monetary value of inventory held during a specific period of time
C: allowances and rebates must be considered in margin calculations. for “loss leaders” this measure may be consistently negative and still not present a problem. for most products, negative trends in GMROII are signs of future problems
P: to quantify return on working capital invested in inventory
price premium
C: the percentage by which the price of a brand exceeds a benchmark price
C: benchmark include average price paid, average price charged, average price displayed and price of a relevant competitor. prices can be compared at any level in the channel and can be calculated on a gross basis or net of discounts and rebates
P: measures how a brands price compares to that of its competition
reservation price
C: the maximum amount an individual is willing to pay for a product
C: reservation prices are difficult to observe
P: one way to conceptualize a demand curve as the aggregation of reservation prices of potential customers
per cent good value
C: the proportion of customers who consider a product to be a good value – that is, to have a selling price below their reservation price
C: easier to observe than individual reservation prices
P: a second way to conceptualize a demand curve is as the relationship between per cent good value and price
price elasticity of demand
C: the responsiveness of demand to a small change in price, expressed as a ratio of percentages
C: for linear demand, linear projections based on elasticity are accurate, but elasticity changes with price. for constant elasticity demand, linear projections are approximate, but elasticity is the same for all prices
P: measures the responsiveness of quantity to changes in price. if priced optimally, the margin is the negative inverse of elasticity
optimal price
C: for linear demand, optimal price is the average of variable cost and the maximum reservation price. for constant elasticity, optimal price is a known function of variable cost and elasticity. in general, optimal price is the price that maximizes contribution after accounting for how quantity changes with price
C: optimal price formulas are appropriate only if the variable cost per unit is constant, and there are no larger strategic considerations
P: quickly determines the price that maximizes contribution
residual elasticity
C: residual elasticity is “own” elasticity plus the product of competitor reaction elasticity and cross elasticity
C: rests on an assumption that competitor reaction to a firm’s price changes is predictable
P: measures the responsiveness of quantity to changes in price, after accounting for competitor reasons
baseline sales
C: intercept in regression of sales as function of marketing variables. baseline sales = total sales, less incremental sales generated by a marketing program or programs
C: marketing activities also contribute to baseline
P: to determine the extent to which current sales are independent of specific marketing efforts
incremental sales, or promotional lift
C: total sales, less baseline sales. regression coefficient to marketing variable cited above.
C: need to consider competitive actions
P: to determine short-term effects of marketing effort
redemption rates
C: coupons redeemed divided by coupons distributed
C: will differ significantly by mode of coupon distribution
P: rough measure of coupon “lift” after adjusting for sales that would have been made without coupons
costs for coupons and rebates
C: coupon face amount plus redemption charges, multiplied by the number of coupons redeemed
C: does not consider margins that would have been generated by those willing to buy product without coupon
P: allows for budgeting of coupon expense
percentage sales with coupon
C: sales via coupon, divided by total sales
C: doesn’t factor in magnitude of discount offered by specific coupons
P: a measure of brand dependance on promotional efforts
per cent sales on deal
C: sales with temporary discounts as a percentage of total sales
C: does not make distinction for depth of discounts offered
P: a measure of brand dependance on promotional efforts
per cent time on deal
C: percentage of time during which temporary promotions are offered
C: does not reflect whether trade or consumers take advantage of discounts offered
P: a measure of brand dependance on promotional efforts
average deal depth
C: sales via coupon, divided by total sales
C: should be adjusted to account for forward buying and pass-through
P: a measure of brand dependance on promotional efforts
C: promotional discounts provided by the trade to consumers, divided by discounts provided to the trade by the manufacturer
C: can reflect power in the channel, or deliberate management or segmentation
P: to measure the extent to which a manufacturer’s promotions generate promotional activity further along the distribution channel
price waterfall
C: actual average price per unit divided by list price per unit. can also be calculated by working backward from list price, taking account of potential discounts, weighted by the frequency with which each is exercised
C: some discounts may be offered at an absolute level, no on a per-item basis
P: to indicate the price actually paid for a product, and the sequence of channel factors affecting that price
C: an impression is generated each time an advertisement is viewed. the number of impressions achieved is a function of an ad’s reach (the number of people seeing it), multiplied by its frequency (number of times they see it)
C: as a metric, impressions do not account for quality of viewings. in this regard, a glimpse will have less effect than a detailed study. impressions are also called exposures and opportunities-to-see (OTS)
P: to understand how many times an advertisement is viewed
gross rating points (GRPs)
C: impressions divided by the number of people in the audience for an advertisement
C: impressions expressed in relation to population. GRPs are cumulative across media vehicles, making it possible to achieve GRPs of more than 100%. target rating points (TRPs) are measured in relation to defined target populations
P: to measure impressions in relation to the number of people in the audience for an advertising campaign
cost per thousand impressions (CPM)
C: cost of advertising divided by impressions generated (in thousands).
C: CPM is a measure of cost per advertising impression, reckoning impressions in thousands. this makes it easier to work with the resulting financial figures than would be possible on the basis of cost per single impression
P: to measure the cost-effectiveness of the generation of impressions
net reach
C: the number of people who receive an advertisement
C: equivalent to reach. measure unique viewers of an advertisement. often best mapped on a Venn diagram
P: to measure the breadth of an advertisement’s spread across a population
average frequency
C: the avearage number of times that an individual receives an advertisement, given that he or she is indeed exposed to the ad
C: frequency is measured only among people who have in fact seen the advertisement under study
P: to measure how strongly an advertisement is concentrated on a given population
frequency response functions (linear)
C: all advertising impressions are equally impactful. threshold: a certain number of impressions are needed before an advertising message will sink in
C: linear model is often unrealistic, especially for complex products. threshold model is often used, as it is simple and intuitive
P: Learning curve model may suggest spurious accuracy in an imprecise process. should be tested for accuracy
frequency response functions ( learning curve)
C: an advertisement has little impact at first but gains force with repetition and then tails off as saturation is achieved
P: to model the reaction of a population to exposure to an advertisement
effective reach
C: reach achieved among individuals who are exposed to an advertisement with a frequency greater than or equal to the effective frequency
C: the effective frequency rate constitutes a crucial assumption in the calculation of this metric
P: to measure the portion of an audience that is exposed to an advertisement enough times to be influenced
effective frequency
C: the number of times an individual must see an advertisement in order to register its message
C: as a rule of thumb in planning, marketers often use an effective frequency of 3. to the extent that it promises to have a significant impact on campaign results, this assumption should be tested
P: to determine optimal exposure levels for an advertisement or campaign, trading the risk of over-spending agains the risk of failing to achieve the desired impact
share of voice
C: quantifies the advertising “presence” of a brand, campaign or firm in relation to total advertising in a market
C: market definition is central to meaningful results. impressions or ratings represent a conceptually strong basis for share of voice calculations. often, however, such data are unavailable. consequently, marketers use spending, an input, as a proxy for output
P: to evaluate the relative strength of advertising program within its market
C: the number of times a Web page is served
C: represents the number of Web pages served. hits by contrast, represent pageviews multiplied by the number of files on a page, making it as much a metric of page design as of traffic
P: to provide a top-level measure of the popularity of a website
clickthrough rate
C: the number of clickthroughs as a fraction of the number of impressions
C: an interactive measure of Web advertising. has great strengths, but clicks represent only a step toward conversion and are thus an intermediate advertising goal
P: to measure the effectiveness of a Web advertisement by counting those customers who are sufficiently intrigued to click through it
cost per click
C: advertising cost divided by number of clicks generated
C: often used as a billing mechanism
P: to measure or establish the cost-effectiveness of advertising
cost per order
C: advertising cost, divided by number of orders generated
C: more directly related to profit than cost per click, but less effective in measuring pure marketing. an advertisement may generate strong clickthrough but yield weak conversion due to a disappointing product
P: to measure or establish the cost-effectiveness of advertising
cost per customer acquired
C: advertising cost, divided by number of customers acquired
C: useful for purposes of comparison to customer lifetime value. helps marketers determine whether customers are worth the cost of their acquisition
P: to measure the cost-effectiveness of advertising
C: the number of unique viewings of a website
C: by measuring visits relative to pageviews, marketers can determine whether viewers are investigating multiple pages on a website
P: to measure audience trafic on a website
C: the number of unique website viewers in a given period
C: useful in determining the type of traffic generated by a website – a few loyal adherents, or many occasional visitors. the period over which this metric is measured can be an important consideration
P: to measure the reach of a website
abandonment rate
C: the rate purchases started but not completed
C: can warn of weak design in an e-commerce site by measuring the number of potential customers who lose patience with a transaction process or are surprised and put off by “hidden” costs revealed toward its conclusion
P: to measure one element of the close rate of internet business
net profit
C: sales revenue less total costs
C: revenue and costs can be defined in a number of ways leading to confusion in profit calculations
P: the basic profit equation
return on sales (ROS)
C: net profit as a percentage of sales revenue
C: acceptable level of return varies between industries and business models. many models can be described as high volume/low return or vice versa
P: gives the percentage of revenue that is being captured in profits
return on investment (ROI)
C: net profits over the investment needed to generate the profits
C: often meaningless in the short term. variations such as return on assets and return on investment capital analyze profits in respect of different inputs
P: a metric that describes how well assets are being used
economic profit
C: net operating profit after tax (NOPAT) less the cost of capital
C: requires a cost of capital to be provided/calculated
P: shows profit made in finance terms. gives a clearer distinction between the sizes of returns than does a percentage calculation
C: the length of time taken to return the initial investment
C: will favor projects with quick returns more than long term success
P: simple return calculation
net present value (NPV)
C: the value of a stream of future cash flows after accounting for the time value of money
C: the discount rate used is the vital consideration and should account for the risk of the investment too
P: to summarize the value of cash flows over multiple periods
internal rate of return (IRR)
C: the discount rate at which the NPV of an investment is zero
C: IRR does not describe the magnitude of return. $1 on $10 is the same as $1 million on $10 million
P: An IRR will typically be compared to a firm’s hurdle rate. If IRR is higher than hurdle rate, invest; if lower, pass
return on marketing investment (ROMI) revenue
C: incremental revenue attributable to marketing over the marketing spending
C: marketers need to establish an accurate baseline to be able to meaningfully state what revenue is attributable to marketing
P: compares the sales generated in revenue terms with the marketing spending that helped generate the sales. the percentage term helps comparison across plans of varying magnitude

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