Marketing 350 Terms

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lasting, general evaluation of people (including oneself), objects, advertisements, or issues
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attitude
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anything towards which one has an attitude
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attitude object
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basic principle of reward and punishment -we develop an attitude towards products because they provide pleasure or pain
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utilitarian function
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relate to the consumer’s self concept or central values
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value expression function
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attitude we form to protect ourselves either from external threats or internal feelings
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ego defense function
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we need order, structure, or meaning -applies when a person is in an ambiguous situation or when he or she confronts a new product
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knowledge function
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the way a consumer feels about an object – emotional component
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affect
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refers to the actions he or she takes toward the object or in some case at least his or her intentions to take action about it – actionable component
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behavior
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the beliefs a consumer has about an object – rational component
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cognition
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1. think feel do (car)- seeks out all information and weighs alternatives before carefully making decision
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high involvement hierarchy
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feel do think- package design, advertising, brand names, and nature of setting influence our attitudes
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experimental hierarchy
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1. think do feel (gum) a. initially doesn’t have a strong brand preference and evaluates after purchase
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low involvement hierarchy
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form an attitude because it helps us gain rewards or avoid punishment
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compliance
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form an attitude to conform to another person’s or groups expectations
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identification
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we value harmony among our thoughts, feelings and behaviors, and a need to maintain uniformity among these elements motivates us.
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principle of cognitive consistency
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assumes that we observe our own behavior to determine what our attitudes are.
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self perception theory
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consumers are more likely to comply with a big request if they agree to a smaller one first.
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foot in door technique
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assumes people assimilate new information about attitude objects in light of what they already know and feel.
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social judgement theory
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with an attitude standard, people consider and evaluate ideas falling within the latitude favorably, but are more likely to reject those that fall outside the zone
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latitudes of acceptance and rejection
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considers how people perceive relations among different attitudes and objects and how they alter their attitudes so that these remain consistent.
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balance theory
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An updated version of Fishbein multiattribute attitude theory that considers factors such as social pressure and the attitude toward the act of buying a product rather than simply attitude toward the product itself
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theory of reasoned action
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– the process in which a reference group helps to set and enforce fundamental standards of conduct – creates conflict between what we say and do
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normative influence
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to account for the effects of what we believe other people think we should do
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subjective norm
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perspective recognizes there are more factorys between intent and performance, ,considers all the differenct factors that lead to an outcome
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theory of trying
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play a huge role in influencing attitude about a message and product.
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source effects
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A communicator’s expertise, objectivity, or trustworthiness
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source credibility
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Refers to the social value recipients attribute to a communicator -Relates to the person’s physical appearance, personality, social status, or similarity to the receiver
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source attractiveness
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a new advertising strategy that focuses on digital messages designed to blend into the editorial content of the publications
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naive advertising
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implies a sources knowledge about a topic is not accurate Blogs, news, social media
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knowledge bias
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Occurs when a source has the required knowledge but we question their willingness to convey is accurately â—‹ News â—‹ Weight loss programs
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reporting bias
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Our society’s assumption that attractive people are smarter, hipper and happier than the rest of us
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halo effect
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tendency to like persons or things if we see them more often
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mere exposure phenom
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psychological theory that repetition causes familiarity but over time can increase consumers’ boredom
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two factor theory
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calling attention to a product’s negative attributes and then diminishing these arguments
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refutational arguments
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refers to a message that compares two recognizable brands and weighs them in terms of an attribute
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comparative advertising
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process of appropriating pop culture to integrate into marketing strategy- what is “cool and hip”
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reality engineering
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placing unusual messages where consumers don’t expect
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guerilla marketing
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games with interactive advertisements in order to target specific customer segments
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advergaming
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embedding a product or service link into a video ¥ youtube links
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plinking
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presents content evoking an emotional response to support an argument.
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emotional appeals
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presents content that focuses on attributes and a logical argument.
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rational appeals
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Draw a comparison between two objects “A is like B”
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simile
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emphasize negative consequences to communicate a message.
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fear appeal
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humor to catch consumers attention and tell a message about a product.
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humor appeal
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draw attention to the sexual content and distract from the message
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sex appeal
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Tie two different objects together with a common characteristic
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metaphor
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Stories about a trait or concept in the concept of a person or thing â–  Isaac Newton and the apple tree simplified gravity.
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allegory
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Combines words with images
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resonance
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This condition forces us to make repeated decisions that may drain psychological energy while decreasing our abilities to make smart decisions.
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consumer hyperchoice
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A person’s efforts to change or maintain his or her actions over time, whether these involve dieting, living on a budget, or training to run a marathon, involve careful planning that is a form of self-regulation.
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self regulation
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There is a decline in the actual state (something breaks) or increase in ideal state desire (want something new)-step 1
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problem recognition
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The process by which we survey the environment for appropriate data to make a reasonable decision -step 2
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info search
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This stage is where consumers choose a product from several different alternatives (brands, variations of the product, etc.)-step 3
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evaluate alternatives
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alternatives the consumer knows about
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evoke set
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alternatives the consumer considers buying -Typically a consumer’s consideration set is small and includes very few alternatives
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consideration set
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Choosing the product andOccurs when the consumer takes the product home and decides whether it meets, or exceeds their expectations -step 4
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product choice and post purchase evaluation
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when companies overload a product with features
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feature creep
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Uses fMRI (functional magnetic resonance imaging), a brain-scanning device that tracks blood flow as we perform mental tasks to take an up-close look at how our brains respond to marketing messages and product design features.
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neuromarketing
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a Web site or app that helps to filter and organize online market information so that customers can identify and evaluate alternatives more efficiently Ex: comparison shopping sites, forums, fan clubs
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cybermediary
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sophisticated software programs that use collaborative filtering technologies to learn from past user behavior to recommend new purchases. Ex: Amazon recommendations, ads
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intelligent agents
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software that examines the Web for matched to terms the user provides Ex: Google, Bing
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Search engines
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the procedures companies use to design the content of Web sites and posts to maximize the likelihood that their content will show up when someone searches for a relevant term
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SEO
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consumer eliminates various decision alternatives if they lack important criteria
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non compensatory rules
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Consumers first rank product attributes in terms of their importance, then compare brands
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lexicographic
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Similar to the lexicographic rule because the buyer also evaluates brands on the most important attribute.In this case, though, he or she impose specific cut-offs.
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elimination by aspect rule
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(more common in high-involvement decisions) consumer considers all the attributes/benefits of the alternatives (good and bad), weighs them, and arrives at an overall good choice.
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compensatory rules
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leads to the option that has the largest number of positive attributes.
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simple additive rule
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allows the consumer to take into account the relative importance of the attributes by weighting each one.
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weighted additive rule
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the options a consumer will consider in making a decision.
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consideration set
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The way information about a product choice is framed can prime a decision even when the consumer is unaware of this influence.
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positioning
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relies on history and past behavior to make routine decisions.
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habitual decision making
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is what we call it when exposure to some thing influences the behavior of an individual later on, without that individual being aware that the first thing is guiding their behavior to a certain extent.
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priming
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is a deliberate change by an organization that intends to modify behavior and also nudge can result in dramatic effects.
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nudge
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is a “rule of thumb” to simplify things – a mental shortcut
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heuristics
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we associate events that may or may not actually influence one another usually cause incomplete information
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covariation
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over______ of all shopping decisions are finalized in store
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70percent
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the family member that keeps track of bills and decides how to spend surplus funds – who the marketers want to know
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FFO
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1. mood 2. whether we feel time pressure to make the purchase 3. particular reason we need the product 4. salesperson or realtor
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things that affect our choices
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includes a buyer, a seller, and a product or service along with other factors such as reason we want to make a purchase and how the physical environment makes us feel.
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consumption situation
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role he or she plays at any one time-helps to determine what he or she wants to buy or consume
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situation self image
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the process laminated by traditional retailers whereby consumers shop their stores to obtain product information and then purchase the chosen product online at a lower price.
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showrooming
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an e-commerce site that provides exclusive styles by prodding manufacturers to produce runway pieces they wouldn’t otherwise make to sell in stores.
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pretailer
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Strategy where stores create imaginative environments that transport shoppers to fantasy worlds or provide other kinds of stimulation.
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retail theming
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a store’s “personality,” composed of such attributes as location, merchandise suitability, and the knowledge and congeniality of the sales staff.
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store image
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the use of space and physical features in store design to evoke certain effects in buyers
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atmospherics
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let consumers participate in the production of the products or services they buy there (Build a Bear)
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activity stores
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Unplanned buying: about â…“ of unplanned buying is caused by a shopper recognizing a new need while in the store
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spontaneous shopping
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A business model where people rent or barter what they need rather than buying it
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sharing economy
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-It is our overall reactions to a product after we’ve bought it. Depending on the level of consumer satisfaction/dissatisfaction plays a key role in our future behavior.
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postpurchase satisfaction
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one consumer exchanges something he or she owns for something the other person owns.
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lateral cycyling

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