Marketing 302 test 2

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The study of consumer __________ helps marketers understand why people choose one brand over another and how they make these choices.
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Behavior
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Last autumn, Will was raking leaves. After making several large piles, he went into the garage and discovered that he had no more large garbage bags. He couldn’t finish the job without them. Will has just begun the
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purchase decision process
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Devin had just been laid off from her job and was watching TV at about 2:00 P.M. when she saw an advertisement for a local trade college. It sounded like just what she needed to get back on her feet, so she went right to the phone to contact the school. Devin’s information search was shortened by a perfectly timed advertisement, which is a __________.
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marketer-dominated source
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For the purchase of a smartphone, Consumer Reports expects that many consumers use price, display, web browsing, and battery life as __________, since it tests products on these dimensions.
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evaluative criteria
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Satisfaction or dissatisfaction affects consumer communications; while the satisfied buyer typically tells about three other people about her experience, the dissatisfied buyer
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is likely to complain about 9 people
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Cognitive dissonance is most likely to occur in which stage of the purchase decision process?
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postpurchase behavior
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A consumer will use one of three general problem-solving variations, extended, limited, or routine, based on level of involvement and
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product knowledge
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For which of the following items would extended problem solving mostly likely be used?
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a silicon injection
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The market leader for a(n) __________ product must make special efforts to avoid stock-out situations so that buyers don’t substitute a competing brand.
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low-involvement
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As a situational influence, antecedent states include
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the mood of the shopper
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Which of the following is a psychological influence on the consumer behavior decision process?
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motivation
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A television ad for Volkswagen features several nervous teens examining the damage immediately following a car accident, and the message, “Your parents can only kill you if you’re OK.” Marketers at Volkswagen are attempting to appeal to consumers’ __________ needs.
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safety
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Selective __________ is defined as paying attention to messages that are consistent with one’s attitudes and beliefs and ignoring messages that are inconsistent.
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exposure
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Kia Motor’s 10-year, 100,000-mile warranty is most effective at
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deceiving perceived risk
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If a consumer is happy with the firm, but natural, hold she gets from her latest purchase of hair spray, this would be considered which variable of the behavioral learning process?
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reinforcement
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Using the same brand name for different products is an application of which concept from behavioral learning theory?
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stimulus generalization
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To dispel mothers’ concerns about ingredients in its mayonnaise, Hellmann’s successfully communicated the product’s high Omega 3 content, which is known to be essential to human health. This is an example of using which attitude change strategy?
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changing beliefs about the extent to which a brand has certain attributes
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The VALS system is a(n) __________ measure of consumers.
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psychographic
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Which of the following statements about word of mouth is most accurate?
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the power of word of mouth has amplified by the internet
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The prevalence of working parents and single-parent households has resulted in
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preteens and teenagers increasingly being the information gatherers, influencers, decision makers and purchasers of family product
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Marketing research is the process of defining a marketing problem and opportunity, systematically collecting and analyzing information, and __________.
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recommending actions
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The first step in the five-step marketing research approach is to
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define the problem
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In marketing research, the research objectives are the __________ goals of the decision maker.
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specific and measurable
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In a marketing decision, __________ are likely to be restrictions on the time and money available to solve the problem.
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constraints
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Two special methods vital to marketing researchers are __________ and __________.
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sampling, statistical inference
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A company is interested in producing self-stick decorative posters. It selects a representative sample of middle school students who currently have one or more standard posters on their walls. After interviewing them and collecting other relevant data, the firm then makes generalizations about what all middle school students want in their posters. The method used is
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statistical inference
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When a marketing researcher uses a collection of reports, customer letters, financial statements, and surveys from different departments within her firm, she is using
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internal secondary data
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A restaurant is collecting comment cards from customers in order to develop ideas about how to improve their business. The restaurant is
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collecting primary data
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Which of the following is a form of secondary data?
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company sale reports
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Representatives from Kraft spent several months with consumers in their kitchens, attempting to understand what they wanted in ready-to-serve meals prior to the launch of Kraft Deli Creations. The observational approach Kraft used is called __________ research.
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ethnographic
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In eight small group sessions with customers, 3M heard them complain that standard steel wool pads scratched their expensive cookware. The findings from this research lead to the development of 3M’s internationally successful Scotch-Brite Never Scratch soap pads. The research method 3M used was
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focus groups
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If you were asked in a telephone interview if you planned to vote in the fall elections, and were asked to answer either yes or no, this question would be considered
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dichotomous
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A question about an instructor’s comportment in the classroom, with a five-point scale ranging from “enthusiastic” on one end to “unengaging” on the other end would be what type of marketing research question?
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semantic differential scale
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An advantage of using a panel for marketing research is
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researchers can take successive measurements of consumers to determine if they change purchase behavior over time
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All of the following are independent variables a market researcher may use in a marketing experiment EXCEPT:
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unit sales
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Through the use of __________, a catalog retailer might determine from its database that customers who purchased silver frames would also have a high probability of buying vintage hatpins. As a result, its sales representatives were instructed to offer a special price on hatpins when a customer places an order for a silver frame.
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data mining
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The last step in the marketing research approach is to
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take marketing actions
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In 2015, a marketing manager for New Balance’s Minimus shoe needs to forecast sales through 2017. She begins with the known totals for 2014 and adjusts for positive factors like acceptance of new high-tech designs and great publicity, and for negative factors like the slow economy and predicted moves by the competition. This type of forecast is referred to as
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lost horse forecasting
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__________ assumes that the underlying relationships in the past will continue into the future; the method is simple but not always correct.
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trend extrapolation
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Asking the firm’s salespeople to estimate sales during a coming period is referred to as
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a salesforce survey forecast
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Market segmentation involves aggregating prospective buyers into groups that have common needs and will
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respond similarly to marketing action
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A business firm uses market segmentation to respond more effectively to the wants of groups of potential buyers in order to
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increase sales and profits
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Dollar Shave Club asks men to “Shave Money, Shave Time” in its commercials; it offer high-quality blades available by mail for a few dollars a month. Dollar Shave Club’s advertising promotes the time- and money-saving aspects of its product as an example of
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product differentiation
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Which of the following is an example of a single product with multiple market segments?
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residence inn only offers suites that are larger than traditional hotel rooms, appealing to both business travelers and families with children
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Which of the following statements is most accurate about build-to-order (BTO) manufacturing?
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manufacturing products only when a customer places an order
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Walmart is opening 12 stores to test the concept of Walmart Express, stores that are one-tenth the size of its supercenters and sell groceries. One risk to this effort is __________.
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cannibalization
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There are five steps involved in segmenting and targeting a market. What should a marketer do once he or she has grouped both potential buyers and products to be sold?
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develop market-product grid and estimate market sizes
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Potential buyers within a market segment should be
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similar in terms of advertising media used
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Which of the following is a variable that could be used for demographic segmentation of consumer markets?
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ethnicity
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People who live active outdoor lives are part of the target market for REI, a retail outdoor outfitter. This suggests that REI would most likely segment the market based on which consumer segmentation basis?
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psychographic
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Though the percentages are not always the same, a general rule in business says that the large majority of a firm’s revenues come from what percent of its customers?
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20%
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Which two of the following demographic segmentation variables would firms use to segment organizational markets?
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NAICS code and number of employees
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Kitchen World has put its offerings in store locations based upon the cooking activity—the way consumers prepare and present various meals. Everything for baking is in one spot, while food preparation utensils are in another, and table settings are in yet another. This strategy uses
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product groupings
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An important part of creating a market-product grid is to
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estimate size of the markets
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Which of the following is a criterion used to select a target market segment?
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competitive position
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Running horizontally across a market-product grid, each row represents an opportunity for efficiency in terms of
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a market segment
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Positioning a product or brand effectively involves taking four steps, one of which includes
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discovering where the company’s product or brand is on the relevant attributes in the minds of potential customers
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Two major types of product positioning are
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head to head, differentiation
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When McDonald’s introduced its low-fat McLean Deluxe hamburger, it used __________ to avoid direct competition with Wendy’s and Burger King.
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differentiation positioning
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A means of displaying or graphing in two dimensions the location of products or brands in the minds of consumers to enable a manager to see how consumers perceive competing products or brands, as well as its own product or brand, is referred to as a __________.
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perceptual map

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