Making History With Vitamin C – Flashcards

question
Why did 90% of Magellan's crew die off?
answer
They died of scurvy
question
What is scurvy?
answer
A disease caused by a deficiency of ascorbic acid molecule and dietary vitamin-C.
question
What are the symptoms of scurvy?
answer
swelling of arms and legs, softening of gums, excessive bruising, hemorrhaging from nose and mouth, foul breath, diarrhea, muscle pain, loss of teeth, depression lung and kidney problems, ect. Usually death comes in the form of "acute" infection
question
Where does the world scurvy come from?
answer
Norse, the language of the vikings. The vikings used scurvy grass to avoid the disease.
question
Why did Scurvy increase in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries?
answer
because now that they could go farther, explorers didn't have such easy access to fresh food.
question
Why were most sailors unhealthy?
answer
Because on the ships hygiene was bad so it was easier to get diseases, infections and such.
question
Why was the food on ships mainly hardtack (overcooked rock hard bread) and salted meat?
answer
Because nice things like bread, meat, cheese, flour and butter spoiled. Also because they didn't often use fire so they didn't heat food very much.
question
What was the leading cause of death at sea (its not piracy, shipwreck or naval battles)?
answer
It's scurvy
question
How did the Chinese deal with scurvy?
answer
By growing fresh ginger in pots on ships.
question
How did Captain James Lancaster deal with scurvy?
answer
He kept bottles of lime juice and anyone who showed signs of scurvy was dosed with 3 tablespoons a day. Nobody on his ship died, but on his other two ships his orders to prevent scurvy had been ignored and death toll was high.
question
What remedy did local Indians suggest to explorer Jaques Cartier?
answer
Spruce tree needle infusion
question
What experiment did James Lind conduct?
answer
He took 12 twelve men suffering from scurvy and split them in six groups, each group had a special diet and a special medicine. Those receiving citrus as their medicine immediately recovered.
question
Even when the cure for scurvy was known in Europe, why wasn't it used?
answer
Because it was expensive to store fruits or try to concentrate them, many also blamed scurvy on other things besides lack of vitamin-c.
question
Since the cure for scurvy was not kept on many ships what was done instead?
answer
Taking as many sailors as possible and hoping they didn't die.
question
Why did Scurvy trouble the regular crew more then the officers?
answer
Because the regular crew wanted to eat meat when they came to port, not fresh fruits and vegetables. The officers were more likely to try the "exotic" foods due to their rich background.
question
What was special about the way James cook handled his ship?
answer
He made sure there was good hygiene, he made sure his men had a good diet (when fresh food was not possible they ate sauerkraut). To make them eat his food he let the only officers have it for a week so the crew would see the effect.
question
What is Cook credited for discovering?
answer
antiscorbutics
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question
Why did 90% of Magellan's crew die off?
answer
They died of scurvy
question
What is scurvy?
answer
A disease caused by a deficiency of ascorbic acid molecule and dietary vitamin-C.
question
What are the symptoms of scurvy?
answer
swelling of arms and legs, softening of gums, excessive bruising, hemorrhaging from nose and mouth, foul breath, diarrhea, muscle pain, loss of teeth, depression lung and kidney problems, ect. Usually death comes in the form of "acute" infection
question
Where does the world scurvy come from?
answer
Norse, the language of the vikings. The vikings used scurvy grass to avoid the disease.
question
Why did Scurvy increase in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries?
answer
because now that they could go farther, explorers didn't have such easy access to fresh food.
question
Why were most sailors unhealthy?
answer
Because on the ships hygiene was bad so it was easier to get diseases, infections and such.
question
Why was the food on ships mainly hardtack (overcooked rock hard bread) and salted meat?
answer
Because nice things like bread, meat, cheese, flour and butter spoiled. Also because they didn't often use fire so they didn't heat food very much.
question
What was the leading cause of death at sea (its not piracy, shipwreck or naval battles)?
answer
It's scurvy
question
How did the Chinese deal with scurvy?
answer
By growing fresh ginger in pots on ships.
question
How did Captain James Lancaster deal with scurvy?
answer
He kept bottles of lime juice and anyone who showed signs of scurvy was dosed with 3 tablespoons a day. Nobody on his ship died, but on his other two ships his orders to prevent scurvy had been ignored and death toll was high.
question
What remedy did local Indians suggest to explorer Jaques Cartier?
answer
Spruce tree needle infusion
question
What experiment did James Lind conduct?
answer
He took 12 twelve men suffering from scurvy and split them in six groups, each group had a special diet and a special medicine. Those receiving citrus as their medicine immediately recovered.
question
Even when the cure for scurvy was known in Europe, why wasn't it used?
answer
Because it was expensive to store fruits or try to concentrate them, many also blamed scurvy on other things besides lack of vitamin-c.
question
Since the cure for scurvy was not kept on many ships what was done instead?
answer
Taking as many sailors as possible and hoping they didn't die.
question
Why did Scurvy trouble the regular crew more then the officers?
answer
Because the regular crew wanted to eat meat when they came to port, not fresh fruits and vegetables. The officers were more likely to try the "exotic" foods due to their rich background.
question
What was special about the way James cook handled his ship?
answer
He made sure there was good hygiene, he made sure his men had a good diet (when fresh food was not possible they ate sauerkraut). To make them eat his food he let the only officers have it for a week so the crew would see the effect.
question
What is Cook credited for discovering?
answer
antiscorbutics