Living Environment Topic 4 – Unit 7 Reproduction and Development

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asexual reproduction
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A reproductive process that involves only one parent and produces offspring that are identical to the parent
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cloning
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a technique used to make identical organisms
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development
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the changes that occur from the fertilized egg to a complete individual; occurs by mitosis and differentiation of cells
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differentiation
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process in which cells become specialized in structure and function
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egg
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Female sex cell
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embryo
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An organism in the earliest stage of development
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estrogen
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a hormone produced by the ovaries that controls female sexual development and the reproductive process
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expressed
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the way that an unseen gene is seen in an organism as an actual physical trait
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fertilization
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the joining of a sperm cell and an egg cell
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fetus
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the developing human organism from 9 weeks after conception to birth
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gamete
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Sex cell; sperm or egg
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gene expression
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the result of activated genes
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meiosis
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A two-stage type of cell division in sexually reproducing organisms that results in cells with half the chromosome number of the original cell.
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mitosis
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A process of cell division that divides the cell’s nucleus into two new nuclei, each of which has a complete set of genetic material (chromosomes) from the parent cell
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ovaries
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female organ that produces egg cells (gametes) and produces estrogen and progesterone
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placenta
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A structure that allows oxygen and nutrients to pass into the fetus from the mother’s bloodstream and bodily wastes to pass out to the mother.
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progesterone
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Hormone partly responsible for preparing the uterus for the fertilized ovum
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recombination
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the process by which genetic material from the sperm and egg (gametes) result in a unique combination of genes
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sex cell
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egg or sperm
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sexual reporduction
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kind of reproduction when the offspring share traits with each parent but are not identical to either one
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species
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a group of organisms so similar to one another that they can breed and produce fertile offspring
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sperm
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Male sex cell
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testes
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male reproductive organ, which produce sperm and testosterone
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testosterone
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male sex hormone
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uterus
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The thick, muscular, pear-shaped organ in the female mammal in which the embryo develops.
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zygote
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The fertilized egg; it enters a 2-week period of rapid cell division and develops into an embryo.

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