lifespan of development chapter 2 berk book

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x bearing, y bearing
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what determines the sex of teh child? whether an —– or a ——– bearing sperm fertilizes the ovum
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fraternal twins
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dizygotic, most common type of multiple offspring. resulting from release and fertilization of two ova. no more alike genetically than ordinary siblings. older maternal age, fertility drugs, invitro fertilization, cause rise in fraternal twins.
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dizygotic
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fraternal twins are ——–.
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two ova
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fraternal twins come from ——- ova
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homozygous
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inherits a pair of dominant alleles (DD) if alleles from both parents are alike its a ——— kid and will display the inherited trait.
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heterozygous
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if the alleles differ, kid is ——- and relationship between the alleles determins the phenotype. have one recessive allele, and one dominant allele.
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carriers
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heterozygous individuals with just one recessive allele can pass that trait to their children. they are called ——– of the trait.
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heterozygous
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carriers are —— individuals with one recessive allele that they can pass to their kid.
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dominant-recessive inheritance
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in many heterozygous pairings, ————– occurs. only one allele affects the childs characteristics. it is called the dominant. the second allele, which has no effect is called recessive.
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x-linked inheritance
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males and females have equal chance of inheriting recessive disorders carried on the autosomes. when a harmful allele is carried on the x chromosome, x-linked inheritance applies. males more likely to be affected because their sex chromosomes do not match. females—any recessive allele on one x chromosome has a good chance of being suppressed by a dominant allele on the other x. the y chromosome is only one-third as long and lacks many corresponding genes to override those on the x. ex-hemophilia. greater chance of male kids to get it whose mom carries the abnormal allele
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equal, autosomes
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with x-linked inheritance, males and females have —— chance of inheriting recessive disorders on the ——-.
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x chromosome
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when a harmful allele is carried on the ———-, x-linked inheritance applies.
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match
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males more likely to be affected by x-linked inheritance because their sex chromosomes do not ——-. with females, any recessive allele on one x has a good chance of being suppressed by dominant allele on the other x.
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y
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x-linked inheritance males more likely to inherit bc they have X AND Y and the y is only one-third as long and lacks many corresponding genes to override those on the x.
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genetic counseling
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a communication process designed to help couples asses their chances of giving birth to a baby with a hereditary disorder and choose best course of action in view of risks and family goals. if family history of mental retardation, psychological disorders, defects exist the counselor interviews the couple and prepares a pedigree.
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pedigree
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the genetic counselor prepares a ——- or a picture of the family tree in which affected relatives are identified. used to estimate likelihood of abnormal child, for some disorders molecular genetic analyses can reveal if parent is a carrier of the harmful gene.
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genetic counselor
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the ——– helps parents decide what to do with their baby, to take a chance , use reproductive technologies or adopt.
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donor insemination, in vitro fertilization, surrogate motherhood
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what are the three types of reproductive technology
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donor insemination
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injection of sperm from an anonymous man into a woman
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in vitro fertilization
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woman given hormones to stimulate the ripening of several ova. these are removed surgically, and placed in a dish of nutrients to which sperm are added. ovum is fertilized and begins to duplicate into several cells, and injected into mother’s uterus. used on women with fallopian tube damage
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fallopian tube damage
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in vitro is used on women with ——— damage
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sex sorter
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helps ensure that couples who carry x-linked diseases have a daughter.
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age
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success of in vitro declines with
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doubles
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risk of defects in kids during in vitro doubles because of the drugs used.
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surrogate motherhood
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in vitro fertilization used to impregnate a woman -with a couples fertilized ovum.
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surrogate motherhood
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in this sperm from a man whose partner is infertile may be used to inseminate the surrogate who agrees to give baby to natural father.
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financially
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surrogate motherhood promotes exploitation of ——- needy women.
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post menopausal
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doctors use donor ova from younger women in combination with in vitro to help ————- women become pregnant.
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donor banks
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customers can select ova or sperm on the basis of physical characteristics and even iq
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designer babies
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scientists are devising a way to alter dna of human ova, sperm and embryos to protect agains hereditary disorders. people worry this will bring on ————–
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educations, prestige, skill, income,
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socioeconomic status and functioning. combines three related but not completely overlapping variables. 1) years of ————, the ——— of ones job and —- it requires, both of which measure social status. and ———-, whcih measures economic status.
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ses
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as —– rises and falls people face changing circumstances that profoundly affect family functioning.
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marriage, parenthood, size
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ses is linked to timing of —–, ——– nad ——- of family.
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true
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t or f? people working in skilled and semiskilled manual occupations marry and have kids earlier, give birth to more kids than people in professional and technical jobs.
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values, expectations
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the two ses groups differ in —— nad ———–
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external, psychological
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lower ses parents emphasize —– characteristics like obedience, politeness, cleanliness. whereas higher ses parents emphasize ——- traits like curiosity, happiness, cognitive, social maturity
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interaction
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in the two ses groups ——– is different.
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high ses
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parents in ——— talk to , read to stimulate infants and pre k kids more.
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high ses
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with adolescents they use more warmth, explanations, verbal praise, hgiher academic and developmental goals, allow kids to make own decisions
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low ses
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this group commands their kids, criticism, physical punishment
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high ses
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education, verbal stim and nuturing of inner traits supported by years of schooling where they thought about abstract, subjective ideas and invest in their kids cognitive adn social development. greater economic security so parents can devote more time energy and material resources to foster kids psychological characteristics
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low ses
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stress sparked by economic insecurity contribute to low ses parents reduced provision of stimulating interaction and activities and greater use of coercive discipline. limited education, low social status, parents feel powerless in relationships beyond home at work must obey others rules, when home theyre the authority.
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operation
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smoking while pregnant is bad. environment can modify the genome in ways that affect the ———— of that gene.
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epigenetic interplay
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a genes impact on the individuals phenotype depends on the genes context
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phenotype, context
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in epigenetic interplay a genes impact on the individuals ——- depends on the genes ——–.
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adhd
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smoking during pregnancy is among the risk factors for —–.
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homozygous
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individuals who are ——– for a chromosome five gene (DD) containing a special repeat of base pairs are at increased risk for adhd.
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chromosome five gene
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individuals who are homozygous for a ———- containing a special repeat of base pairs are at increaased risk for adhd
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toxins
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with smoking while pregnant, environmental influences associated with adhd, like prenatal exposure to —– modify the genes activity.
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nicotine, dd genotype
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in a study for adhd the findings were that kids with both prenatal —— exposure and ——– had higher impulsivity, overactivity, oppositional scores than all other groups.
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DD genotype
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tobacco smoke stimulates the ————- to release chemicals in the brain that promote impulsivity and overactivity.
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evoke, defiance
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with adhd from maternal smoking the behaviors ——- harsh, punitive parenting which triggers —— in kids.
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fifty percent
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the DD genotype is widespread, found in at least ——– of people.
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nicotine
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kids prenataly exposed to ——– are at high risk for learning and behavior issues.
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extended family
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ethnic minority in the us have cooperative family structures, which help protect their members from the harmful effects of poverty. when three or more generations live together. vital feature of black family life, enables its members to survive, despite a history of prejudice, and economic deprivation. grandparents play meaningful roles in guiding younger generations with employment, marital, etc. difficulties.
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emotional, caregiving
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in extended family houses the grandparents may help give —– support and give help and ——- is enhanced for the children and elderly.
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individualistic society
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people think of self as separate entities, largely concerned with personal needs. value independent self, emphasizes personal exploration, discovery, etc.
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collectivist
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people define self as part of a group, stress group goals. value the interdependent self, stresses social harmony, obligations, responsibility to others.
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interdependent, independent
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everyone is both —— and ——- but socities emphasize specific ones.
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individualism
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increases as cultures become more complex, like the united states.
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collectivist
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most western european places are ————-
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heritability estimates
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obtained from kinship studies, provide an estimate of proportion of individual differences in a trait attributable to heredity range from 0 to 1.00
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passive genetic environment correlations
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parents provide an environment influenced by their own heredity ex- parents in band, always play music around kids, kids passively soak it in
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range of reaction
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unique genetically determined response to the environment, range betwn some upper and lower boundary of functioning established by genetic heritage. where a kid falls within boundaries is determined by environment. environment affects expression of genetic makeup.
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evocative genetic environment correlations
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kids heredity causes them to behave in certain ways that evoke responses. the responses strengthen that childs original style. ex-both kids outgoing to others, evokes a positive response and attention which strengthens original style of being outgoing.
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active gene environment correlation
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kids are older, seek out environments that fit their genetic tendencies. ex- kid that is athletic may say he wants to do soccer. kid likes music, wants to play an instrument.
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niche picking
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actively choose environment that complements our heredity. 5’0 not athleticbut try basketballl that is not doing this —–.
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epigenesis
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Development resulting from ongoing, bidirectional exchanges between heredity and all levels of the environment., Development as a consequence of the interactions between genes and environment.

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