Lifespan Chapter 6 Essay

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sensorimotor intelligence
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piaget’s term for the way infants think by using their senses and motor skills during the first period of cognitive development
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sensorimotor intelligence
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infants learn through their senses and motor skills
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sensorimotor intelligence
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two year long period is subdivided into six stages
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primary circular reactions
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the first of three types of feedback oops in sensorimotor intellience, this one involving the infant’s own body. the infant senses motion, sucking, noise, and so on, and tries to understand them
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primary circular reactions
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which are reactions that involve the infant’s own body
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stage one of sensorimotor intelligence
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stage of reflexes:suckling, grasping, staring, listening
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stage two of sensorimotor intelligence
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first acquired adaptations:accommodation and coordination of reflexes. Examples : sucking a pacifier differently form a nipple; grabbing a bottle to suck it.
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Stage three of sensorimotor intelligence
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an awareness of things: responding to people and objects. example:claping hands when mother says patty cake
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stage four of sensorimotor intelligence
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new adaptation and anticipation: becoming more deliberate and purposeful in responding to people and objects. Example: putting mother’s hands together in order ot make her start playing patty-cake
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stage five of sensorimotor intelligence
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new means through active experimentation:experimentatino and creativity in the actions of the little scientist. Example: putting a teddy bear in the toilet and flushing it
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stage six of sensorimotor intelligence
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new means through mental combinations: considering before doing provides the child with new ways of achieving a goal without resorting to trial and error experiments. Example: before flushing, remembering that the toilet overflowed the last time, and hesitating
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stage three of sensorimotor intelligence
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infants interact diligently with people and things to produce exciting experiences, making interesting events last.
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stage four of sensorimotor intelligence
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is called new adaptation and anticipation, or “the means to the end,” because babies now think about a goal and begin to understand how to reach it
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object permanence
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the realization that objects(including people) still exist when they cannot be seen, touched, or heard
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object permanence
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emerges at about 8 months. refers to the awareness that objects or people continue to exist when they are no longer in sight
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tertiary circular reactoins
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begin when 1 year olds take their first independent and varied actions to discover the properties of other people, animals, and things.
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the first stage of tertiary circular reactions,
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piaget’s stage five
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the first stage of tertiary circular reactions
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new means through active experimenation
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little scientist
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piaget’s term for the stage five toddler who experiments without anticipationg the results
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deferred imitation
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a sequence in which an infant first perceives something that somone else does and tehn performs the same action a few hours or even days later
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deferred imitiation
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occurs when infants copy behavior the noticed hours or even days earlier
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habituation
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refers to getting used to an experience after repeated exposure to it
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habituation
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a research strategy involves repeating one stimulus until babies lose interest and the presenting another, slightly different stimulus
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habituation
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the process of getting used to an object or event through repeated exposure to it
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f m r i
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functional magnetic resonance imaging
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fmri
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a mearusing technique in which the brain’s electrical excitement indicates activation anywhere in the brain; fmri helps researchers locate neurological responses to stimuli
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fmri
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a burst of electrical activity within the brain is recorded, indicating that neurons are firing, which leads researchers to conclude that a particular stimulus has been noticed
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information processing theory
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a perspective modeled on coputer funcitoning, including input, memory, programs, calculation, and output
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information processing theory
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belief that a step by step description of the mechanism of thought add input, memory, programs, calculation, and output
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affordance
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an opportunity for perception and interaction that is offered by a person, place or object in the environment
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visual cliff
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an experimental apparatus that fives an ilusion of a sudden drop between one horizontal surface and another
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dynamic perception
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perception that is primed to focus on movement and change
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people preference
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a universal principle of infant perception, consisting of an inate attraction to other humans, which is evident in visual, audirtory, tactile, and other preferences
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reminder session
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is any perceptual experience that is intended to help a person recollect an idea,a thing, or an experience
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implicit memory
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which is memory for routines and memroies that remain hidden until a particular stimulus brings them to mind
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expicit memory
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which is memroy that can be recalled on demand
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child directed speech
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the high pitched simplified, and repetitive way adults speak to infants
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child directed speech
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baby talk,, motherese
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babbling
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the extended repetition of certain syllables, such as ba-ba-ba, that begins between 6 and 9 months of age
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naming explosion
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a sudden increase in an infant’s vocabulary, especially in the number of nouns, that begins at about 18 months of age
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holophrase
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a single word spoken in such a way that it expresses an entire thought
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grammar
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all the methods word order, verb forms, and so on that languages use to communicate meaning, apart form the words themselves
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grammar
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includes all teh methods that languages use to communicate meaning
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language acquisition device
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chomsky’s term for a hypothesized mental structure that enables humans to learn language, including the basic aspects of grammar, vocabulary, and intonation
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language acquistion device
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lad
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lad
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language acquistion device
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infants need to be taught
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theory one of language learning
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inants teach themselves
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theory two of language learning
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social impulses foster infant language
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theory three of language learning
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third theory of language learning
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social pragmatic
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social pragmatic
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because it perceives teh crucial starting point to be nether vocbulary reinforcement ( behaviorism) nor the innate conncetion (epigenetic), but rather the social reason for language: communication

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