Lfcc Bio 150 Test Questions – Flashcards

question
Yersinia pestis Disease
answer
Bubonic plague
question
Yersinia pestis Causative agent
answer
Gram - rod bacteria
question
Yersinia pestis Mode of transmission
answer
Fleas on vertebrates
question
Reasons to study Microbiology
answer
1. Important to human health
2. Primary producers [decompose dead organisms/waste]
3. Genetic engineering
4. Food/food industry
question
3 reasons Microorganisms are useful in research
answer
1. Simple structure [single cell]
2. Large #'s [statistically reliable]
3. Reproduce quickly [20-40 min can be a generation].
question
Basic Funcitons of Organisms [6]
answer
1. Organization
2. Responsiveness
3. Growth & Differentiation
4. Reproduction
5. Movement
6. Metabolism & Excretion
question
Bioremediation
answer
microorganisms are genetically engineered to break down toxic materials
question
Polymers/molecules
answer
Carbs, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids
question
Why are bacteria everywhere on this planet?
answer
- metabolic capacity superior to any other form of life
- can titilize and inorganic or organic material as a source of energy.
question
pleamorphic
answer
can change form or shape
question
Cell
answer
lowest functional unit of life
ex. bacteria, plant & animal cell, human egg
question
Major groups of organisms include
answer
- bacteria
- viruses
- algae
- protozoa
- fungi
question
Levels of Organization
answer
Atom
molecule
organelles
cell
tissue
organs
organ systems
organism
question
bacterial characteristics/properties
answer
- all prokaryotic [single cell, no nucleus, but does have genome]
- some autotrophic [photosynthesis]
- most heterotrophic [eat product of autotroph or eat autotroph]
- most do not cause disease
- most have not been identified or grown
question
bacteria
answer
living, single cellular infectious agent
question
Virus properties/characteristics
answer
- acellular infectious agent
- consists of a genome [either DNA or RNA single or double stranded] and protein coat
- obligate intracellular parasites [only way to replicate is within another cell]
question
Viroid
answer
1. smaller than virul
2. RNA [Ribonucleic Acid] single strand
3. Infects plants [infectious agent]
question
Viron
answer
complete virus. Consists of lipid envelope, genome, and protein coat.
question
Algae
answer
- most do not cause disease
- all are eukaryotic
- most single cellular
- all are autotrophic
question
Protozoa
answer
- most single cell
- eukaryotic
- atleast 1 nucleus
- some cause disease
question
Eukaryotic
answer
- genome in nucleus
- most heterotrophic
- can be single or multicellular
- some autotrophic [such as algae]
question
Protozoa
answer
- single celled w/ atleast 1 nucleus
- some cause disease
- some eat bacteria through phagocytosis
question
Prion
answer
- single misshaped protein [causes other proteins to become misshapedn
- causes neurodegenerative diseases such as mad cow disease
question
Multicellular Animal Parasites
answer
- Eukaryotic
- Multi-cellular animal
- such as parasitic worms
question
Helminths
answer
parasitic flatworms and round worms
question
Arthropods role with microbes
answer
- [such as insects] serve in transmission of microbes
question
Hooke
answer
- [Mid 1600s] compound microscope
- named "cells"
question
Leeuwenhoek
answer
-[mid 1600s] developed 1st usable microscope
- observed living microorganisms.
question
spontaneous generation
answer
belief that microorganisms arose from nonliving things
question
Biogenesis
answer
- beleif that living organisms arise from preexisting life.
- lead to the cell theory
- was an alternate hypothesis
question
Germ Theory of Disease
answer
States that microorganisms (germs)can invade other organisms and cause disease
question
Pasteur
answer
-[mid 1800s] Father of Immunology
-1st rabies vaccine
question
Koch
answer
- [late 1800s]developed a technique for growing pure cultures [which lead to ability to treat diseases].
- came up with concept "1 organism = 1 disease"
- worked with anthrax and tuberculosis
question
Koch's Postulates
answer
1. The same causative agent must be found in all cases of the disease
2. The disease organism must be isolated in a pure culture.
3. This pure culture must cause disease in a healthy, susceptible animal.
4. The disease organism must be recovered from teh inoculated animal.
question
Acellular infectious agents
answer
Viroid, Viron, Virus, Prion
question
Koch's Postulates
answer
1. The same causative agent must be found in all cases of the disease
2. The disease organism must be isolated in a pure culture.
3. This pure culture must cause disease in a healthy, susceptible animal.
4. The disease organism must be recovered from teh inoculated animal.
question
Joseph Lister
answer
- [mid 1800s] developed aseptic techniques in surgery

- Hint Lister [Listerine]
question
Edward Jenner
answer
- [late 1700s] discovered cowpox prevented smallpox
- called Vaccine "vacca"
- would cut patient and place scabs from milk maids into would to prevent smallpox
question
vacca
answer
- latin for "cow"
- term Edward Jenner used for vaccine
question
Chemotherapy
answer
uses chemicals to treat an infectious agent [such as bacteria]
question
Virulent bacteria
answer
- kills target animal
- contains thick polysacharide coating
question
Modern Developments in Microbiology
answer
- Virology - study of viruses
- Bacteriology - study of bacteria
- Mycology - study of fungi
- Parasitology - study of protozoa and parasitic worms
- Genetis and Microbiology
question
Griffith
answer
[1928] discovered that live bacteria could acquire heritable traits from dead ones.
question
Prokaryot
answer
single cell, no nucleus
question
Prokaryote
answer
single cell, no nucleus [but does contain a genome]
question
Viroid
answer
1. smaller than a virus
2. Single stranded RNA [ribonucleic acid]
3. Infects plants [infectious agent]
question
Viron
answer
Complete virus. Composed of lipid envelope, genome, & a protein coat
question
Prion
answer
1. single misshaped protein
2. Causes neurodegenerative diseases such as Mad Cow
question
Virus
answer
1. acellular
2. obligate intracellular parasites [only way to reproduce is within another cell.
question
Algae
answer
1. most do not cause disease
2. all are eukaryotic
3. all autotrophic
4. most single cellular
question
Eukaryotic
answer
1. genome in nucleus
2. most heterotrophic
3. can be single or multicellular
4. some autotrophic [such as algae]
question
Bacteria
answer
1. all prokaryotic [single cell, no nucleus]
2. some autotrophic [photosynthesis]
3. most heterotrophic [ingest product of autotrophes
4. most do not cause disease
5. most have not been identified or grown
question
Types of infectious agents
answer
Viruses, viroid, prion, and some bacteria
question
antibiotics
answer
chemicals produced by bacteria and fungi that inhibit or kill other microbes
question
Quinine
answer
from tree bark was long used to treat malaria
question
Alexander Fleming
answer
discovered first antibiotic [Penicillin killed S. aureus]
question
Parasitology
answer
study of larger and more complex organisms
question
Griffith [1928]
answer
discovered live bacteria could acquire heritable traits from dead ones
- Streptococcus pnemonia: Avirulent = living, virulent = dead, heat killed virulent + avirulent = dead
- transformation through genetic recombination
question
Transformation
answer
form of genetic recombination
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question
Yersinia pestis Disease
answer
Bubonic plague
question
Yersinia pestis Causative agent
answer
Gram - rod bacteria
question
Yersinia pestis Mode of transmission
answer
Fleas on vertebrates
question
Reasons to study Microbiology
answer
1. Important to human health
2. Primary producers [decompose dead organisms/waste]
3. Genetic engineering
4. Food/food industry
question
3 reasons Microorganisms are useful in research
answer
1. Simple structure [single cell]
2. Large #'s [statistically reliable]
3. Reproduce quickly [20-40 min can be a generation].
question
Basic Funcitons of Organisms [6]
answer
1. Organization
2. Responsiveness
3. Growth & Differentiation
4. Reproduction
5. Movement
6. Metabolism & Excretion
question
Bioremediation
answer
microorganisms are genetically engineered to break down toxic materials
question
Polymers/molecules
answer
Carbs, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids
question
Why are bacteria everywhere on this planet?
answer
- metabolic capacity superior to any other form of life
- can titilize and inorganic or organic material as a source of energy.
question
pleamorphic
answer
can change form or shape
question
Cell
answer
lowest functional unit of life
ex. bacteria, plant & animal cell, human egg
question
Major groups of organisms include
answer
- bacteria
- viruses
- algae
- protozoa
- fungi
question
Levels of Organization
answer
Atom
molecule
organelles
cell
tissue
organs
organ systems
organism
question
bacterial characteristics/properties
answer
- all prokaryotic [single cell, no nucleus, but does have genome]
- some autotrophic [photosynthesis]
- most heterotrophic [eat product of autotroph or eat autotroph]
- most do not cause disease
- most have not been identified or grown
question
bacteria
answer
living, single cellular infectious agent
question
Virus properties/characteristics
answer
- acellular infectious agent
- consists of a genome [either DNA or RNA single or double stranded] and protein coat
- obligate intracellular parasites [only way to replicate is within another cell]
question
Viroid
answer
1. smaller than virul
2. RNA [Ribonucleic Acid] single strand
3. Infects plants [infectious agent]
question
Viron
answer
complete virus. Consists of lipid envelope, genome, and protein coat.
question
Algae
answer
- most do not cause disease
- all are eukaryotic
- most single cellular
- all are autotrophic
question
Protozoa
answer
- most single cell
- eukaryotic
- atleast 1 nucleus
- some cause disease
question
Eukaryotic
answer
- genome in nucleus
- most heterotrophic
- can be single or multicellular
- some autotrophic [such as algae]
question
Protozoa
answer
- single celled w/ atleast 1 nucleus
- some cause disease
- some eat bacteria through phagocytosis
question
Prion
answer
- single misshaped protein [causes other proteins to become misshapedn
- causes neurodegenerative diseases such as mad cow disease
question
Multicellular Animal Parasites
answer
- Eukaryotic
- Multi-cellular animal
- such as parasitic worms
question
Helminths
answer
parasitic flatworms and round worms
question
Arthropods role with microbes
answer
- [such as insects] serve in transmission of microbes
question
Hooke
answer
- [Mid 1600s] compound microscope
- named "cells"
question
Leeuwenhoek
answer
-[mid 1600s] developed 1st usable microscope
- observed living microorganisms.
question
spontaneous generation
answer
belief that microorganisms arose from nonliving things
question
Biogenesis
answer
- beleif that living organisms arise from preexisting life.
- lead to the cell theory
- was an alternate hypothesis
question
Germ Theory of Disease
answer
States that microorganisms (germs)can invade other organisms and cause disease
question
Pasteur
answer
-[mid 1800s] Father of Immunology
-1st rabies vaccine
question
Koch
answer
- [late 1800s]developed a technique for growing pure cultures [which lead to ability to treat diseases].
- came up with concept "1 organism = 1 disease"
- worked with anthrax and tuberculosis
question
Koch's Postulates
answer
1. The same causative agent must be found in all cases of the disease
2. The disease organism must be isolated in a pure culture.
3. This pure culture must cause disease in a healthy, susceptible animal.
4. The disease organism must be recovered from teh inoculated animal.
question
Acellular infectious agents
answer
Viroid, Viron, Virus, Prion
question
Koch's Postulates
answer
1. The same causative agent must be found in all cases of the disease
2. The disease organism must be isolated in a pure culture.
3. This pure culture must cause disease in a healthy, susceptible animal.
4. The disease organism must be recovered from teh inoculated animal.
question
Joseph Lister
answer
- [mid 1800s] developed aseptic techniques in surgery

- Hint Lister [Listerine]
question
Edward Jenner
answer
- [late 1700s] discovered cowpox prevented smallpox
- called Vaccine "vacca"
- would cut patient and place scabs from milk maids into would to prevent smallpox
question
vacca
answer
- latin for "cow"
- term Edward Jenner used for vaccine
question
Chemotherapy
answer
uses chemicals to treat an infectious agent [such as bacteria]
question
Virulent bacteria
answer
- kills target animal
- contains thick polysacharide coating
question
Modern Developments in Microbiology
answer
- Virology - study of viruses
- Bacteriology - study of bacteria
- Mycology - study of fungi
- Parasitology - study of protozoa and parasitic worms
- Genetis and Microbiology
question
Griffith
answer
[1928] discovered that live bacteria could acquire heritable traits from dead ones.
question
Prokaryot
answer
single cell, no nucleus
question
Prokaryote
answer
single cell, no nucleus [but does contain a genome]
question
Viroid
answer
1. smaller than a virus
2. Single stranded RNA [ribonucleic acid]
3. Infects plants [infectious agent]
question
Viron
answer
Complete virus. Composed of lipid envelope, genome, & a protein coat
question
Prion
answer
1. single misshaped protein
2. Causes neurodegenerative diseases such as Mad Cow
question
Virus
answer
1. acellular
2. obligate intracellular parasites [only way to reproduce is within another cell.
question
Algae
answer
1. most do not cause disease
2. all are eukaryotic
3. all autotrophic
4. most single cellular
question
Eukaryotic
answer
1. genome in nucleus
2. most heterotrophic
3. can be single or multicellular
4. some autotrophic [such as algae]
question
Bacteria
answer
1. all prokaryotic [single cell, no nucleus]
2. some autotrophic [photosynthesis]
3. most heterotrophic [ingest product of autotrophes
4. most do not cause disease
5. most have not been identified or grown
question
Types of infectious agents
answer
Viruses, viroid, prion, and some bacteria
question
antibiotics
answer
chemicals produced by bacteria and fungi that inhibit or kill other microbes
question
Quinine
answer
from tree bark was long used to treat malaria
question
Alexander Fleming
answer
discovered first antibiotic [Penicillin killed S. aureus]
question
Parasitology
answer
study of larger and more complex organisms
question
Griffith [1928]
answer
discovered live bacteria could acquire heritable traits from dead ones
- Streptococcus pnemonia: Avirulent = living, virulent = dead, heat killed virulent + avirulent = dead
- transformation through genetic recombination
question
Transformation
answer
form of genetic recombination