Laxatives – Flashcard

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bulk-forming laxatives site of action & MOA
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site of action: small intestine & colon MOA: absorb water; thereby softening and enlarging the fecal mass; fecal swelling promotes peristalsis
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surfactant laxatives site of action & MOA
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site of action: small intestine &colon MOA: softens stool by facilitating penetration of water; also causes secretion of water & electrolytes into intestine
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Stimulant laxatives site of action & MOA
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site of action: small intestine & colon MOA: stimulates peristalsis, softens feces by increasing secretion of water & electrolytes into the intestine & decreasing water & electrolyte absorption
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osmotic laxatives site of action & MOA
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site of action: small intestine & colon MOA: osmotic action retains water & thereby softens the feces; fecal swelling promotes peristalsis
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Osmotic laxative example
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Polyethylene Glycol (Miralax), lactulose
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Miralax Indication
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treatment of occasional constipation
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Miralax MOA
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promotes peristalsis
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Miralax S/E
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abdominal bloating, cramping, flatulence, nausea
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Miralax Nursing Implications
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assess pt for abdominal distention, presence of bowel sounds, and usual pattern of bowel function. Evaluate BM (color,consistency, & amount of stool produced)
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lactulose Indication
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treatment of chronic constipation
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lactulose MOA
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increase water content & softens stool
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lactulose S/E
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excessive or prolonged use (may lead to dependence), belching, cramps, distention, flatulence, diarrhea, hyperglycemia (diabetic pts)
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lactulose Nursing Implications
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assess pt for abdominal distention, bowel sounds, & normal pattern of bowel function. assess mental status before and periodically throughout course of therapy
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Stimulant laxatives
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Bisacodyl (Dulcolax)
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Dulcolax Indication
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treatment of constipation, evacuation of the bowel before radiologic studies or surgery. part of bowel regimen in spinal cord injury pts.
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Dulcolax MOA
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stimulates peristalsis. Alters fluid and electrolyte transport, producing fluid accumulation in the colon
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Dulcolax S/E
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abdominal cramps, N/D, rectal burning, hypokalemia (w/ chronic use)
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Dulcolax Nursing Implications
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assess pt for abdominal distention, bowel sounds and usual pattern of bowels. take on an empty stomach to produce more rapid response. do not administer PO w/i 1 hours of milk or antacids. increase fluids to at least 1500-2000 ml/day.
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Bulk forming agent
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pysllium (Metamucil)
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Metamucil Indication
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management of simple or chronic constipation, particularly if associated w/ a low fiber diet. * useful in situations in which straining should be avoided (post cardiac cath). Used in management of chronic watery diarrhea
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Metamucil MOA
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combines w/ water in the intestinal contents to form emollient gel or viscous solution that promotes peristalsis and reduces transit time
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Metamucil S/E
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bronchospasm, cramps, intestinal or esophageal obstruction, N/V
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Metamucil Nursing Implications
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assess pt for abdominal distension, bowel sounds and usual bowel function. May cause elevated BG

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