Key Terms from Chapter 2
Have Freudian concepts registered in your unconscious? Which Freudian concepts do the following events suggest?
1. A 4-year-old girl wants to snuggle on Daddy’s lap but refuses to kiss her mother.
2. A celibate priest writes poetry about sexual passion.
3. A man who is angry with his boss shouts at his kids for making noise.
4. A racist justifies segregation by saying that black men are only interested in sex with white women.
5. A 9-year-old boy who moves to a new city starts having tantrums.
Are you feeling defensive about answering this quiz?
1. An 8-year-old boy is hitting classmates and disobeying his teacher. Which of the following explanations of his behavior might come from a Freudian, Jungian, or object-relations analyst?
a. The boy is expressing his shadow archetype.
b. The boy is expressing the aggressive energy of the id and has not developed enough ego control.
c. The boy has had unusual difficulty separating from his mother and is compensating by behaving aggressively.
2. What criticism of all three of the preceding explanations might a psychological scientist make?
3. In the 1950s and 1960s, many psychoanalysts, observing unhappy gay men who had sought therapy, concluded that homosexuality was a mental illness. What violation of the scientific method were they committing?
2. All three explanations are nonfalsifiable; that is, there is no way to disconfirm them or confirm them. They are just subjective interpretations.
3. The analysts were drawing conclusions from patients in therapy and fail- ing to test these conclusions with gay men who were not in therapy or with heterosexuals. When such research was done using appropriate control groups, it turned out that gay men were not more mentally disturbed or depressed than heterosexuals (Hooker, 1957).
Show that you have the trait of conscientiousness by taking this quiz.
1. What is the advantage of inventories over projective tests in measuring personality?
2. Raymond Cattell advanced the study of personality by (a) developing case-study analysis, (b) using factor
analysis, (c) devising the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator.
3. Which of the following are not among the Big Five personality factors? (a) introversion, (b) agreeableness, (c) psychoticism, (d) openness to experience, (e) intelligence, (f) neuroticism, (g) conscientiousness.
4. Which one of the Big Five typically decreases by age 40? (a) agreeableness, (b) extroversion, (c) openness to experience, (d) neuroticism.
3. c, e
We hope you have a few quiz-taking genes.
1. What three broad lines of research support the hypothesis that personality differences are due in part to genetic differences?
2. In behavioral-genetic studies, the heritability of personality traits, including the Big Five, is typically about (a) .50, (b) .90, (c) .10 to .20, (d) zero.
3. Researchers announce that their study of identical twins has revealed a high heritability for divorce (McGue & Lykken, 1992). Given that our prehistoric ancestors hadn’t yet invented marriage, let alone divorce, what on earth could this finding mean?
3. There obviously cannot be a “divorce gene,” but perhaps personality factors with a heritable component, such as neuroticism and hostility, make it harder for a person to get along with a partner and thereby increase the likelihood of getting divorced (Rogge et al., 2006).
Do your peers take these quizzes? Does the answer determine whether you will?
1. What three lines of evidence have challenged the belief that parents are the major influence on their children’s personalities?
2. Which contributes most to the variation among siblings in their personality traits: (a) the unique experi- ences they have that are not shared with their families, (b) the family environment that all of them share, or (c) the way their parents treat them?
3. Eight-year-old Dwayne is pretty shy at home, where he is the middle of six children, but extroverted at school, where he is the leader of his friends. What might be the reason for his apparent personality change?
3. Peer groups have a powerful influence on which personality traits are encouraged and expressed, and peers can even override the child’s situation at home.
At the moment, you live in a culture that values the importance of quizzes.
1. Cultures whose members regard the “self” as a collection of stable personality traits are (individualist/ collectivist).
2. Which cultural practice tends to foster the traits of helpfulness and altruism? (a) Every family member “does his or her own thing,” (b) parents insist that children obey, (c) children contribute to the family welfare, (d) parents remind children often about the importance of being helpful.
3. Why, according to one theory, do men in the American South and West respond more aggressively to perceived insults than other American men do?
3. These men come from regions in which economies based on herding gave rise to cultures of honor, requiring males to be vigilant and aggressive toward potential threats.
Exercise free will, as a humanist would advise you to, by choosing to take this quiz.
1. According to Carl Rogers, a man who loves his wife only when she is looking her best is giving her _______________ positive regard.
2. The humanist who described the importance of having peak experiences was (a) Abraham Maslow, (b) Rollo May, (c) Carl Rogers.
3. A humanist and a Freudian psychoanalyst are arguing about human nature. What underlying assumptions about psychology and human potential are they likely to bring to their discussion? How can they resolve their differences without either-or thinking?
3. The Freudian assumes that human nature is basically selfish and destructive; the humanist assumes that it is basically loving and cooperative. They can resolve this either-or debate by recognizing that human beings have both capacities, and that the situation and culture often determine which capacity is expressed at a given time.