Beginning with a Job Characteristic analysis, the links between Job characteristics, psychological states and work outcomes are highlighted and analyses to measure the level of motivation resulted from this relationship. What are the key factors that consultants consider when evaluating the level of effort that he or she will apply to a particular task, based on the perception of the value of the work outcomes. The final section consists in a set of recommendations based on the highlighted key findings from the analysis section, aiming to suggest some actions to improve the insulates’ motivation.
Content Page 1 Introduction 3 2 Motivation Analysis 5 2. 1 Analysis of the Job Design 5 2. 2 The Consultants’ Perception of Motivation 3 Recommendations 12 4 Appendices 13 4. 1 References 13 9 TIC is a consultancy company with delivers Information of Technology (IT) solutions to its clients and partners through experienced consultants. Mullions (2002) suggests that motivation is as a: “… Driving force within the individuals by which they attempt to achieve some need or expectation. ” To better understand the factors that increase the consultants motivation, TIC has plopped a motivation approach witch is described in Figure 1 .
Figure 1: It’s Motivation approach Rich Picture Key observations from Figure 1 : External factors that influence on the evaluation of the outcomes. Implicit and Explicit feedbacks to consultants. Consultant Performance Kips. Manager influence over the consultant motivation. The focus of this report is to analyses the motivation at TIC using the Job Characteristics Model (Hickman and Lolled, 1980) to understand how Job characteristics and work outcomes influence consultants’ team (including the line anger) motivation, and the Expectancy Theory (Broom, 1964) to understand the different perceptions that motivate each member of the team.
Recommendations Summary: 1 . Balance the percentage of bonus related to team work with the chargeable time to increase the teamwork 2. Market research to identify what are “Interesting Projects” to the consultants’ 3. Clarify the responsibilities of the tasks and how they are related to the team’s performance and company’s objectives. 4. Implement a knowledge base system and investment in training 5. Career plan based on level of seniority of the insulates and the possibility to be transferred to another area.
This first section aims to highlight the key factors that impact the consultants’ team motivation. An interview with two consultants and their line manager was used to 2. 1 Analysis of the Job Design In order the better understand the consultant and manager Job characteristics, and how they generate intrinsic motivation, this analysis uses the Job Characteristics Model (Hickman and Lolled, 1980) highlighting the following main objectives: Understand the relationship between the team’s Job characteristics and their psychological states.
Identify if the relationship between the team’s psychological states and the work outcomes is generating internal motivation. Highlight the key findings with should be considered on a Job redesign. Figure 2: The Job Characteristics Model (Hickman and Lolled – 1980) The analysis of the core Job dimensions aims to show how the workers see their Job characteristics. To measure this perception an interview with two consultants and their line manager was conducted, aiming to gain quantitative data to understand the level of motivation generated and what are the main ideas related to each core bob dimension.
The following core Job dimensions will be considered for this analysis: Skill variety – What skills the Job requires. Task identity – How my Job requires a completion of a whole and identifiable piece of work. Autonomy – Level of responsibility for my work and decisions. Feedback – Information about the Job performance. Table 1 represents the rate of each Core Job Dimension gave by the consultants and the manager, using a scale of 1 (low) to 5 (high). Core Job Dimension Consultant 1 Consultant 2 Line Manager Skill variety 4 3 Task identity Task Significance 2 Autonomy Feedback
Table 1 : Core Job dimensions scoring results- adapted from the Job Characteristics Model (Hickman and Lolled, 1980) The main findings from Table 1 are: The good scores for skill variety and task identity represent that both the consultants and the line manager consider that their Job requires a variety of skills and involves the completion of an entire piece of work. As they see that their Job doesn’t affect other people. Both consultants and line manager feel that they have responsibility over their work.
Another dimension that should be revised by a Job redesign is the feedback for the insulates, as they don’t feel that have enough information about their Job. Table 2 highlights the main Job characteristics perceptions reported by the consultants and the line manager about their roles. Consultants Knowledge in different technology fields (development, infrastructure, databases, … ). Reporting (for client/customers and partners). Communication skills (mainly when I’m at the client site). Coaching / Mentoring team members.
Resource Management – to manage the consultants’ allocation. Project Management as most of the services are provided as a project. Task identity Use of the concept of Work Packages’ is applied to identify a meaningful and measurable piece of work. Timeshare and expenses reports as inputs for Resource Management. My Job requires the project management from the beginning to the end. The outcomes of my tasks have impact on the project deliverables My work affects the performance of the system end user (consumer) but I can’t understand how it affects my company’s team and objectives.
My Job has impact on how consultants do their work but low decision on their allocation, as it depends on the sales team to sell the services. Autonomy I’m responsible for the decisions about the work to complete my tasks. I’m allowed to decide how to do my work. I’m responsible for my decisions about the deliverables from my team and myself. I Just have information about my chargeable time, witch is considered on my annual appraisal, but I don’t have a feedback about how well I’m performing my work.
I have good sources of information about my work, as I work directly with the board of directors, owners and customers/clients. Table 2: Core Job dimensions – Job Characteristics Model (Hickman and Lolled, Key findings from Table 2: As most of the time consultants work outside the company and the project deliverables aim to satisfy customers/clients, it’s difficult for them to understand how their work affects their internal team and the company’s objectives. Consultants only have feedback about their chargeable time, but not about how they are performing their work.
Linking the core Job dimensions with the psychological states we have the following results: Meaningfulness of work (linking with skill variety, task identity and task significance) – apart from the lack of teamwork and task relationship with company’s objective, insulates and line manager can see the value and meaningfulness of their Jobs. Experienced responsibility (linking with autonomy) – Consultants and line manager feel that they have high responsibility for the outcomes from their work.
Knowledge of results (linking with feedback) – The line manager feels that he has good feedback, but the consultants doesn’t have enough information to tell them how good or bad they are performing their Jobs. Key Findings: 1 . Consultants don’t have good feedback about their work. 2. Consultants see their work as a benefit for customers/clients, but not for their internal team and company. Understand how a team member chooses to invest his effort to the tasks. For example, why a consultant should make an effort to be allocated on a project if he has a fixed monthly salary?
By observing the It’s reward system he is aware that his bonus is related to his chargeable time, what motivates him to be allocated on a project. Figure 3: Expectancy theory adapted from Broom (1964). The data gained from the team was mapped considering the three key elements from this model. With this categorization is easier to understand the links between the effort to performance and performance to rewards, and the value of the rewards to the consultants. Based on Figure 3 the following key elements were mapped based on the information obtained from two consultants and their line manager.
Key Elements Expectancy The concept of Work Packages’ used by TIC allows me to have a good picture of the necessary effort and time. Focus on skills development to have better chance to be allocated on projects. My activities are aligned with my Job description. All the tasks allocated to me are aligned with my skills, so I never felt that the work couldn’t be done. TIC provides me the necessary resources (laptop, travel expenses, … ) to complete my tasks. Well-defined deliverables resulting from the company project methodology gives me a good picture of the amount of work that must be done.
Instrumentality Chargeable Time is the most important bonus. Team Bonus is not very clear. The organization flat hierarchy difficult the promotion. Bonus based on chargeable hours outside of the consultant’s control. There’s no clear Reward System well defined and Difficulties to have a promotion on a flat hierarchy Training and coaching rather than monetary rewards Reward system based on a subjective point of view of the concept of motivation by the board of directors Valence Skills development resulting from project experiences and management mentoring have been adding value to my professional career.
Skills improvement as a valuable outcome from frequent projects dealing with high end technology Salary package in line with is offered across the industry Skills learnt from the Job are high valuable. Table 5: Adapted from Broom (1964) Analyzing Table 5 in a general way is possible to highlight that TIC has a well-defined reward system and a good work methodology with help consultants to have a clear understanding of the necessary effort to do the work and what are the outcomes from the consultant performance .
Looking at the reward system it’s clear that the perception is that the individual performance is the most important of bonus variables. This is because it’s calculated using: Chargeable Working Days (75% of variable salary) Team Working (10% of variable salary) Revenue Objective (1 5% of variable salary) The intrinsic rewards resulting from coaching and training are considered as a valuable outcome both by the consultants, witch improve their skills and fell purported by the management, and by the line manager, who can develop coaching skills with sometimes come from trainings.
As TIC has a flat organizational structure, witch is viewed by the consultants as a difficulty to achieve better positions at the company, witch consequently impact their career development. Another intrinsic reward is the satisfaction and learning from what the company calls “interesting projects”, witch are projects where the consultant is being in contact with the latest technologies and usually results in important learning that are valuable for the consultant career. 1 . Well-defined reward system and work methodology. 2.
It’s Reward System motivates individual performance, but doesn’t encourage team performance. 3. Coaching and training are seen as valuable outcomes. 4. The organizational flat hierarchy represents a difficult path to promotion. 5. Skills improvements as a valuable outcome from “interesting projects”. 3 Recommendations Based on the key findings highlighted on the analysis of Job Definition and Consultant Perception of Motivation, this section aims to deliver some recommendations to increase the motivation for It’s consultants’ team and their line manager.
Balance the percentage of bonus related to team work with the chargeable time to increase the teamwork. For example, change the actual bonus calculation values (75% Chargeable time, 10% Team Work and 15% revenue objectives) to: 50% Chargeable Time 35% -ream work 15% Revenue Objectives. Market research to identify what are “Interesting Projects” to the consultants’ career in order to generate intrinsic rewards. Also an internal survey could help to identify what are the intrinsic rewards from projects that are considered valuable by the consultants.
Clarify the responsibilities of the tasks and how they are related to the team’s performance and company’s objectives. Implement a knowledge base system (for self learning) and investment in training, as their outcomes are seen as valuable by the team. Career plan based on level of seniority of the consultants and the possibility to be transferred to another area. For example, TIC can increase the number of the level of developer from three Minor, mid level and senior) to six Minor 1, Junior 2, mid level 1 … ) and at certain level (I. E. Mid level 2) open the opportunity to be promoted to technical business analyst.