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Integrated Marketing Communications Chapter 5

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Communication
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Is the passing of information, the exchange of ideas, or the process of establishing a commonness or oneness of thought between a sender and a receiver
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What is Needed for Communication to Occur
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There must be some common thinking between two parties and information must be passed from one person to another (or from one group to another)
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Components of Communication Model
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Sender Receiver Message Channel Encoding Decoding Response Feedback Noise
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Sender (source)
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Is the person or organization that has information to share with another person or group of people
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When does the Communication Process Begin?
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When the source selects words, symbols, pictures, and the like to represent the message that will be delivered to the receivers
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Encoding
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Involves putting thoughts, ideas, or information into a symbolic form
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Forms of Encoding
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Verbal Graphic Musical Animation
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Message
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Contains the information or meaning the source hopes to convey May be verbal or nonverbal, oral or written, or symbolic Must be put into a transmittable form that is appropriate for the channel of communication being used
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What Determines the Communication Effectiveness?
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The impression or image the ad creates
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Message Development
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Content Structure Design
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Content
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Refers to the information and/or meaning contained in the message
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Structure and Design
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Refers to the way the message is put together in order to deliver the informration or intended meaning
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Channel
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Is the method by which the communication travels from the sender to the receiver
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Channels of Communication Types
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Personal channels Non-personal channels
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Personal Channels
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Are direct interpersonal (face-to-face) contact with target individuals or groups Word-of-mouth Personal selling
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Buzz Marketing
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Positive word-of-mouth Also known as consumer-generated marketing and viral marketing Viral buzz Web communities
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Viral Buzz
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Companies spreading the word about their brands by using the Internet and social networks
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Web Communities
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Customers can chat about their experiences with a company’s product online with other customers
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Non-Personal Channels
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Carry a message without interpersonal contact between sender and receiver Are generally referred to as the mass media or mass communications
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Mass Media
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Sending a message to as many individuals as possible at one time
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Non-Personal Channels Types
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Print media Broadcast media
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Print Media
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Newspapers Magazines Direct mail Billboards
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Broadcast Media
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Radio Television
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Receiver
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Is the person with whom the sender shares thoughts or information Are the consumers in the target market or audience who read, hear, and/or see the marketer’s message and decode it
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Decoding
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Is the process of transforming the sender’s message back into thought
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What Influences Decoding?
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The receiver’s frame of reference or field of experience
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Field of Experience
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Refers to the receiver’s experiences, perceptions, attitudes, and values he or she brings to the communication situation
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Field of Experience Overlap
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When sender and receiver field of experiences don’t overlap they are different worlds When sender and receiver field of experiences somewhat overlap they have moderate commonality When sender and receiver field of experiences overlap they have high commonality
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Factor that can lead to Problems in Establishing Common Ground Between Senders and Receivers
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Age
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Noise
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The unplanned distortion or interference with the reception of a message Noise may also occur because the field of experience of the sender and receiver don’t overlap
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Response
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Is the receiver’s set of reactions after seeing, hearing, or reading the message
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Response Types
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Non-observable actions such as storing information in memory Immediate action such as dialing a toll-free number to order a product advertised on television
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Feedback
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Is the part of the receiver’s response that is communicated back to the sender Closes the loop in the communications flow and lets the sender monitor how the intended message is being decoded and received
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Receiving Feedback
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A salesperson has the advantage of receiving instant feedback through the customer’s reactions Mass media does not receive instant feedback because advertisers are not in direct contact with the customers
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Successful Communication is Accomplished When
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Marketer selects an appropriate source Develops an effective message that is encoded properly Selects appropriate channel or media for target audience Receives feedback
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Identifying the Target Audience
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Individual and group audiences Niche markets Market segments Mass markets and audiences
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Individual and Group Audiences
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Individuals have specific needs and for whom the communication must be specifically tailored This often requires person-to-person communication and is generally accomplished through personal selling Marketers must often communicate with a group of people who make or influence the purchase
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Niche Markets
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Are very small, well-defined groups of customers They can usually be reached through personal-selling efforts or highly targeted media such as direct mail
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Market segments
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Are broader classes of buyers who have similar needs and can be reached with similar messages Marketers use broader-based media such as newspapers, magazines and TV to reach them
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Mass Markets and Audiences
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Marketers of most consumer products attempt to attract the attention of large number of present or potential customers through mass communication such as advertising and publicity
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Mass Communication
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Is a one-way flow of information from the marketer to the consumer Feedback on the audience’s reactions to the message is generally indirect and difficult to measure
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Response Models
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Views the consumer as passing through cognitive, affective, and behavioral stages
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Cognitive Stage
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Represents what the receiver knows or perceives about the particular product or brand This stage includes awareness that the brand exists and knowledge, information or comprehension about its attributes, characteristics, or benefits
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Affective Stage
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Refers to the receiver’s feelings or affect level (like or dislike) for the particular brand This stage also includes stronger levels of affect such as desire, preference, or conviction
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Behavioral Stage
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Refers to the consumer’s action toward the brand, including trial, purchase, adoption, or rejection
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Models of the Response Process
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AIDA model Hierarchy of effects model Innovation adoption model Information processing model
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AIDA Model
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Was developed to represent the stages a salesperson must take a customer through in the personal-selling process
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AIDA Model Steps
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Attention Interest Desire Action
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AIDA Model Example
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The salesperson must first get the customer’s attention and then arouse some interest in the company’s product or service, strong levels of interest should create desire to own or use the product, and the action involves getting the customer to make a purchase commitment and closing the sale
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Hierarchy of Effects Model
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Shows the process by which advertising works , it assumes a consumer passes through a series of steps in sequential order from initial awareness of a product or service to actual purchase
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Hierarchy of Effects Model Steps
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Awareness Knowledge Liking Preference Conviction Purchase
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Hierarchy of Effects Model Premise
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Is that advertising effects occur over a period of time Advertising communication may not lead to immediate behavioral response or purchase, rather, a series of effects must occur, with each step fulfilled before the consumer can move to the next stage in the hierarchy
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Innovation Adoption Model
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Evolved from work on the diffusion of innovations Represents the stages a consumer passes through in adopting a new product or service Useful for companies introducing new products to the market
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Innovation Adoption Model Steps
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Awareness Interest Evaluation Trial Adoption
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Information Processing Model
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Assumes the receiver in a persuasive communication situation like advertising is an information processor or problem solver
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Information Processing Model Steps
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Presentation Attention Comprehension Yielding Retention Behavior
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Retention
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Is the receiver’s ability to retain that portion of the comprehend information that he or she accepts as valid or relevant
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Cognitive Response Approach
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Is a method for examining consumers’ cognitive processing of advertising messages by looking at their cognitive responses to hearing, viewing, or reading communications
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Cognitive Responses
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Are the thoughts that occur to consumers while reading, viewing, and/or hearing a communication Examines thoughts that are evoked by an advertising message
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How are Cognitive Responses Measured?
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By having consumers write down or verbally report their reactions to a message
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Cognitive Response Categories
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Product/message thoughts Source-oriented thoughts Ad execution thoughts
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Product/Message Thoughts
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Thoughts directed at the product or service and/or the claims being made in the communication Counterarguments Support arguments
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Counterarguments
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Are thoughts the recipient has that are opposed to the position taken in the message
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Support Arguments
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Are thoughts that affirm the claims made in the message
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Source-Oriented Thoughts
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Thoughts directed at the source of the communication Source derogations Source bolsters
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Source Derogations
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Are negative thoughts about the spokesperson or organization making the claims
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Source Bolsters
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Receivers who react favorably to the source generate favorable thoughts
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Ad Execution Thoughts
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The individual’s thoughts about the ad itself Affect attitude toward the ad Ad execution related thoughts Attitude toward the ad
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Ad Execution-Related Thoughts
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Include reactions to the creativity of the ad, the quality of the visual effects, colors and voice tones Can be either favorable or unfavorable
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Attitude Toward the Ad
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Represents the receivers’ feelings of favorability or unfavorability toward the ad
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Elaboration Likelihood Model
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Focuses on the way consumers respond to persuasive messages, based on the amount and nature of elaboration or processing of information
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Amount of Elaboration
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High elaboration means the receiver engages in careful consideration, thinking and evaluations of the information or arguments contained in the message Low elaboration occurs when the receiver does not engage in active information processing or thinking but rather makes inferences about the position being advocated in the message on the basis of simple positive or negative cues
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Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM) Routes
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Central route to persuasion Peripheral route to persuasion
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Central Route to Persuasion
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Ability and motivation to process a message is high and close attention is paid to message content
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Peripheral Route to Persuasion
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Ability and motivation to process a message is low; receiver focuses more on peripheral cues than on message content
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The elaboration likelihood model (ELM) proposed two routes to persuasion, the central route and the peripheral route. With the peripheral route:
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The message is more likely to be received if a celebrity endorser is used
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Celebrity Endorsers
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Celebrity endorsers can be peripheral cues
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Marketers of Low-Involvement Products
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Rely on creative tactics that emphasize peripheral cues and use repetitive advertising to create and maintain favorable attitudes toward their brand
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Effects Between Advertising and Purchase
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Cognition Affect Experience
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Cognition
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Is the thinking dimension of a person’s response
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Affect
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Is the feeling dimension
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Experience
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Is a feedback dimension based on the outcomes of product purchasing and usage