Human Sexuality Chapter 9
Within Judeo-Christian tradition, masturbation has been condemned as sinful. Masturbation was prohibited under Jewish law.
Sex therapist has used masturbation as a treatment for individuals with low sexual desire and for women who have difficulty reaching orgasm. Feelings of guilt can lower the incidence and frequency of masturbation.
Most men use:
not sex-shop devices
-Most women masturbate by massaging the mons, labia minora and clitoral region with a circular or back and forth motions.
-Women typically achieve clitoral stimulation by rubbing or stroking the clitoral shaft or pulling or tugging on the vaginal lips.
-They may also massage other areas such as breast or nipples
-Many women like to fantasize during masturbation.
-Many women masturbate during baths, some spray their genitals with water jets.
Kinsey found that only 1 in 5 women inserted objects into the vagina during masturbation. Some women reported erotic pleasure from deep vaginal penetration.
– Communication is the most important ” sexual” technique.
Forms of non coital sex:
Kissing, genital touching and oral-genital contact may also be experienced as ends in themselves, not as preludes to sex.
Masters and Johnson noted sex differences with the respect to preferences in foreplay
*Men typically prefer direct stroking of their genitals by their partner early in lovemaking
*Women prefer their partners to caress their genitals after a period of general body contact that includes holding, hugging and non-genital massage.
*Men tend to be more genitally oriented than women
*Women are more likely to view sex within a broader framework of affection and love.
-Kissing may also be an affectionate gesture without erotic significance, as in kissing someone good-night.
-Some people kiss relatives or close friends on the lips
-Others limit kissing relatives on the cheek
-Sustained kissing on the lips and deep kissing are almost always erotic gestures.
-Other parts of the body that are often kissed are:
**hands, feet, neck earlobes, insides of thighs and the genitals themselves.**
-Kinsey found that 9 of 10 husbands kiss their wives breast. Women usually prefer several minutes of body contact and caressing before desiring tho have their partners kiss their breast, or suck or lick their nipples. They do not prefer sucking until highly aroused. They are afraid to tell their partner that sucking hurts because they do not want to disrupt their pleasure.
-Touching is a common form of foreplay. Men and women generally prefer manual or oral stimulation of the genitals as a prelude to sex. Women prefer that caressing of the genitals be focused around the clitoris but not directly on the extremely sensitive clitoral glans.
The penis may also be gently rolled back and forth between the palms as if one were making a ball of clay into a sausage-increasing pressure as arousal progresses.
-If a finger is to be inserted into the vagina, it should be clean. Fingernails should be well trimmed. Inserting finger that have been in the anus into the vagina is dangerous.
** Fingers may transfer microbes from the woman’s digestive tract, where they do no harm, to the woman’s reproductive tract, where they can cause serious infection.**
-Fisting is more common among male-male than make-female couples and carries the risk of infection or injury to the rectum or anus.
-A survey of 75 gay men in Australia found that fisting was usually done with gloves, although fingering was not.
-Nipples are erotically sensitive in both sexes.
-Most women enjoy stimulation of the breast.
-Hands and mouth can be used to stimulate the breast and nipples, desired intensity of stimulation of the breast varies from person to person, partners need to communicate their preferences.
Gay men engage in sexual activities such as:
Masters and Johnson found that gay men spent a good deal of the time caressing their partner’s bodies before approaching the genitals. After hugging and kissing, 31 or 42 gay male couples used oral or manual nipple stimulation.
-manual or oral stimulation of breast
-manual or oral stimulation of genitals
**The emotional components of lovemaking -gentle touching, cuddling, and hugging -are important elements of sexual sharing in lesbian relationships.**
Manual genital stimulation is the most common and frequent activity among lesbian couples. Most lesbian couple engage in genital apposition. (positioning themselves so their genitals rub together)
-They spend a good deal of time holding, kissing and caressing before approaching the breast or genitals.
-Lesbians are less genitally oriented and less fixated on orgasm than men.
**Heterosexual males tend to move quickly to stimulate their partners’ breast or start directly with genital stimulation.**
Female – Cunnilingus
Oral-genital stimulation has increased dramatically since Kinsey’s day especially among young married couples. 60% of college-educated couples
-3 out of 4 men or 77% had an active part
-2 out of 3 women or 68% had an active part
-4 out of 5 men or 79% were recipients
-3 out of 4 or 73% were recipients
80% of men & 71% of women performed oral sex
80% of men & 74% of women received oral sex
Oral sex is the norm for today’s young couples. The majority of young couples report participating in this form of sexual expression. In Kinseys sample of young European American Women (ages 18-36) only half of reported engaging in oral sex.
Swallowing semen is not harmful to ones health unless the man has an infection that can be transferred via semen. Oral contact with an infected partner, even without semen, can transmit harmful organisms.
-Some people gag
-Relaxing throat muscles would help
-education may encourage experimentation
-education dispels myths
-African American are less likely to have oral sex and to masturbate. They may adhere to strictly to traditional ideas as to what kinds of sexual behavior are and are not proper.
-African Americans in other surveys are also less likely than European American to have performed or received oral sex.
– The 69 position has the psychologically positive feature of allowing couple to experience simultaneous stimulation. but it can be awkward if two people are not similar in size.
-Some couples avoid 69 because it deprives each partner of the opportunity to focus fully on receiving or providing sexual pleasure.
-Some people do not care for the taste of semen or find it repulsive.
** Semen tastes salty and a similar texture of egg whites. It is impossible to get pregnant by swallowing semen. It is not fattening (it has about 5 calories)
-In addition to varying positions, couples also vary the depth and rate of thrusting and additional sexual stimulation.
-In this position the partners face one another. The man lies above the woman, perhaps supporting himself on his hands and knees rather than applying his full weight against his partner. Movement is is easier for the man than the woman, which suggest that he is responsible for directing their activity.
– The woman most times will guide the penis into the vagina. The woman needs to be comfortable enough to “take charge” during lovemaking.
** Advantage of this position is that the couple is able to be face each other so that kissing is easier. The woman is able to stroke her partner, but this position makes it difficult for the man to caress his partner while supporting himself with his hands.
-This position can be highly stimulation to the man, which can make it difficult for him delay ejaculation.
-This position limits the opportunity for the woman to control the angle, rate, and depth of penetration.
– It may be hard for her to receive the stimulation in order to have an orgasm.
** This position is not advisable during late stages of pregnancy. At that time the woman’s distended abdomen would force the man to arch severely above her, lest he place undue pressure on her abdomen.**
**In this position the woman is psychologically, and to some degree physically in charge. **
-kissing is easy
-This position facilitates orgasm in the woman.
-It is less stimulating for the male so it may delay ejaculation
**This position is commonly used by couples who are learning to overcome sexual difficulties.**
-This position has the advantages of allowing each partner relatively free movement and easy access to each other.
-They can kiss freely
-Stroke each other with their free arm
-This position is not physically taxing, because both partners are resting easily on the bedding.
-This is an excellent position for prolonged sex or for couples when they are tired.
-Inserting the penis into the vagina while lying on your side may be awkward
-Both partners have an arm beneath them that might fall asleep or become numb.
-Women may not receive enough clitoral stimulation from the penis in this position.
-It may be difficult to achieve deeper penetration of the penis.
** It is useful during pregnancy (at least during the final stages**
-This position may be highly stimulating to both partners
-This is the position that mammals use to mate. They is why it is called “doggy style”. This may make some couples uncomfortable.
-It is impersonal, which may create a sense of emotional distance.
-The man is very much in charge in this position
-The penis doesn’t adequately stimulate the clitoris
-The penis tends to pop out of the vagina in this position
-Air tends to enter the vagina during sex in this position, which could result in an embarrassing sound.
**This is also the major act that comes under the legal definition of sodomy.**
-The rectum doesn’t produce any lubrication so couples are advised to use K-Y jelly.
-People often want a finger in the anus at the height of passion or at the moment of orgasm. A finger in the rectum can heighten sexual sensation because the sphincters contract during orgasm.
-Many couples are repulsed by the idea of anal intercourse. They view it as unnatural,immoral, or risky.
** The NHSLS found that 1 out of 4 men (26%) and 1 out 5 (20%) reported having engaged in anal sex at sometime. Only 1in 10 (10% men and 9% women) had engaged in anal sex with in the past year.
-Highly educated people participated in anal sex
Education seems to be the liberating influence in sexual experimentation.
-Religion is a restraint on anal sex (34% men and 36% women that had anal sex didn’t have any religion)
**Fear of diseases: HIV/AIDS, gonorrhea, syphilis, and hepatitis**
** Cells in the rectum are very susceptible to infection by some microorganisms, small tears in the rectal tissue could allow other microbes to enter the blood system. If both partners are STI free there is no risk of contracting STIs.**
The incidences of anal sex have declined because of HIV, but now that the HAART – Highly Active
antiretroviral Therapy- is prolonging lives with HIV many gay males are not using condoms again. (usually this happens after drinking and when the partner is a stranger.)
-Sexual fantasies may be experience without sexual behavior, as in erotic daydreams.
– People who fantasize about sex a less likely to have enjoyable sex lives.
-One study showed that 98% of men and 80% of women reported sexual fantasies about someone other than their partner. Women are more likely to fantasize about a prior sex partner because of they have less of a need to stray from familiar relationships.
Researchers use the frequency and variety of sexual fantasies as one measure of sex drive. The sex drive and frequency of sexual fantasies- is related to testosterone levels in both the male and females.
Themes of fantasies during sex: making love to a different partner, group sex, orgies, images of past lovers or special erotic experience, and making love in fantastic and wonderful places.