Human Growth Chapter 4-6

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b
answer

61. Which of the following was NOT one of the six arousal states identified in newborns by Peter Wolff? a. crying b. thinking c. regular sleep d. irregular sleep
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b
answer

62. The type of malnutrition that is caused by an insufficient total quantity of food and in which muscles waste away and stored fat is depleted is: a. anemia b. marasmus c. kwashiorkor d. stunting
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b
answer

63. The basic units of meaning in a language are referred to as: a. semantics b. morphemes c. syntax d. phonemes
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b
answer

64. At about what age do most children learn to use the \”pincer grasp,\” which allows them to use their thumb and forefinger to \”pinch\” a small object to pick it up? a. 6 months of age b. 12 months of age c. 18 months of age d. 24 months of age
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b
answer

65. A researcher studies whether infants remember objects by observing their facial expressions and measuring changes in their breathing and heartbeat when a ball appears and disappears. What research paradigm is the researcher using? a. novelty paradigm b. surprise paradigm c. classical conditioning paradigm d. instrumental conditioning paradigm
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b
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66. Which of the following abilities is the newborn infant capable of performing as early as the first week of life? a. making most of the sounds of the language in which he or she has heard prenatally b. distinguishing the smell of his or her mother from that of other women c. being able to grasp small objects by using the thumb and forefinger d. being able to see through closed eyelids how objects move about in this \”dim\” environment
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b
answer

67. When a child produces a single word, such as bottle, it may mean a variety of things, such as \”I want the bottle\” or \”there’s the bottle\” or \”I like the bottle.\” This type of usage is referred to as: a. an adaptation b. holophrastic speech c. an overextension d. telegraphic speech
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c
answer

68. Jake suffered a head injury at the age of 2. In spite of his injury, Jake was able to recover most of the abilities that he had before the injury. Which of the following terms is most directly related to Jake’s ability to regain these lost functions? a. the brain growth spurt b. neural pruning c. brain plasticity d. habituation training
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c
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69. Suppose you see a grandparent at the toy store buying a set of 5 \”stacking\” blocks, a box of large-size crayons, and a toy telephone. Based on this selection of toys, your best guess is that the child these toys are intended for is about how old? a. age 6 months b. age 12 months c. age 18 months d. age 24 months
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c
answer

70. Suppose you observe a researcher interacting with an infant by shaking a rattle while the baby is watching, and then placing the rattle underneath a pillow. The researcher then records whether or not the baby can find the rattle under the pillow. The concept this researcher is studying is most likely: a. assimilation b. accommodation c. object permanence d. deferred imitation
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c
answer

71. In adulthood, a typical person’s head is about one-tenth of the person’s total body length. At age 4 months, the head is about _________ of the 4-month-old’s total body length. a. one-half b. one-third c. one-fourth d. one-sixth
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d
answer

72. Kwashiorkor results when a person’s diet contains too little: a. vitamin A b. calcium c. vitamin D d. protein
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d
answer

73. The basic sounds in a language are referred to as: a. semantics b. morphemes c. syntax d. phonemes
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c
answer

74. In contrast to how scientists working in earlier decades have conceptualized the neonatal period, scientists today understand that: a. how the infant \”attaches\” to its primary caregiver is of limited significance b. there is much more stress involved in the birth process than previously thought c. newborns are much more capable than had previously been thought d. newborn behaviors are controlled to a much greater degree by genetics than was previously thought
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a
answer

75. Which of the following activities would an 8-month-old be LEAST likely to be able to do? a. pick up a quarter with one hand b. point at a nearby object c. pick up a stuffed toy d. clap two hands together
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a
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76. Suppose you visit a child development laboratory and observe a researcher working with an 8-month-old baby. The baby is sitting on top of a piece of Plexiglas, which rests partly over a table top and then extends out over the end of the table. The apparatus being used in this experiment is typically called a: a. visual cliff b. binocular challenge c. visually guided grid d. perceptual challenge map
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b
answer

77. When a child produces a single word, such as bottle, it may mean a variety of things, such as \”I want the bottle\” or \”there’s the bottle\” or \”I like the bottle.\” This type of usage is referred to as: a. an adaptation b. holophrastic speech c. an overextension d. telegraphic speech
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d
answer

78. Frank argues that early experiences are very important because these \”early lessons\” shape the way the brain develops. Frank’s view that experience influences brain development is the central idea behind the concept of: a. synaptic transmission b. neuromodulation c. habituation d. brain plasticity
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a
answer

79. Suppose you show a newborn infant four photographs, one of his mother smiling, one of his mother making a fearful face, one of a stranger smiling, and one of a stranger making a fearful face. Which photograph should you expect the newborn to look at for the longest time? a. the smiling mother b. the fearful mother c. the smiling stranger d. the fearful stranger
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d
answer

80. When 16-month-old Simon was visiting his relatives, he observed his older cousin stomp his foot to the beat of music, something Simon had never seen before. The next day, when Simon heard music on the radio, he stomped his foot to the beat. Simon’s \”foot stomping\” behavior would best be considered an example of: a. object permanence b. mirror imaging c. symbolic representation d. deferred imitation
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a
answer

81. According to Erik Erikson, which of the following is the first critical developmental issue that is resolved in the first year of life? a. trust versus mistrust b. attachment versus misalignment c. autonomy versus shame and doubt d. oral fixation versus anal fixation
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b
answer

82. Emotional signals, usually from a child’s parents, that influence the child’s behavior are referred to as: a. social adaptation cues b. social referencing c. synchrony d. scaffolding
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a
answer

83. According to research presented in the text, younger fathers are more likely to behave like ____________ when they play with their children whereas older fathers are more likely to behave like ___________. a. traditional fathers; traditional mothers b. traditional mothers; traditional fathers c. traditional fathers; grandfathers d. older brothers; grandfathers
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c
answer

84. According to research presented in the text, which of the following ages is correctly paired with the developmental milestone associated with it? a. birth to 3 months: falling in love b. by 5 months: becoming calm, attentive, and interested in the world c. by 9 months: becoming a two-way communicator d. by 48 months: solving problems and forming an organized sense of self
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c
answer

85. According to the results of Mary Ainsworth’s studies, about what percent of children raised in the United States experience insecure attachment relationships with their caregivers? a. 5-10% b. 10-20% c. 30-40% d. 50-60%
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c
answer

86. According to the text, when a second child is born, parents can best help the older child adjust successfully by: a. not allowing the older child to interact much with the baby, \”pretending\” she doesn’t exist b. encouraging the older child to spend as much time as possible with the new baby, \”pretending\” to be his mother or father c. setting aside some time to be with only the older child, giving her all of their attention d. seldom allowing the older child time to be alone with the parents, so that she understands that the baby is a permanent member of the family
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c
answer

87. Which of the following patterns of parental discipline will be most likely to lead to a positive resolution of conflict between developing autonomy versus shame and doubt? a. discipline that is involves many limits on the child’s behavior b. discipline that places few limits on the child’s behavior c. discipline that places an intermediate amount of limits on the child’s behavior d. There is no clear and consistent relationship between parental discipline practices and the development of autonomy.
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c
answer

88. Dr. Barnes decides to offer a course that will examine the patterns of how humans interact with others, focusing on issues related to an individual’s characteristic beliefs and attitudes. Which of the following would be the most appropriate title for this course? a. Temperament b. Attachment c. Personality d. Individual Differences
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d
answer

89. Baby Chuck is picked up by a stranger. He immediately looks at his mother’s face, and judges his reaction based on whether she expresses pleasure or concern. Chuck’s reliance on cues from his mother in forming his own reaction is best considered an example of: a. stranger anxiety b. separation anxiety c. prosocial behavior d. social referencing
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b
answer

90. Robin’s parents are drug addicts and therefore are unresponsive to her needs. Although they provide enough food for her to eat, they pay little attention to her and she spends most of her time unattended and alone. When Robin goes to kindergarten, the teacher is concerned because she is so small and thin, and she has trouble eating the school lunch without vomiting. The most likely diagnosis for Robin’s condition is: a. anemia b. failure-to-thrive syndrome c. malnutrition d. stunting
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a
answer

91. According to Freud, the first year of life is centered mostly on how the child’s ______ needs are satisfied: a. oral b. latent c. anal d. communication
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b
answer

92. According to research presented in the text, mothers are more likely to hold infants for , whereas fathers are more likely to hold infants for ______. a. play; caretaking b. caretaking; play c. social acceptance; self-gratification d. self-gratification; social acceptance
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c
answer

93. About ____ of mothers who work outside the home rely on family members to provide childcare for their children and about ____ of such mothers rely on nonfamily-based childcare services. a. 25%; 75% b. 75%; 25% c. 50%; 50% d. 10%; 90%
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d
answer

94. According to research presented in the text, which of the following ages is NOT correctly paired with the developmental milestone associated with it? a. birth to 3 months: becoming calm, attentive, and interested in the world b. by 5 months: falling in love c. by 9 months: becoming a two-way communicator d. by 14 to 18 months: developing a world of ideas
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b
answer

95. According to the views of Mary Ainsworth, the form of attachment in which a strong emotional bond between a child and caregiver develops because of responsive caregiving is called: a. avoidant attachment b. secure attachment c. resistant attachment d. dependent attachment
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b
answer

96. Which of the following children would likely have the easiest time developing a healthy sense of autonomy? a. Jim, who is experiencing a high level of stranger anxiety b. Bob, who is very securely attached to his mother c. Rex, who is not securely attached to his mother d. Tom, who has learned to be mistrustful of his caregivers
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c
answer

97. The key word in the text’s distinction between child abuse and child neglect is: a. physical b. emotional c. intentional d. psychological
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b
answer

98. Suppose you observe a father and his infant daughter in a laboratory and they are playing together. At some point, the father stops responding to his daughter and the experimenter records how the child reacts. The term for an experiment of this type is: a. a habituation experiment b. a still-face experiment c. a classical conditioning experiment d. a visual cliff experiment
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d
answer

99. At the daycare center, Maria sees another child crying so she breaks her own cookie in half and offers a piece to the crying child. Maria’s behavior is best considered as a demonstration of the principle of: a. social referencing b. imprinting c. synchrony d. prosocial behavior
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d
answer

100. Lacy says she \”hates\” her little brother because he gets all the attention and causes all the trouble. Lacy’s response is consistent with the basic idea behind the development of: a. autonomy b. empathy c. the discrepancy hypothesis d. sibling rivalry
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c
answer

101. Handedness is especially interesting to developmentalists because it is intimately linked to: a. physical size at maturity b. homosexuality c. language lateralization d. intelligence as measured on an IQ test
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d
answer

102. According to the text, the most dramatic cognitive difference between infants and 2-year-olds is in their use of: a. animism b. reification c. automaticity d. symbolic representation
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c
answer

103. The social and cultural aspects of language use are referred to by the term: a. grammar acquisition b. communication c. pragmatics d. cultural linguistics
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a
answer

104. Which of the following individuals would be most likely to experience the most severe and permanent disruptions in language abilities following a brain injury? a. an adult whose injury is to the left hemisphere of the brain b. an adult whose injury is to the right hemisphere of the brain c. a child whose injury is to the left hemisphere of the brain d. a child whose injury is to the right hemisphere of the brain
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a
answer

105. A child who climbs to the top of a staircase for the challenge and fun of the activity has what type of motivation? a. intrinsic b. extrinsic c. egocentric d. \”out\” directed
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b
answer

106. When a young child learns to help fold laundry and put clothes away, cultural information is being transmitted. According to Vygotsky’s view, this is best considered to be an example of: a. scaffolding b. guided participation c. social referencing d. synchrony
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c
answer

107. Which of the following is the best example of overregularization? a. \”I am a big, big girl!\” b. \”No!\” c. \”I breaked the cup.\” d. \”I love my momma.\”
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c
answer

108. Suppose that Bob is a typical 3-year-old child. By age 6, you should expect that his height will have increased by about how many inches? a. about 4 inches b. about 6 inches c. about 9 inches d. about12 inches
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d
answer

109. When he was younger, Tommy stacked blocks for the sheer joy of doing so. Now, Tommy only stacks blocks when he is trying to build something or when he is playing a game. The term that best describes Tommy’s development is: a. interaction b. automaticity c. extrinsically motivated behavior d. functional subordination
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d
answer

110. Laura and Ted like to play \”house,\” a game they invented in which Laura pretends to be the \”mother\” and Ted the \”father.\” In this game, Laura cooks the food on a pretend stove and Ted takes out the pretend garbage. The ability to play this game relies most directly on which cognitive ability? a. egocentrism b. conservation c. reversibility d. symbolic representation
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d
answer

111. The process by which soft tissue or cartilage is transformed into bone is called: a. calcification b. grafting c. cartilogenesis d. ossification
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b
answer

112. A child who believes that objects and people in their thoughts and dreams are real is displaying what? a. animism b. reification c. egocentrism d. paranormal cognition
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a
answer

113. Research presented in the text suggests that playing with which of the following types of toys appears to encourage the language development the most? a. with dolls b. with trucks c. with blocks d. with guns
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b
answer

114. Suppose you examine an ultrasound image of a fetus, who is sucking her left thumb. Generalizing from research presented in the text, what is the probability that this fetus will be left-handed at age 15? a. about 50% b. about 67% c. about 85 % d. about 100%
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a
answer

115. Generalizing from research presented in the text, which of the following memory strategies would most likely lead a young child to the best recall of a group of common household items: a. remembering that the items are all stored in the same place (e.g., in the junk drawer) b. remembering that the items all begin with the same letter (e.g., the letter \”b\”) c. remembering that the items are all about the same size (e.g., all the size of a baseball) d. remembering that the items are all used for the same purpose (e.g., that they are all containers that hold things)
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a
answer

116. Generalizing from research conclusions presented in the text, if given the choice, would you recommend that children be raised in bilingual environment? a. Yes b. No, because this will limit the size of their vocabulary c. No, because this will delay their learning to talk d. No, because this will make them more likely to develop reading problems
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d
answer

117. Generalizing from research presented in the text, if a 4-year-old was observed speaking to a 2-year-old, what kind of speech would the 4-year-old be most likely to use: a. the same kind of speech he uses when talking to his mother b. the same kind of speech he uses when talking to his older brother c. the same kind of speech he uses when talking to his preschool teacher d. a simpler version of his normal speech
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answer

118. Dr. Jacobs is describing a process by which neurons become insulated so that they can conduct neural impulses more efficiently. The process he is describing would be called: a. lateralization b. myelination c. ossification d. automation
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a
answer

119. At first, Mike has to concentrate very hard when typing, thinking where each letter on the keyboard is. However, after practicing a great deal, he now types without even thinking about how his fingers are moving. The concept that best describes Mike’s development is: a. automaticity b. lateralization c. functional subordination d. readiness
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d
answer

120. Dr. Larsen states that he likes to give his students just enough \”hints\” so that they can figure out how to solve a difficult problem with a minimum of guidance. Dr. Larsen’s approach best demonstrates the concept of: a. automaticity b. symbolic representation c. conservation d. scaffolding

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