Human Growth and Development Midterm Study Guide

question

The _____ consists of links between a social setting in which the individual does not have an active role and the individual’s immediate context.
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exosystem
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The term “generativity” as described in Erikson’s seventh stage of development primarily reflects a concern for:
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helping the younger generation to develop and lead useful lives.
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Nonnormative life events:
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do not happen to all people.
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Dr. Jackson’s research has found that the correlation between IQ and head circumference is +.10. From this information, we can conclude that:
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there is a weak relationship between head size and IQ.
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_____ theories describe development as primarily unconscious and heavily colored by emotion.
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Psychoanalytic
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Dr. Hansen plans to survey her research participants every two years for as many years as she can, charting how their parenting styles changes with age. She is using a _____ technique.
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longitudinal
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According to the APA guidelines, after the study has been completed, participants should be informed of its purpose and the methods that were used. This is known as:
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debriefing
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_____ processes involve changes in the individual’s relationships with other people, changes in emotions, and changes in personality.
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Socioemotional
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When people are grouped based on similar occupations, educational achievements, and financial circumstances, they are being grouped by:
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socioeconomic status
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According to Freud, our adult personality is determined by:
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the way we resolve conflicts between sources of pleasure at each stage and the demands of reality.
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The maximum life span of humans:
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has not changed since the beginning of recorded history.
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In terms of interpreting correlational research, it is important to remember that correlation does not mean the same as:
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causation.
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Keesha’s father died unexpectedly in an accident when she was four years old. This incident will likely affect Keesha’s development and is an example of a:
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nonnormative life event.
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Joey has shot up in height over the past year, has developed a deeper voice, and is starting to grow facial hair. He is preoccupied with the pursuit of independence and identity and is spending more time with friends and less with family. Which of the following periods of development is Joey in?
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Adolescence
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“Individuals are changing beings in a changing world.” Which characteristic of development is reflected in this statement?
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Development is contextual.
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The _____ involves relations between microsystems or connections between contexts.
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mesosystem
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Dr. Drew is a scientist interested in the effects of music on cognitive development. Which of the following describes the sequence he should go through?
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Conceptualize a process or problem to be studied, collect research information (data), analyze data, and draw conclusions.
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During early adulthood, Erik Erikson’s developmental stage of _____ occurs.
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intimacy versus isolation
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The belief that no single theory of development is adequate to explain the rich complexity of life-span development, while acknowledging that each has useful things to offer, reflects the _____ theoretical orientation.
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eclectic
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Dr. Tepper-Harmon believes that life-span development cannot be studied without considering biological, socioemotional, and cognitive dimensions. Dr. Tepper-Harmon believes that development is:
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multidimensional.
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The idea that no age period dominates development highlights the life-span perspective that development is:
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lifelong.
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Nature versus nurture, stability versus change, and continuity versus discontinuity are considered _____ issues.
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developmental
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The _____ involves the culture in which individuals live.
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macrosystem
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Identify the correct sequence of the five stages of psychosexual development described in Freud’s theory of development.
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Oral, anal, phallic, latency, and genital
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Dr. Nasrin believes that associating behavior with consequence can shape the probability of a behavior occurring. He is arguing that _____ conditioning is important for behavioral modification.
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operant
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The first stage in Erikson’s theory is:
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trust versus mistrust.
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_____ has the longest span of any period of development and the number of people in this age group has been increasing dramatically.
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Late adulthood
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Development can be defined as the pattern of movement or change that:
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begins at conception and continues through the human life span.
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Amir is 18 months old, exploring the world through seeing, hearing, and moving around. According to Piaget, he is in which of the following stages of cognitive development?
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Sensorimotor
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Dr. Alondro is an information-processing psychologist, thus he is most likely to emphasize:
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that individuals manipulate information, monitor it, and strategize about it.
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According to Urie Bronfenbrenner’s ecological theory, a person’s family, peers, school, and neighborhood constitute his or her:
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microsystem.
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If you subscribe to Paul Baltes’s perspective of life-span development, you would view development as a process that involves growth, maintenance, and ____________.
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regulation of loss
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The connection across biological, cognitive, and socioemotional processes is most obvious in the two rapidly emerging fields of:
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developmental cognitive neuroscience and developmental social neuroscience.
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Which of Urie Bronfenbrenner’s environmental systems consists of the patterning of environmental events and transitions over the life course, as well as sociohistorical circumstances?
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Chronosystem
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Erik Erikson’s developmental theory consists of _____ stages that last from the first year of life to _____.
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eight; late adulthood
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_____ processes involve changes in the individual’s relationships with other people, changes in emotions, and changes in personality.
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Socioemotional
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The finding that most women enter menopause by age 51 is an example of how a biological process can exert a _____ influence on development.
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normative age-graded
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Which of the following is NOT accurate regarding studies of the placental barrier?
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Most bacteria can pass from mother to her developing baby.
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Which is NOT true of the genome-wide association method? You Answered
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Its success led to the start of the Human Genome Project.
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Which of the following women has the highest probability of giving birth to a child with Down syndrome?
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Jane, a 41-year-old Euro-American woman
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According to evolutionary psychology, the observed advantage in spatial skills for men over women might be the result of:
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the need to track and slay one’s food to survive.
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Mary and Jim are expecting a child, and prenatal diagnostic procedures have confirmed that the fetus has _____, a neural tube disorder that causes brain and spine abnormalities. Their physician has explained that this gene-linked abnormality could be treated with corrective surgery at birth, orthopedic devices, and physical or medical therapy.
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spina bifida
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Which of the following substances is a large molecule that would NOT be able to pass through the placental wall?
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Hormones
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Klinefelter syndrome occurs when an individual has a chromosomal pattern of:
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XXY.
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Brian is very upset because he and his girlfriend, who is only a few weeks into her pregnancy, just found out that caffeine is a(n):
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psychoactive drug.
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Esperanza is having a prenatal test to remove a small sample of the placenta for genetic testing. Identify the test that her doctor is performing.
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Chorionic villus sampling
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_____ is the way an individual’s genotype is expressed in observable and measurable characteristics.
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Phenotype
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_____ is a popular form of childbirth in the United States that involves special breathing in the final stages and the help of a coach.
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Lamaze method
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After a long evening of natural childbirth, and seeing her son for the first time, Dalia is relieved to be in_____, the shortest of the three birth stages.
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afterbirth
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Which of the following statements about the effects of marijuana exposure on offspring is true?
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Research has shown that mothers who use marijuana while pregnant risk their offspring using marijuana by age 14.
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Charlie is a cooperative, attentive child who is a favorite at home and school and receives positive, instructive responses from adults. This is indicative of a(n):
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evocative genotype-environment correlation.
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The _____ view states that development is the result of an ongoing, bidirectional interchange between heredity and the environment.
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epigenetic
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Which of the following is NOT true of the germinal period?
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The blastocyst implants in the uterus within the first five days after conception.
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According to evolutionary developmental psychologists, many evolved psychological mechanisms are _____. That is, the mechanisms apply only to a specific aspect of a person’s psychological makeup.
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domain specific
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Juan-Carlos was born full term but was underweight for his gestational age. He would be considered:
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small for date.
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Both the amnion and the _____ develop from the fertilized egg and not the mother’s body.
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umbilical cord
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Which of the following maternal diseases carries the risk of delivering very large infants, weighing 10 pounds or more?
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Gestational diabetes
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Approximately what percentage of low-birth-weight infants end up enrolled in special education programs?
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50%
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Which of the following maternal diseases is likely to be transmitted to the infant through breast feeding?
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AIDS
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The _____ is a layer of the embryo which will become the circulatory system, bones, muscles, excretory system, and reproductive system.
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mesoderm
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Which of the following statements about the effects of marijuana exposure on offspring is true?
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Research has shown that mothers who use marijuana while pregnant risk their offspring using marijuana by age 14.
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In human beings, by the end of meiosis, each egg or sperm has _____ chromosomes.
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23 unpaired
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Sherry is expecting her second child. She bought a book to help her daughter understand how the new baby is developing in the womb. After learning some terms, Sherry asks her daughter, “Which part will develop into hair and fingernails?” The answer is the:
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ectoderm.
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Dr. Pamarti is studying breast cancer by obtaining DNA samples from women who have breast cancer and those who don’t, and completing genetic profiles on each group to find where the genetic differences are. This method is called:
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genome-wide association.
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The _____ provides an environment that is temperature- and humidity-controlled, as well as shockproof.
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amniotic fluid
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Karen is preparing to give birth to her child and has requested that no drugs be administered to help relieve pain or assist in the birth. Karen wants:
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natural childbirth.
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Approximately _____ of couples in the United States are unable to conceive a child after 12 months of regular intercourse without conception.
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10% to 15%
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The rationale for waterbirth is:
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the baby has been in the amniotic sac, so the water will feel familiar.
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Neuronal _____ involves moving outward from the original location, reaching a target destination, and maturing to become part of a complex structure.
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migration
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Clark’s genotype contains a dominant gene for brown eye color and a recessive gene for blue eye color. According to the dominant-recessive gene principle, which of the following phenotypes is most likely to be observed in Clark?
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Brown eyes
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Dakota was born after 40 weeks of gestation and weighed four pounds. Dakota would be considered:
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low birth weight.
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Tyrell has decided that when she gives birth to her daughter at the hospital, she would like to have her daughter stay in her room most of the time. Even though she knows this _____ will not influence her daughter’s emotional development, Tyrell wants her daughter close by.
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rooming-in arrangement
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Paul suffers from hemophilia, so he is very concerned every time he gets a cut. His best treatment option is:
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corrective surgery at birth.
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Stella wants to give her baby the best start during prenatal development, so she is researching the latest findings on nutrition and teratogens. She’s frustrated because the findings on caffeine:
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have been mixed on whether it has ill effects.
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The nucleus of each human cell contains _____, which are threadlike structures made up of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA).
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chromosomes
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As he is rolling his truck up and down the sides of the couch, Nezzy points to his truck and says, “My truck.” His father responds with, “What’s the truck doing?” This is an example of:
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recasting.
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Which of the following is NOT true of the neuroconstructivist view?
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The brain is context independent.
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Three-year-old Jesse used to call all moving vehicles “car.” He now accurately categorizes moving vehicles into trucks, cars, motorcycles, and buses. Jesse has _____ to fit new information into his existing scheme.
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accommodated
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The cerebral cortex has two _____, each of which is further divided into four _____.
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hemispheres; lobes
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Sarah shows her baby a colorful block several times. The baby looks carefully at the block at first, but then turns her attention to a different toy after seeing the block a few times. If at this point Sarah shows her baby a solid green ball, the baby will again look carefully at the item. This change is called:
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dishabituation.
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When Ernesto, after not swimming during the winter months, remembers how to swim with very specific strokes as soon as he is in the water, he is demonstrating the power of his:
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implicit memory.
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A loss or impairment of language ability caused by brain injury is called:
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aphasia.
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The use of fetal fMRI to studying hearing in infants has revealed that response to sounds occurs at:
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34 weeks of gestation.
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Kenny is concerned that his baby daughter isn’t sleeping through the night yet, so he asks the pediatrician about it. She says his daughter is really young to expect that, and that he shouldn’t expect his daughter to sleep through the night until she is about:
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six months old.
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A form of communication that is based on a system of symbols is called:
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language.
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Jake, age 11 months, is able to pick up cereal and bits of fruit off the tray of his high chair by grasping them with his thumb and forefinger. Jake has developed the:
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pincer grip.
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Mandy sees a little girl in the grocery store throwing a screaming tantrum to get a toy. The next week at the mall, Mandy begins screaming and crying to get some candy. Mandy is showing:
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deferred imitation.
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When Martha wants to feed her newborn son, she gently brushes her nipple against his cheek and he demonstrates a _____ reflex by turning his head toward the side that was touched and immediately latches on to her breast.
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rooting
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The newborn’s vision is estimated to be _____ on the Snellen eye examination chart.
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20/600
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Two-year-old Anita has learned the word “dog” to identify the family pet Rover. Now Anita says the word “dog” when she sees any animal. Anita has _____ these animals into her existing scheme.
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assimilated
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The most successful instrument used to assess infant’s brain activity is a(n):
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EEG.
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Which of the following conditions is one of the highest causes of infant death in the United States with nearly 2,000 infant deaths annually attributed to it?
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Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS)
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Someone with a vocabulary of only 200 words can recombine the words in different ways to say thousands of different things. This aspect of language is referred to as:
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infinite generativity.
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Piaget’s concept of grouping isolated behaviors into a higher-order system is called:
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organization.
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Winnie is considering the use of anesthesia during the circumcision of her newborn son. She wants to know if newborns can feel pain. What would you tell her?
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Yes, recent research indicates that infants can feel pain.
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Infants can see objects before they can control their torso, and they can use their hands long before they can crawl or walk. This would indicate that they have a _____ pattern of growth.
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cephalocaudal
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When Abraham describes to his friend what he did last summer on vacation, he is relying on his _____ memory.
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explicit
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Two-year-old Anita has learned the word “dog” to identify the family pet Rover. Now Anita says the word “dog” when she sees any animal. Anita has _____ these animals into her existing scheme.
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assimilated
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Michael has been keeping a journal of his infant son’s development. Looking back over the entries he sees that his son could wave his arms and hands to knock things over before he could pick up a toy. Michael is noticing the _____ pattern of growth.
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proximodistal
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Identify the correct sequence of vocalization in infants.
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Crying, cooing, babbling
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The rapid increase in an infant’s vocabulary starting at about 18 months of age is called:
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the vocabulary spurt.
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A recent study found that child-directed speech in a one-to-one social context at 11 to 14 months of age was linked to:
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greater word production at age two.
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Claire had a stroke and has suffered brain damage. Unfortunately when she tries to communicate, her words do not make sense. She also seems to be confused when other people try to talk with her. Claire has damage to her:
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Wernicke’s area.
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Which statement is FALSE regarding eye tracking?
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Frantz developed this method for his “looking chambers.”
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“Want ice cream,” “Fall down,” and “Mommy give cookie” are all examples of:
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telegraphic speech.
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Amanda is six days old. Which of the following statements about Amanda’s hearing is true?
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Amanda is more able to hear high-pitched sounds than low-pitched sounds.
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Which statement is FALSE regarding Meltzoff’s research and position on imitation?
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Imitation is primarily nurture when considering the nature versus nurture question.
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Benji starts calling his father “Dad,” but he also calls all men that he sees “dad.” According to Piaget, this error is due to:
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assimilation.
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Infants are better at recognizing all the phonemes from all languages:
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prior to six months.
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The theorists who actively promoted the ecological view of perceptual development in infancy are:
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Eleanor and James Gibson.
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In considering the big issue of whether nature or nurture plays the more important role in infant development, Elizabeth Spelke endorses a _____ approach, which states that infants are born with domain-specific innate knowledge systems.
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core knowledge
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The focusing of mental resources on select information is called:
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attention.
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The view of development that sees motor skills developing as a solution to an infant’s problems is known as the:
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dynamic systems theory.
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In the visual cliff experiment by Eleanor Gibson and Richard Walk, most 6- to 12-month-old babies encouraged to crawl onto the deep side of the visual cliff would:
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not crawl onto the cliff side.
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Nouns are among the easiest words for children to learn because they:
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generally are perceptually accessible.
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Nine-month-old Hector is pointing at his sippy cup. Which aspect of language is Hector utilizing?
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Gestures
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In the “sticky mittens” research project, it was found that:
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the infants in the mitten group developed grasping skills earlier than average.
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The peak of synaptic overproduction in the _____, involved in higher level thinking and self-regulation, occurs at just over three years old.
answer

prefrontal cortex
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The _____ is the area of the brain where higher level thinking and self-regulation occur.
answer

prefrontal cortex
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As he is rolling his truck up and down the sides of the couch, Nezzy points to his truck and says, “My truck.” His father responds with, “What’s the truck doing?” This is an example of:
answer

recasting.
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Infants control the muscles of their trunk and arms before they control their hands and fingers, and they use their whole hands before they can control several fingers. This indicates a _____ pattern of growth.
answer

proximodistal
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Parents can expect their newborn infant to sleep through the night starting at
answer

six months.
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Amanda is six days old. Which of the following statements about Amanda’s hearing is true?
answer

Amanda is more able to hear high-pitched sounds than low-pitched sounds.
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Leonard’s daughter, at five months old, is able to sit independently without leaning on anything. She is:
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ahead of the average age range.
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Madison noticed that she is finally able to get her son, Sam, to look when she points to something and says the name or the color of the object. Based on research, it is likely that Sam is between ______.
answer

8 and 12 months old
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_____ occurs when information interacts with receptors such as the eyes, ears, tongue, nostrils, and skin.
answer

Sensation
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Which of the following categories is generally NOT among first words?
answer

Furniture
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The understanding that objects and events continue to exist even when they cannot be seen, heard, or touched is called:
answer

object permanence.
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The most important recent advance in measuring infant perception is:
answer

the development of sophisticated eye-tracking equipment.
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Renee remembers very little about the first three years of her life. Most of what she knows from that time in her life comes from pictures and videos she has seen. Psychologists find this normal and call it:
answer

infantile amnesia.
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When an infant turns his head because his cheek was stroked, this is evidence that he responds to:
answer

touch.
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Children who grow up in a deprived environment are likely to show:
answer

depressed brain activity.
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Trystan has adjusted to the observation that his son, Tony, is a _____. Tony seldom sleeps or eats by any predictable routine, and he really dislikes any new situation.
answer

difficult baby
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Jerome Kagan and other developmentalists stress that _____ play(s) more important roles in a child’s social competence than the attachment theorists, such as Bowlby and Ainsworth, are willing to acknowledge.
answer

the child’s genetic characteristics and temperament
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Melissa noticed that her youngest daughter, almost two years old, has just started trying to imitate her big sister who is five years old and pretending to be a cheerleader. Her youngest daughter is showing:
answer

imitation and reciprocal play.
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Natalie is in the Strange Situation, and she clings anxiously to her caregiver. She does not explore the playroom. She would most likely be classified as:
answer

securely attached.
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According to Freud, infants become attached to the person or object:
answer

that provides oral satisfaction.
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Mary Rothbart and John Bates stress that _____ is an important dimension of temperament because it shows infants’ ability (or the lack of it) to keep their arousal from getting too intense and have strategies for soothing themselves.
answer

effortful control
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Jeremy is a securely attached infant; Jason is classified as an insecure infant. Which of the following statements about later functioning for these children is true?
answer

Jeremy is more likely than Jason to have high self-confidence.
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Which of the following statements about emotions is TRUE?
answer

Children who are blind from birth show the same facial expressions as children who can view others’ facial expressions.
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Which of the following is the BEST description of scaffolding?
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Parents time interactions in such a way that the infant experiences turn-taking with the parents.
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The _____ model involves connections across domains, and over time, that influence developmental pathways and outcomes.
answer

developmental cascade
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The longitudinal study conducted by the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development in 1991 concluded that:
answer

children who were given high-quality child care performed better on cognitive and language tasks.
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Eight-month-old Michael is placed in front of a mirror with a spot of rouge on his nose. Michael will MOST likely:
answer

crawl away from the mirror, because he does not recognize his own reflection in the mirror.
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The results of the study conducted by the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development in 1991 indicate that:
answer

extensive use of day care hurts parent-child relationships.
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John Bowlby argued that infants are biologically predisposed to form attachments, and by working through the phases they will develop a(n) _____ model of attachment.
answer

internal working
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Sakura isn’t a particularly active child, and he tends to be wary of new situations and people. Although he doesn’t cry, he dislikes dealing with novel situations. According to Chess and Thomas, he would be classified as a(n):
answer

slow-to-warm-up child.
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Erik Erikson viewed the first year of life as characterized by the _____ stage of development.
answer

trust versus mistrust
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Which of the following best exemplifies the difference between how mothers and fathers interact with their children?
answer

Fathers are more physical with their children.
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According to many developmental psychologists, soothing a crying infant will:
answer

help the infant develop a secure attachment to the caregiver.
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Claudia is moody, and this shows in her parenting. Sometimes she feels very attentive to little Ricco, and other times she’s distracted. She often feels like she just can’t get used to parenting. It is most likely that Ricco will develop a(n) _____ with his mother.
answer

insecure resistant infant attachment
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In terms of managing and guiding 12-month-old infants’ behavior, a 2006 study of discipline and corrective methods used by parents showed which method is MOST common for infants of this age?
answer

Diverting attention
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Which of the following statements regarding paternal caregiving is FALSE?
answer

Paternal interactions usually center on child-care activities, such as feeding, changing diapers, and bathing.
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The research on fathers as caregivers indicates that fathers:
answer

interact with their babies in different ways than mothers do, regardless of which parent is the primary caregiver.
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Which of the following would Erik Erikson MOST likely recommend regarding the soothing of a crying infant?
answer

Pick up and soothe the baby so that a healthy sense of trust develops.
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According to a recent meta-analysis, secure attachment in infancy was linked to:
answer

social competence with peers in childhood.
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Which of the following was not a finding in the meta-analysis supporting developmental cascade model?
answer

Very little stability of attachment security occurred from early infancy to adulthood.
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According to psychiatrists Alexander Chess and Stella Thomas, a(n) _____ child has a low activity level, is somewhat negative, and displays a low intensity of mood.
answer

slow-to-warm-up
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According to Bowlby’s conceptualization of attachment, which of the following occurs during phase three?
answer

With increased locomotor skills, babies actively seek contact with regular caregivers, such as the mother or father.
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Which statement is FALSE regarding Kagan’s concept of behavioral inhibition?
answer

Inhibited children react to unfamiliar adults but not unfamiliar peers.
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Stephen is taking his infant son, Todd, to the clinic today. He knows this is stressful for Todd, so he:
answer

starts to soothe Todd’s emotions by gently patting his back and singing before they enter the clinic.
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A recent study revealed that sensitive maternal responding was linked to:
answer

infant attachment security.
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According to John Bowlby, an infant’s internal working model of attachment includes a simple mental model of the caregiver, their relationship, and:
answer

the self as deserving of nurturant care.
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In the Strange Situation, Cameron did not explore the playroom, clung to his mother when she was in the room, and was very upset when she left the room. When she returned, he appeared to be ambivalent—both wanting to be comforted by his mother and pushing her away when she attempted to do so. Mary Ainsworth would most likely classify Cameron as:
answer

insecure resistant.
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Betty and Allen’s child, Cara, is usually in a pleasant mood. She has a regular routine but can readily adapt to changes. According to Chess and Thomas, Cara would be classified as a(n):
answer

easy child.
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Which of the following is not part of the unique physiological pattern that predicts an inhibited temperament?
answer

High levels of the hormone testosterone
question

In their longitudinal investigation, Chess and Thomas found that _____ of the children they studied could be classified as easy.
answer

40%
question

A study of mother-infant dyads from age seven months to two years found that maternal sensitivity and autonomy predicted:
answer

secure attachments.
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The Strange Situation is an observational measure of infant attachment developed by Mary Ainsworth. It requires the infant to:
answer

move through a series of introductions, separations, and reunions with his or her caregiver and an adult stranger.
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According to a 2006 study of discipline and corrective methods used by parents, which of the following methods did not increase when comparing the ways parents disciplined a one-year-old to that used on a two-year-old?
answer

Diverting attention
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Twenty-four-month-old Tyler is placed in front of a mirror with a spot of rouge on his nose. Tyler will MOST likely:
answer

touch his own nose to wipe off the spot.
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Of the following, which would be a good example of scaffolding?
answer

Social referencing
question

In the development of language and thought:
answer

external speech precedes internal speech.
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Which of the following is TRUE about Head Start programs?
answer

They only provide for low-income families.
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Early Head Start was established in 1995 to serve children from _____ years of age.
answer

birth to 3
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Her pediatrician has just told Sandra that her four-year-old son, Manuel, has gained six pounds in the last year. Sandra should:
answer

be content that this is normal for Manuel’s age.
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In 1965, the federal government began an effort to break the cycle of poverty and poor education for young children in the United States through:
answer

Project Head Start.
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Over the past week, Walter has been trying to learn to tie his shoelaces. Initially, his mother was holding his hands and working his fingers through the process, but now that Walter’s gotten better at it, she only guides him verbally. This is an example of:
answer

scaffolding.
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Dorothy is enrolled in a preschool where she spends much of her time in unstructured activity. She plays with different toys she chooses, and her teacher facilitates rather than teaches. Which of the following approaches is Dorothy’s preschool using?
answer

Montessori approach
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The substage of preoperational thought in which children begin to use primitive reasoning and want to know the answers to all sorts of questions is the _____ substage.
answer

intuitive thought
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When adults are working with young children, they often provide a lot of hints, assistance, instructions, and other support to help the children succeed. As the children demonstrate they can do more for themselves, the adults begin to withdraw these supports. This technique is called:
answer

scaffolding.
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In studying children’s impulsivity and ability to delay gratification that involved resisting a cookie, “cool thoughts” refer to:
answer

thoughts about anything other than the cookie.
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Following divorce, custodial mothers experience the loss of about _____ of their predivorce income as compared to custodial fathers who experience the loss of about _____ of their predivorce income.
answer

25% to 50%; 10%
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Julie believes that Jason’s accidental act of breaking 12 plates by dropping a box is worse than Peter intentionally breaking two plates when he was frustrated. Julie is demonstrating:
answer

heteronomous morality.
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Which of the following statements about higher-SES parents in the United States and most Western cultures is TRUE?
answer

They are less likely to use physical punishment.
question

The social role theory suggests that:
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the social hierarchy and division of labor are important causes of gender differences in power, assertiveness, and nurturing.
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A number of researchers have shown that a(n) _____, which includes diminished parenting skills, occurs in the year following the divorce, but by two years after the divorce has stabilized.
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disequilibrium
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In a study of maltreating mothers and their one-year-olds, all of the following strategies were found to be effective in reducing child maltreatment EXCEPT:
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home visitation that emphasized support for the father.
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Which of the following approaches holds that the processes of reinforcement, punishment, and imitation explain the development of moral behavior?
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Behavioral and social cognitive approach
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Which of the following is NOT one of the characteristics of sibling relationships as described by Judy Dunn?
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Generally parents favor one sibling over another.
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Damian’s parents never seem to find time or resources to take care of him; in fact, sometimes he goes home to an empty house without any idea where his parents are. He routinely tells his teachers that he hasn’t eaten in the last day, and it’s clear that his clothes haven’t been washed in a while. This circumstance constitutes:
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child neglect.
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Enzo used to play mostly by himself. It was a transition for him when he started preschool, but now he is good at taking turns and interacting in conversations. His _____ is increasing dramatically, as expected.
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social play
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Debra is very active. She loves to tumble and show off. She also loves races and believes she can run faster than her parents. This type of activity level and confidence is most characteristic of:
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five-year-olds showing off their fine motor skills
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After the age of _____ years, children attend more efficiently to the dimensions of the task that are relevant.
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six or seven
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The _____ is a philosophy of education in which children are given considerable freedom and spontaneity in choosing activities, moving between activities, and developing self-regulation.
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Montessori approach
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Which of the following statements about Vygotsky’s theory is TRUE?
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language plays a powerful role in shaping thought.
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Alan, who is 30 months old, watched his older brother search for a particular book without success. Alan went over to his brother, patted his shoulder, and said, “Feel bad?” This indicates that he:
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recognizes that someone else may have different desires and emotions from his own.
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During the _____ substage, children begin to use language more effectively and engage in pretend play.
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symbolic function
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Nurturing is a key aspect of the _____, which emphasizes the education of the whole child and concern for his or her physical, cognitive, and socioemotional development.
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child-centered kindergarten
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Sharon, age three, can solve four-piece jigsaw puzzles on her own, but needs her parents’ help to solve 12-piece jigsaw puzzles. Which of the following represents the upper limit of Sharon’s zone of proximal development (ZPD) for solving such puzzles?
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Sharon solving a 12-piece puzzle on her own
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Which of the following is NOT one of the key principles outlined in your textbook that contributes to optimal word learning?
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Children learn words best in contexts that are abstract.
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Which of the following scenarios BEST represents Lev Vygotsky’s view of mental and behavioral development?
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An instructor helps students with laboratory work, showing them how to do things the students cannot yet do.
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Based on a view from cultures around the world, which of the following statements is TRUE about parental influences on children’s gender development?
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Fathers show more attention to sons than to daughters.
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Xavier was riding his bike when he lost his balance and crashed into a neighbor’s flower garden, damaging many plants. He looked around and didn’t think anyone saw him, so he left quickly. As he’s riding he thinks, “Whew that was close. Glad I got away with that.” Xavier is showing:
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autonomous morality.
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Most two to four-year-old children are watching TV approximately _____ hours per day.
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2 to 4
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Which of the following countries has the highest percentage of single-parent families?
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United States
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Regardless of the form of screen time, whether television, computer, or other device, it is recommended that children two to four years old spend no more than _____ watching or playing.
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1 hour
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According to Baumrind, parents who are highly involved with their children but let the children do whatever they want, are displaying a(n) ____ parenting style.
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indulgent
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Bernice was raised by two lesbian mothers, whereas Jessica was raised by a heterosexual couple. According to research, it is most likely that:
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Bernice and Jessica are the same with regard to popularity and mental health.
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About _____ of parents who were abused themselves when they were young go on to abuse their own children.
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one-third
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It is estimated that approximately _____ of children born to married parents in the United States will experience their parents’ divorce.
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40%
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Shana and her father love to take reference books into the forest and identify trees. From all the possible trees described in her book, she wants to find the one tree that matches the one she is standing by. This exercise fosters _____ thinking.
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In terms of brain development in school-age children, synaptic pruning is part of the shift in activation from:
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Recent studies have found that for ELLs (English Language Learners), the most effective approach is:
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dual-language learning.
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Which of the following is FALSE regarding working memory?
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It is less powerful than short-term memory.
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Max, now diagnosed with ADHD, has been seeing a therapist who leads him through ____. Often, he sits with his eyes closed, paying attention only to his breathing.
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mindfulness training
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Recent studies have identified all of the following as potential contributors to the development of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder EXCEPT:
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diets high in fiber and protein.
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_____ is knowledge about language, such as knowing what a preposition is or the ability to discuss the sounds of a language.
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Metalinguistic awareness
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In recent decades the number of children diagnosed and treated for ADHD has _____.
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increased substantially, with most new cases diagnosed in boys
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A recent study revealed that peak thickness of the cerebral cortex occurs _____ in children with ADHD than in children without ADHD.
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three years later
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Darrin is studying words for a spelling quiz. The worst strategy he could use is:
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keep repeating the letters for time efficiency.
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Which of the following functions of friendship involves providing interesting information, excitement, and amusement?
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Stimulation
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According to Erik Erikson, parents who continually see their children’s efforts at making things as “mischief” or “making a mess,” and communicate this to their children often, will tend to foster a sense of _____ in their children.
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inferiority
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At the “Meet Your Teacher” day before the school year started, Robert met Ms. Taylor. She asked, “So Robert, tell me something about you.” He responded, “I’m good in math but my printing is bad.” Robert is revealing his:
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self-concept.
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Fausto is in a disagreement with his older brother. He says, “I don’t get mad; I get even! If you mess up my bike then I’m going to mess up yours!” According to Kohlberg’s theory of moral development, which stage is Fausto currently in?
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Individualism, instrumental purpose, and exchange
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Which of the following is true regarding ethnicity in U.S. schools and student trends?
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Asian American students are more likely to take advanced math and science courses.
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Which of the following is usually not true for students who live in poverty and their schools?
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They receive a high percentage of government money for teaching materials.
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In which of Kohlberg’s levels do individuals shift from desiring to be admired in the eyes of important people in their lives to focusing on what is good for the most people?
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Conventional reasoning
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According to John Coie, which of the following is NOT one of the reasons why aggressive peer-rejected boys have problems in social relationships?
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Rejected children are more focused on maintaining positive relationships with peers.
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Pham, a fifth grader, just gave a report in front of the class. After his report some of the students made fun of him. Although in the past Pham would have been upset and shown his anger, this time he did not react to his classmates. Pham is exhibiting a(n):
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ability to suppress negative emotional reactions.
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Which of the following types of bullying is experienced more frequently by boys than girls?
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Belittled about religion or race
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Maria enjoys cake decorating and making treats for weddings. For her it is great fun to learn about the couple and their interests, and then design a one-of-a-kind cake with decorations. Sometimes Maria has her staff actually put the pieces together—for her the fun is in the design. According to Sternberg, she has high _____ intelligence.
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creative
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About _____ of those diagnosed with intellectual disabilities require extensive or constant supervision.
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four%
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Megan, age eight, has a test tomorrow. “It’s an easy test,” she tells her mother. “I just have to recognize a bunch of stuff on a chart. I finished studying for it yesterday.” Megan is exhibiting her:
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metamemory.
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Alberta is a school teacher who introduces children to reading by teaching them a rhyme that goes, “A for apple, A says ah; B for ball, B says buh,” and so on. This exemplifies the _____ approach to reading instruction.
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phonics
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Considering the categories of intellectual disability, which group is able to achieve an elementary school level education and may be able to perform specially selected jobs to make some income?
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Moderate
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Those individuals who have IQs of 55 to 70 fall into the _____ category of intellectual disability.
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mild
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Of all children from 3 to 21 years of age in the United States, _____ received special education or related services in 2011-2012.
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13%
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Jason truly enjoys his work as a landscaper. He is given the design and the materials, and he goes to the site and makes the design come to life. According to Sternberg, he has high _____ intelligence.
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practical
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Dweck has found that giving students information on how their brain is like a muscle that can get stronger, students’ _____ will increase.
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growth mindset, motivation, and math scores
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Which of the following is a key developmental task as children move toward autonomy?
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Learning to relate to adults outside the family on a regular basis
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The correlation between self-esteem and school performance is:
answer

moderate.
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According to Kohlberg’s theory of moral development, during which of the following stages do people pursue their own interests but also let others do the same?
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Individualism, instrumental purpose, and exchange
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Jack is practicing his soccer moves and looking forward to Connor coming by to play. Connor helps Jack by watching his body movements and giving Jack feedback on how to handle the soccer ball better. Connor is providing _____ for Jack.
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physical support
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Angie’s mother allows her to schedule her own study and relaxation times, with the expectation that Angie must continue doing well in school and must discuss her activities with her mother ahead of time. Her mother checks on Angie’s school progress frequently and also talks to her about her social life and problems. This approach is called:
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coregulation.
question

The Common Core Standards:
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specify what students should know and the skills they should develop at each grade level.
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Santos is dreading the start of the school year because he is convinced he will never be able to read well. A student who says, “I just don’t read well and I never will,” is exhibiting:
answer

low self-efficacy.

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