Human Geography terms and names

when geographers go out into the field to see what people are doing and observe how people’s reactions and actions vary across space.

human geography
study of how people organize space and society, interact with each other in places and across spaces, and how we make sense of each other in our localities, regions, and the world

study of how people organize space and society, interact with each other in places and across spaces, and how we make sense of each other in our localities, regions, and the world

physical geography
study of physical phenomena on Earth

the arrangement of how places and phenomena are laid out, organized, and arranged on Earth and how they appear on a landscape.

spatial distribution
how something is distributed across scales


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medical geography
mapping the distribution of a disease to find its cause

worldwide outbreak of a disease

regional outbreak of a disease

a disease that is particular to a locality or location

spatial perspective
when human geographers study phenomena such as political elections, urban shantytowns, gay neighborhoods, and folk music

five themes
the National Geographic Society created these in 1986 that are derived from the spatial perspective of geography; location, human environment interaction, region, place, movement

how the geographical position of people and things on the Earth’s surface affects what happens and why and helps to establish the context within events and processes are situated

location theory
answers the question why villages and cities are placed in the areas that they are; determines whether or not a SuperTarget would be fit to go into a poor neighborhood for example; also determine the best location for wildlife refuges

human environment interaction
elationship between humans and the physical world; the reciprocal relationship between humans and the environment, how they treat it, protect it, and destroy it

particular areas that phenomena are distributed onto; the use of fieldwork, quantitative, and qualitative methods help develop insights of these regions

have unique and physical characteristics and geographers study this; you can infuse a place with and emotion which is sense of place

sense of place
infusing a place with meaning and emotion, by remembering important events that occurred in that place or by labeling that place with a certain person and can get a feeling of “home”

perception of place
when a person becomes familiar to a place they have never been just by experiencing it through books, movies, stories, or pictures

refers to the mobility of people, goods, and ideas across the surface of the planet; how every place is interconnected

spatial interaction
the interaction of people and goods across a wide expanse; dependent upon distances

the measured physical space between two places

the ease of reaching one location from another

the degree of linkage between locations in a network

the material character of a place, the complex of natural features, human structures and other tangible objects that give a particular form

cultural landscape
the visible imprint of human activity on the landscape; how people change the landscape around them

sequent occupance
sequential imprints of occupants, whose impacts are layered one on top of the other

an ancient art and science of making maps

reference maps
show the location of places and geographic features with the use of a coordinate system; latitude and longitude

thematic maps
tell stories, typically showing the degree of a certain attribute or the movement of a geographic phenomena

absolute location
reference maps use these for accuracy by using a coordinate system (longitude & latitude) to plot where precisely on Earth something is; do not change

global positioning system (GPS)
a satellite based system that allows us to locate things on the surface of Earth with extreme accuracy

relative location
describes a place in relation to other human and physical features; relative to other features

mental maps
maps stored in our minds of places we have been or places we have only heard of; what were familiar with we remember

activity spaces
those places that we travel to routinely and often in our daily activity that we know so well and develop an accurate and detailed map that is better than places we haven’t been to

generalized map
help us see general trends, but we cannot see all cases of a given phenomenon; shadings are often used to show how little or much phenomena can be found

remote sensing
how geographers monitor the Earth at a distance; a technology that is collected by satellites and aircrafts; shows major areas of impact from storms; highlights the eye of a hurricane; shows damage; Google Earth

geographic information systems (GIS)
compare a variety of spatial data by creating digitized representations of the environment; analyze data; map layers showing voters, their party registration, their race, their party registration, likelihood of voting, and income; surveying wildlife, mapping soils, analyzing natural disasters, following diseases, assisting first responders, planning cities, plotting transportation improvements, and tracking weather systems

involvement of players at other scales to generate support for a position or an initiative.

formal region
has a shared trait that is either cultural or physical

functional region
defined by a particular set of activities or interactions that occur within it; have a shared political, social, or economic focus; spatial system; boundaries are defined by the limits of the system; not culturally homogenous

perceptual regions
in the minds of people; intellectual constructs designed to help us understand the nature and distribution of phenomena; based on our accumulated knowledge about such regions and cultures; can include people, their cultural traits, such as mountains, plains or coasts, and build environments, such as windmills, barns, skyscrapers, or beach houses

refers not only to music, literature, and arts of society but also to prevailing modes of dress, routine living habits, food preferences, the architecture of houses and public buildings, the layout of fields and farms, and systems of education, government and law, values and beliefs

culture trait
identify a single attribute of a culture for example wearing a turban can be a culture trait of Muslim societies

culture complex
more than one culture exhibits a particular culture trait, but each will consist of a discrete combination of traits

cultural hearth
source area; an area where cultural traits develop and form which the cultural traits diffuse

independent invention
a trait with many hearths that developed independent of each other

cultural diffusion
the process of dissemination (the spread of an idea or innovation from its hearth to other places); diffusion occurs through the movement of people, goods, or ideas across space

time distance decay
the declining degree of acceptance of an idea or innovation with increasing time and distance from its point of origin or source

cultural barriers
certain innovations, ideas, or practices, are not acceptable or adoptable in certain cultures because of attitudes or taboos; can pose powerful obstacles to the spread of ideas as well as artifacts

expansion diffusion
an innovation or idea develops in a hearth and remains strong there while also spreading outward

contagious diffusion
a form of expansion diffusion in which nearly all adjacent individuals and places are affected; examples, the spread of Islam, a disease

hierarchical diffusion
a pattern in which the main channel of diffusion is some segment of those who are susceptible to what is being diffused; example, the spread of Crocs

stimulus diffusion
a cultural adaptation is created as a result of the introduction of a cultural trait from another place

relocation diffusion
involves the actual movement of individuals who have already adopted the idea or innovation and who carry it to a new, locale where they disseminate it

environmental determinism
human behavior , individually and collectively, is strongly affected by-even controlled or determined by-the physical environment; climate is the critical factor in how humans behave; now possibilism is believed instead of this

lines connecting points of equal temperature values

cultural ecology
an area of inquiry concerned with culture as a system to and alteration of environment

politcal ecology
an area of inquiry fundamentally concerned with the environmental consequences of dominant political-economic arrangements and understandings

phisiological population density
a superior index of population density relates the total population of a country or region to the area of arable land it contains; defined as the number of people per unit area of agriculturally productive land

population distribution
descriptions of locations on the Earth’s surface where individuals or groups (depending on scale) live

dot maps
a common way that geographers use; one dot represents a certain number of a phenomenon, such as a population

urban geographers use this; use it to refer to such huge urban agglomerations; large super cities that form in diverse parts of the world

counting every single person in the country

doubling time
the time required for a population to double in size; an easy way to grasp the growth rate in population pg. 47

natural increase
the difference between the number of births and the number of deaths

crude birth rate
the number of live births per year per thousand people in a population

crude death rate
the number of deaths per year per thousand people in a population

demographic transition
the shift in population growth; describe the growth in population over time during the Industrial Revolution in Great Britain; high birth rates and death rates are followed by plunging death rates producing a huge net population gain; then a coming together of low birth and death rates

stationary population level
most, if not all populations will stop growing at some time; population would stabilize and major problems to be faced would be with the aged rather than the young

population composition
aspects of population; the number of men and women and their ages

population pyramids
displays the percentages of each age group in the total population (normally five year groups) by a horizontal bar whose length represents its share

infant mortality rate (IMR)
recorded as a baby’s death during the first year following its birth; normally given in case per thousand; the number of infants that die

child mortality rate
a figure that describes the number of children that die between the first and fifth years of their lives in a given population

life expectancy
the number of years on average, someone may expect to remain alive

infectious diseases
resulting from an invasion of parasites and their multiplication in the body ex. malaria

chronic or degenerative diseases
the maladies of longevity and old age such as heart disease

genetic or inherited diseases
the chromosomes and genes that define our makeup ex. sickle cell anemia and hemophilia

Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome; debilitating that weakens the body and reduces its capacity to combat other infections; spread through bodily contact through bodily fluids such as blood or semen; sexual activity, needles, or blood transfusion

expansive population policies
encourages large families to raise the rate of natural increase

eugenic population policies
were designed to favor one racial or cultural sector of the population over others; ex: Nazi Germany

restrictive population policies
reduce the rate of natural increase through various forms of this; range from toleration of unofficially unapproved means of birth control to outright prohibition of large families

one-child policies
only allowed to have one child; families that had more than one child, were penalized financially, educationally, and with housing; this reduced growth rates in China drastically; type of restrictive policy

a group of belief systems, norms, and values practiced by a people; all the ways of life of a group of people

folk culture
small, incorporates a homogenous population; typically rural; cohesive in cultural traits

popular culture
large, incorporates a heterogeneous population; typically urban; quickly changing cultural traits

local culture
group of people in a particular place who see themselves as a collective or a community who share experiences, customs, and traits and work to preserve these to distinguish themselves from others

material culture
includes the things people construct, such as art, houses, clothing, sports, dance and food

nonmaterial culture
includes the beliefs, practices, aesthetics, and values of a group of people

the process which people lose originally differentiating traits when they come in contact with a different culture

a practice that a group of people routinely follows

cultural appropriation
the process by which other cultures adopt customs and knowledge and use them for their own benefit

seeking out the regional culture and reinvigorating it in response to the uncertainty of the modern world

ethnic neighborhoods
a place where local cultures have successfully built a world apart, a place to practice their customs, within a major city

the process by which something that previously was not regarded as an object to be bought or sold becomes an object that can be bought or sold and traded in the world market; example, dreamcatchers

the accuracy with which a single stereotypical image or experience conveys an otherwise dynamic and complex local culture to its customs

distance decay
the effects of distance on interaction; the greater the distance, the less interaction; not a valid theory

time space compression
explains how quickly innovations diffuse and refers to how interlinked two places are through transportation and communication technologies

referring to the process in which people start to produce an aspect of popular culture themselves, doing so in the context of their local culture and place, making it their own

cultural landscape
the tension between globalized popular culture and local culture can be seen in this (the visible imprint of human activity on the landscape) reflects values, norms, and aesthetics of culture

the loss of uniqueness of place in the cultural landscape to the point that one place looks like the next

global-local continuum
cultural borrowing and mixing is happening around the world; emphasizes what happens at one scale is not independent of what happens at other scales

people in a local place mediate and alter regional, national, and global processes

a cultures assumptions about the differences between men and women; their characters, the role they play in society, what they represent

how we make sense of ourselves; constructed through experiences, emotions, connections, and rejections; identities are fluid, constantly changing and becoming; place and space are important because our perceptions and experiences in place help make sense of who we are

identifying against
first define the “other” and then define oneself as “not the other”

a constructed identity; a categorization of humans based on skin color and other physical features

the concept of superiority attached to race

residential segregation
degree to which two or more groups live separately from one another in different parts of the urban environment (Douglas Massey and Nancy Denton)

new immigrants to a city often move to areas occupied by older immigrants; one ethnic group moves into an area and dominates that other culture successfully transforming the neighborhood for their group

sense of place
infusing a place with meaning and feeling (Gillian Rose); fluid; changes as the place changes and people change

stems from the notion that people are closely bounded, even related, in a certain place over time; comes from Greek word, ethnos meaning “people” or “nation”; affiliation or identity within a group of people bound by common ancestry and culture

social relations stretched out (Massey and Jess)

particular articulations of those social relations as they have come together, over time, in that particular location (Massey and Jess)

places designed for women or men

queer theory
theories that explain and inform our understanding of sexuality and space

dowry deaths
caused by disputes over the price to be paid by the bride’s family to the groom’s father; killed for her father’s failure to fulfill the marriage agreement

referring to the Spanish word, barrio, meaning neighborhood; change in neighborhood in which the Hispanic population jumps to a very high percentage; a cultural landscape is thus changed to the culture of the new population

money that migrants send home to their family

cyclic movements
involves shorter periods of time away from home; involves journeys that begin at our home base and bring us back to it

periodic movement
involves longer periods of time away from home; common type is migrant labor

involves a degree of permanence the other two do not; the mover does not return home; permanent relocation

activity spaces
daily routines that take people through a regular sequence of short moves within a local area

a movement that involves a matter of survival, culture, and tradition; takes place along long-familiar routes repeated time and again

migrant labor
involves the moving of workers to another country; type of periodic movement; when workers cross international borders in search of employment

a system of pastoral farming in which ranchers more livestock according to the seasonal availability of pastures

military service
military personnel and their families are moved to new locations where they will serve their duty

international migration
a.k.a. transnational migration; movement across country borders; movement across international boundaries

when the same person who emigrated (or leaves their home country) comes to a new country; the act of a person migrating to a new country; certain degree of permanence

internal migration
migration that occurs within a single country’s borders

forced migration
involves the imposition of authority or power, producing involuntary migration movements that cannot be understood based on theories of choice

voluntary migration
occurs after a migrant weighs options and choices (even if desperately or not rationally) and can be analyzed as a series of options that result in movement

laws of migration
created by Ernst Ravenstein; answers the question of why people voluntarily migrate with 5 statements

gravity model
predicts interaction between places on the basis of their population size and distance between them

push factors
conditions and perceptions that help the migrant decide to leave a place; negative conditions and perceptions that induce people to new locales

pull factors
circumstances that effectively attract the migrant to certain locales from other places-the decision of where to go

step migration
long, unbroken routes of migration streams; to a distant destination that occurs in stages

intervening opportunity
the presence of a nearer opportunity that diminishes the attractiveness of one farther away

being sent back to your home country

kinship link
type of push pull factor that encourage a person to move to some place where a relative or friend has found success

chain migration
migrant chooses a destination and writes, calls, or communicates through others to tell family and friends at home about the new place

global scale migration
migrations occurring on a global scale; occurred in the pursuit of spices, fame, or exploration in the 1500’s

included surveyors and cartographers; played a major role in mapping the world

a physical process whereby the colonizer takes over another place, putting its government in charge of either moving its own people into the place or bringing in indentured outsiders to gain control of the people and the land

regional scale
migrants going a neighboring country to take advantage of short-term economic opportunities, to reconnect with their cultural group across borders, or to flee political conflict or war

islands of development
places within a region or country where most foreign investment goes, where the vast majority of paying jobs are located, and where infrastructure is concentrated

guest workers
what Western governments called labor migrants

defined by the 1951 Refugee Convention as “a person who has a well-founded fear of being persecuted for reasons of race, religion, nationality, membership, of a particular social group, or political opinion” no identification, no possessions, and first steps on foot

internally displaced persons
people who have been displaced within their own countries but do not cross international borders as they flee ex. Hurricane Katrina

the right to protection in the first country in which the refugee arrives; when a refugee meets the official criteria

after violence subsides and conditions improve, UMHCR helps return refugees to their homelands

defined by the 1948 Convention on Genocide as “acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnical, racial, or religious group”

immigration laws
laws and regulations of a state designed specifically to control immigration into that state

established limits from governments on the amount of immigrants a year

selective immigration
individuals with certain backgrounds (criminal records, poor health care, subversive activities) are barred from immigrating

political geography
study of the political organization of the world

a politically organized territory with a permanent population, a defined territory, and a government; to be a state, it must be recognized by other states

the attempt by the individual or group to affect, influence, and control people, phenomena, and relationships by delimiting and asserting control over a geographic area as defined by Robert Sack

idea that there is a limited amount of wealth in the world

Peace of Westphalia
negotiated in 1648; constituted a peace that ended Europe’s Thirty Years’ War; created defined borders for states

a group of people who think of themselves as one based on a shared culture and history, and who seek some degree of political-territorial autonomy

a politically organized area in which a nation and state occupy the same space; a group of people with the same beliefs in one state

the idea that people are the ultimate sovereign; the people, and the nation have the ultimate say over what happens with the state

multinational state
a state with more than one nation inside its borders

mutlistate nation
when a nation stretches across borders and across states

stateless nations
nations do not have a state

the imperial powers exercised ruthless control over the domains and organized them for maximum economic exploitation

representation of a real world phenomena in a different dimension

in a world economy, people, corporations, and states produce goods and exchange them on the world market, with the goal of achieving profit

the process of placing a price on a good and then buying, selling, and trading the good

incorporate higher levels of education, higher salaries, and more technology; generate more wealth in the world economy

incorporate lower levels of education, lower salaries, and less technology; generate less wealth in the world economy

places where core and periphery processes are both occurring; exploited by the core but in turn exploit the periphery; islands of development

the capacity of a state to influence other states to achieve its goals through diplomatic, economic, and militaristic means

highly civilized with the capital city serving as the focus of power

subdivisions of power; organizing state territory into regions, substrates (states), provinces, or cantons; a strong federal system has regions with much control over government policies and funds

the movement of power from the central government to regional governments within the state

territorial representation
where in the House of Representatives, each representative is elected from a territorially defined district

the process by which districts are moved according to population shifts, so that each district encompasses approximately the same number of people

majority-minority districts
packed districts in which a majority of the population is from the minority

redistricting for advantage (political)

a vertical plane between states that cuts through the rocks below (subsoil) and the airspace above, diving one state territory from another

geometric boundaries
when boundaries are drawn using grid systems such as latitude and longitude or township and range

physical-political boundaries
boundaries that follow an agreed-upon feature in the physical geographic landscape, such as the center of a river or the crest of a mountain range

organic agriculture
the production of props without the use of synthetic or industrially produced pesticides and fertilizers

deliberate tending of crops and livestock to produce food, feed, and fiber

primary economic activity
involve those products closest to the ground, such as agriculture , ranching, hunting, and gathering, fishing, forestry, mining, and quarrying

secondary economic activity
those activities that take a primary product and manufacture it

tertiary economic activity
parts of the service industry, connecting producers to consumers and facilitating commerce and trade

concerned with information or the exchange of money or goods

those tied into research or higher education

plant domestication
taking wild plants and making them suitable for farming

seed crops
plants that are reproduced by cultivating seeds

First Agricultural Revolution
first domestication of seed plants that occurred in the Nile River Valley and the Fertile Crescent

animal domestication
the process of taking wild animals and making them suitable for living with people

subsistance agriculture
growing only enough food to survive and sustain themselves and their families; find building materials and firewood in their natural environment and do not enter the cash economy

shifting cultivation
when the land is stripped of vegetation cover and deprived of nutrients, the soil in these regions lose their nutrients as rain leaches out organic matter; farmers move to another land and clear the vegetation, turn the soil and start over

type of shifting cultivation; the controlled use fire where trees are cut down and all existing vegetation is burned off; a layer of ash from the fire settles and contributes to soil fertility

Second Agricultural Revolution
movement that moves agriculture beyond subsistence to generate surplus to feed the thousands of people working in factories instead of agricultural fields

Von Thunen Model
the first effort to analyze the spatial character of economic activity; a process of spatial competition allocates various farming activities into rings around a central market city, with profit earning capability the determining force in how far a crop locates from the market

Third Agricultural Revolution (Green Revolution)
scientists in the American Midwest began experimenting with technologically manipulated seed varieties to increase crop yield

genetically modified organically (GMO’s)
moving the genes of one type of plant and transferring it to another

rectangular survey system
the prevailing survey system throughout most of the United States; appears as checkerboards across agricultural fields

township and range system
designed to facilitate the movement of non-Indians evenly across farmlands of the U. S. interior; imposed a rigid grid-like pattern on the land

metes and bounds survey
natural features were used to demarcate irregular parcels of land

long-lot survey system
divided land into narrow parcels stretching back from rivers, roads, or canals

all land passes to the eldest son; Germanic system

commercial agriculture
agriculture of large-scale grain producers and cattle ranches, mechanized equipment; stuff for a profit

dependence on a single agricultural commodity

Koppen climate classification system
classifies the world’s climates on the basis of temperature and precipitation

climatic regions
areas with similar characteristics

plantation agriculture
when cash crops are grown on large estates

luxury crops
non-subsistence crops (tea, cacao, coffee)

Mediterranean agriculture
refers to the Mediterranean climate zone where grapes, olives, citrus, vegetables, and dates grow

provides a vast array of goods and services to support the agricultural industry

urban morphology
the layout of a city; its physical form and structure

conglomeration of people and buildings clustered together to serve as a center of politics, culture, and economics

the buildup of the central city and the suburban realm

agricultural village
relatively small in size; everyone in it involved in agriculture; people live near subsistence levels

agricultural surplus
enable the formation of cities; agricultural production in excess and then sold for consumption of others

social stratification
enable the formation of cities; the differentiation of society into classes based on wealth, power, production, and prestige; layers

leadership class
(urban elite)consisted of a group of decision makers and organizers who controlled the food supply, including its production, storage, and distribution

First Urban Revolution
innovation of the city; took place in five separate hearths (Mesoamerica, Nile Valley, Mesopotamia, Indus Valley, Huang He River Valley)

3500 B.C. referring to the region of great cities located between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers (281)

Nile River Valley
3200 B.C. second hearth of urbanization (281)

Indus River Valley
2200 B.C. agriculture diffused from the Fertile Crescent

Huang He (Yellow) and Wei (Yangtzi) River Valleys
1500 B.C. fourth urban hearth (282)

200 B.C. fifth urban hearth (282)

acro=highpoint polis=city; where people built their most impressive structures i.e. religious buildings; the upper fortified part of an ancient Greek city usually devoted to religious purposes

means market; public space that became the focus for commercial activity ; open, spacious squares with steps leading steps; in ancient Greece, public spaces where citizens debated, lectured, judged each other, planned military campaigns, socialized, and traded

suitable locales for settlements; the internal physical attributes of a place, including its absolute location, its spatial character and physical setting

Romans mixed the Greek acropolis and agora to form this; includes the world’s first stadium, the Coliseum; the focal point of Roman public life

its relative location; its place in the region and world around it; external location of a place with reference to other nonlocal places

trade area
an adjacent region within which its influence is dominant; customers from smaller towns come here to shop and conduct other business

rank-size rule
holds that in a model urban hierarchy, the population of a city or town will be inversely proportional to its rank in the hierarchy. for example, the second largest city to the primate city will have half the population of that city

Central place theory
Walter Christaller wrote a book The Central Places in Southern Germany to explain where cities, towns, and villages are likely to be located; based on assumptions: land has to be flat and have no physical barriers, population and purchasing power is equal everywhere, uniform transportation network, equal soil fertility, and the ability for goods to move in all directions; not a valid theory because not many places meet the criteria (Midwest, Germany, China)

sunbelt phenomenon
Larry Ford says that central place notions still have a role in explaining current developments; the movement of millions of Americans from northern and northeastern states to the South and Southeast

functional zonation
the division of a city into certain regions for certain purposes

conveys the purpose of that area of the city; area of a city with a relatively uniform land

central business district
key economic zone of a city; downtown heart of a city; marked by high land values, a concentration of business and commerce, and the clustering of the tallest buildings

central city
the urban area that is not suburban

an outlaying, functionally uniform part of an urban area

the process by which lands that were previously outside of the urban environment become urbanized

concentric zone model
reflects the change and growth in the geographic layout of North American cities; (1920’s) Ernest Burgess; first looked at Chicago and noticed a uniform structure; concentric zone model-central business district in the middle, poor people, the Blue Collar workers so they can get to their jobs easily, middle class workers (own their own businesses), upper class; more land to build large houses

edge cities
suburban downtowns that developed mainly around large shopping centers and large businesses

urban realm
describe the spatial components of the modern metropolis where each realm is a separate economic, social, and political entity that is linked together to form the larger metropolis; demonstrates that outer cities are not satellites of the central city but are also shaping the metropolis

Griffen Ford Model
Ernst Griffin and Larry Ford derived this model of the Latin American cities; blend certain elements and reshape the urban scene; plantation agriculture- only the elite in society are rich; colonial central business district- based on agriculture and has a legacy of colonialism; not a lot of industry or the remains of factories; large market areas to sell products from colonizing powers; market place and colonial central business district are the in the center; on either side of the “spine” or road, live the elite residential sector (rich people); there is a very large gap between the wealthy and the poor people due to colonization.; disamenity sectors- poor neighborhoods; barrios; slums have actual construction and shanty towns are just thrown-together developments; the government set up a loop road all around the cities because the spine is shut down on Sundays; these loop roads are dangerous because they go through disamentity sectors and there are lots of gangs; then factories are built as far away from the rich people as possible but have a road linked to it because the rich people own the cities

disamenity sector
the very poorest parts of cities and are not connected to regular services

McGee model
studies the medium size cities of South-east Asia and found they exhibit similar land-use patterns; in Asia, rich and poor people live directly next to each other; Confucianism- be nice to everybody; Daoism- told rulers how to rule to gain everyone’s respect; individual choices and freedom; central business district is located around the port because its based on trade; western commercial zone- trade with all the western powers; alien commercial zone- China; the areas that colonized; based on migration from the past

unplanned developments of crude dwellings and shelters made of scrap materials

zoning laws
ensure use of space in ways that the society would deem acceptable; legal restrictions on land use that determine what types of building and economic activities are allowed to take place

identify what is considered as risky neighborhoods with Blacks and refuse to offer loans to this district; by restricting access to loans, private industries can change neighborhoods into bad ones; decrease quality of life

realtors would solicit other white residents to sell their homes because the neighborhood was supposedly going downhill because of blacks; realtors stir up fears

transforming the central city into an area attractive to residents and tourist

when individuals buy and rehabilitate the houses, raising the housing value

houses that the new owners bought with the intention of tearing them down and making them better

super-size and familiar style of house

urban sprawl
unrestricted growth of housing, commercial developments, and roads over large expanses of land

new urbanism
development, urban revitalization, and suburban reforms that create walkable neighborhoods with housing and jobs

gated communities
fenced in neighborhoods which controlled access gates for people and cars

informal economy
the economy that is not taxed and is not counted toward a country’s gross national income

world cities
function at the global scale, beyond the reach of the state borders, functioning as the service centers of the world economy

primate city
a country’s leading city, always disproportionately large and exceptionally expressive of national capacity and feeling; usually the capital and is the largest city

spaces of consumption
the global media industry is becoming the driving force in reshaping cities

commodity chain
a series of links connecting many places of production and distribution and resulting in a commodity that is then exchanged on the market

progress is being made in technology, production, and socioeconomic welfare

gross national product (GNP)
a measure of the total value of the officially recorded goods and services produced by the citizens and corporations of a country in a given year

gross domestic product (GDP)
only goods and services produced within a country during a given year

gross national income (GNI)
calculates the monetary worth of what is produced within a country plus income received from investments outside the country

per capita (GNI)
dividing the GNI by the population of the country

formal economy
the legal economy that governments tax and monitor

informal economy
the illegal or uncounted economy that governments do not tax or keep track of

the combination of what is happening at a variety of scales concurrently

the major world powers control the economies of the poorer countries even though the poorer countries are politically independent states

structural theory
difficult-to change, large scale economic arrangements can shape what can happen in fundamental ways

dependancy theory
the political and economic relationships between countries and regions of the world control and limit the economic development possibilities of poorer areas

through which a country’s currency is abandoned in favor of the dollar

modernization model
Rostow’s ladder of development- the richer you are, the more developed you are (assumption)5 stages- (1) traditional level of development (basic economies, primary)(2) Pre-conditions for takeoff- conditions are setting for massive economic growth (3) takeoff- high growth stage (4) drive to maturity- leveling off into a stable stage of development (5) maturity

world-systems theory
provides insights to the political organization of space, Immanuel Wallerstein; (1) The world economy has one market and a global division of labor (2) Although the world has multiple states, almost everything takes place within the context of the world economy (3) The world economy has a three tiered structure

three-tier structure
the core, semi-periphery, and periphery; helps explain the interconnections between places in the global economy

millenium development goals
the goals that are supposed to improve the conditions of the people living in the countries with the lowest standards of human development

when adults and children fleeing poverty or seeking better prospects are manipulated, deceived, and bullied into working in conditions that they would not choose

structural adjustment loans
loans granted by international financial institutions in exchange for certain economic and government reforms in that country

government intervention into markets is inefficient and undesirable and should be resisted whenever possible

vectored disease
Non-vectored is direct contact and it is usually people to people. Vectored is transmitted by a host usually an insect. those spread by one host (person) to another by an intermediate host or vector

an infectious disease spread by mosquitos that carry the parasite in their saliva

export proccessing zone
offers favorable tax, regulatory, and trade arrangements to foreign firms

in Northern Mexico, the zone with factories supplying manufactured goods to the U.S. market; type of export processing zone

special economic zones
specific area within a country in which tax incentives and less stringent environmental regulations are implemented to attract foreign business and investment

North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)
established in 1992 and included the U.S., Mexico, and Canada; prompted further industrialization of the border region

caused mainly by humans destroying vegetation and eroding soils through the overuse of lands for livestock grazing or crop production

island of development
when a government or corporation builds up and concentrates economic development in a certain city or small region; place built up by government to attract foreign investment and has high concentrations of paying jobs and infrastructure

non-governmental organizations (NGO’s)
are not run by state or local governments; operate independently; usually reserved for entities that operate as nonprofits

microcredit program
give loans to people, particularly women, to encourage development of small businesses

Industrial Revolution
the social and economic changes in agriculture, commerce and manufacturing that resulted in technological innovations; began in England and followed the coal seam

location theory
predicting where businesses can and will be located

variable cost
needs when choosing an industrial location

friction of distance
the increase in time and cost that usually comes with increasing distance

least cost theory
Alfred Webber; accounted for the location of manufacturing plants in terms of owner’s desire to minimize three categories of costs (1 most important) transportation the sit chosen must entail the lowest possible cost of moving raw materials to the factory and finished products to the market (2) labor a factory might do better if cheap labor made up for any added transportation costs because higher labor costs reduce the margin of profit (3) agglomeration when a substantial number of enterprises cluster in the same area, they can provide assistance to each other through shared talents, services, and facilities

when a substantial number of enterprises cluster in the same area and provide assistance to each other through shared talents, services, and facilities

describes industries that leave the crowded urban area and move to other locations

locational interdependance
when competitors seek to constrain each other’s territory which leads them to be adjacent to each other; Harold Hotelling

primary industrial regions
each consists of one or more core areas of industrial development with subsidiary clusters

break-of-bulk point
cargo is transported from one mode of transportation to another and generates employments, activity, and wealth

the dominant mode of transportation that endured for much of the past century and during WW11; Henry Ford changed the way automobiles were produced; assembly line; Ford allowed people to specialize; the materials would come to you on an assembly line and one worker would do the same job and be able to specialize that job

“just in time production”; a more flexible set of production practices in which the components of goods are made in different places around the globe and then brought together is needed to meet market demand; means that things aren’t made only on-sight like they used to be; got rid of warehouses and built in factories then shipped and assembled based on demand

just-in-time delivery
companies keep on hand just what they need for near-term project planning

global division of labor
corporations can draw from labor around the globe from different companies of production; made possible by the compression of space and time through innovation in communication and transportation services

intermodal connections
places where two or more modes of transportation meet in order to ease the flow of goods and reduce the cost of transportation

companies move industrial jobs to other regions with cheaper labor, leaving the newly deindustrialized economy to switch to service economy and work through a period of high unemployment

to turn over in part or in total to a third party

an outsource located outside the country

southern region of the United States; southeast to southwest

an area planned for high technology where agglomeration built on synergy among technological companies occurs

chloroflourocarbons (CFC’s)
synthetic organic compounds used primarily as refrigerants and as propellants

supercontinent that broke into fragments that we now know as Africa, Americas, Eurasia, and Australia

the conversion of carbon dioxide and water into carbohydrates through the absorption of sunlight

mass depletions
loss of diversity through a failure to produce new species

mass extinctions
mass destruction of most species

Pacific Ring of Fire
an ocean-girdling zone of crustal instability, volcanism, and earthquakes

the most recent epoch of the Late Cenozoic Ice Age and marked by as many as 20 glaciers and interglaciations of which the currant warm phase witnessed the rise of human civilization.

a period of cooling during which continental ice sheets and mountain glaciers expand

sustained warming phase between glaciations during the ice age

Wisconsin Glaciation
the most recent glaciation of the Pleistocene; left a mark on the Northern hemisphere

what the Wisconsin Glaciation eventually gave way to this- a full-scale interglaciation, the current warm interlude; designation

Little Ice Age
temporary cooling, minor glaciation

environmental stress
the natural environment that is being stressed and modified by human activity in obvious and less obvious ways

renewable resources
resources that are replenished even as they are being used

hyrdologic cycle
distribution that brings rain and snow from the oceans to the landmasses

porous, water holding rocks

thin layer of air lying directly above the Earth’s lands and oceans

global warming
fact that Earth is gradually warming as a result of enhanced greenhouse gases in the Earth’s atmosphere caused by ever-increasing amounts of carbon dioxide produced mainly by humans

acid rain
a by-product of the enormous volume of pollutants spewed into the atmosphere; forms when sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides are released into the atmosphere by the burning of fossil fuels

oxygen cycle
natural processes and human activity consume atmospheric oxygen and produce carbon dioxide and the Earth’s forests and other flora consume carbon dioxide and produce oxygen

the clearing and destruction of forests to harvest wood for consumption, clear land for agricultural uses, and make way for expanding settlement frontiers

solid waste
non-liquid, non-soluble materials

sanitary landfills
in richer countries, solid waste is thrown in this large hole that has been prepared with treatment to make sure it won’t leak or seep

toxic wastes
the danger is caused chemicals , infectious materials

radioactive wastes
two types: low level which give off small amounts of radiation and are produced by industry, hospitals, research facilities, and nuclear power plants; high level which emit strong radiation and are produced by nuclear power plants and nuclear weapon factories

the diversity of all aspects of life found on Earth; from the genetic variability within individuals of a species to the diversity of ecosystems on the planet

ozone layer
naturally occurring layer that exists in the upper layers of the stratosphere; protects the Earth’s surface from harmful ultra violet rays

Vienna Convention for the Protection of the ozone
the first international convention to address the issue of the destruction of the ozone layer; 1985

Montreal Protocol
an international agreement signed in 1987 by 105 countries; called for a reduction and consumption of chlorofluorocarbons of 50%

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