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Human Genetics: Chapter 18

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Genes that normally prevent cell division are
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tumor suppressors
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BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations
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are incompletely penetrant
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Invasive malignant tumors typically contain mutations that affect the cytoskeleton and allow the cell to move from where it is anchored
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true
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A cancer stem cell can divide to give rise to
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tumor cells, abnormal daughter cells, normal cells, and more cancer stem cells.
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Several genes that cause inherited forms of breast cancer have _____ in common.
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interference with repair of a double-strand DNA breaks
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Sporadic cancers result from
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recessive or dominant mutation in a somatic cell.
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Matthew has the inherited form of the eye cancer retinoblastoma. His disease is caused by
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a germinal mutation in one RB allele, then a somatic mutation in the other allele.
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In 1971, cancer was thought to be caused by
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radiation, viruses, and chemical exposures.
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Loss of tumor suppression in a cell usually results from
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a deletion of a tumor suppressor gene.
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When tumor cell DNA is examined from people at different stages of the same cancer type, mutations that are common to all of them
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act early in the disease.
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A breast cancer test for HER2 considers
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genotype
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A way that a microRNA can cause cancer is to
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block translation of tumor suppressor gene transcripts.
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A cancer’s spread is called
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metastasis
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Which of these are thought to have anti-cancer benefits?
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cruciferous vegetables such as broccoli
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A proto-oncogene can become an oncogene when
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it is translocated next to a highly expressed gene.
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Which type of study would compare the incidence of colon cancer among Japanese and Americans of Japanese descent?
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population
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The oncogene that causes Burkitt’s lymphoma results from
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A translocation that moves a proto-oncogene next to an antibody gene.
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Chronic myeloid leukemia is caused by a translocation that creates
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a fusion protein that deregulates the cell cycle of myeloid white blood cells.
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People were trying to treat cancer as long ago as
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1600 B.C.
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Mutations in microRNAs can explain families who have different cancers but do not have mutation for known family cancer syndrome genes because
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a single type of microRNA can have many targets
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Pancreatic cancer typically begins 10 to 15 years before it causes abdominal pain and by the time diagnosis usually occurs, it has usually to the point where it is lethal within two years.
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true
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Research has shown that a “cocktail” of several drugs, each acting on a different cellular pathway, is the best approach to treat many cancers.
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true
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The diets of 250 patients with pancreatic cancer are compared to the diets of 250 healthy individuals, over a four month period. The patients and controls are matched one for one for age, sex, and body mass index. The cancer patients tended to eat more barbecued meat, and none of them were vegetarians. The healthy group included 30 vegetarians and only four of the 250 regularly ate barbecued meat. The researchers conclude that it would be worthwhile to further test the hypothesis that compounds in charred meat cause pancreatic cancer. What type of study is this?
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case-control
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The term used to describe the fact that cancer cells have lost the specializations of the cells from which they descend is
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dedifferentiated
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A cancer cell is injected into a healthy mouse. The mouse develops tumors. This experiment indicates that cancer is
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transplantable.
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Mitosis in a cancer cell can be compared to a runaway train that is racing along without signals and control points.
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true
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Cancer does not typically follow a Mendelian pattern of inheritance because it is usually caused by
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specific combinations of alleles and an environmental factor.
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The cause of p53-related cancers is
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failure to repair damaged DNA, allowing the cell to continue dividing.
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Dana Reeve, the wife of actor Christopher Reeve, died at a young age from lung cancer, although she had never smoked. Her cancer was likely caused by
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a germline mutation.
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In addition to activated oncogenes and inactivated tumor suppressor genes, epigenetic changes in gene expression are seen in cancer.
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true
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Cancer cells
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divide uncontrollably and are immortal.
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The connection between stem cells and cancer is that
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cells may become cancerous by expressing “stemness” genes.
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Traditional cancer treatments include
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surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation.
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In normal differentiated somatic cells, telomerase
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is not expressed and telomere tips erode with each division.
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Tanisha was just diagnosed with an aggressive form of breast cancer called Her-2/neu. The cancer started because
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her affected breast cells have many extra receptors for epidermal growth factor, and so they receive too many signals to divide.
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All cancers reflect, at the most general level, a defect in
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the cell cycle.
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Types of genetic information in a cancer “atlas” include
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mutations, gene expression, SNPs, microRNAs, and copy number variants.
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After mutations begin a cancer, other factors that influence whether the disease proceeds include
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location of the cancerous cell in the tissue, and how specialized the cell is
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The first mutation typically detected in FAP colon cancer is
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APC
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A recently developed cancer treatment is
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inhibiting angiogenesis.
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Growth of new blood vessels in and around tumors is called
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angiogenesis
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A gatekeeper gene
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regulates apoptosis and mitosis.
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In Wilms’ tumor,
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cells in a child’s kidney divide as frequently as if they were still in a fetus.
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A(n) _______ is a type of cancer-causing gene that promotes cancer by activating cell division at an inappropriate time or place
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oncogene
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Cancer cells are not
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contact inhibited.
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Matthew has the inherited form of the eye cancer retinoblastoma. His disease is caused by
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a germinal mutation in one RB allele, then a somatic mutation in the other allele.