Human A & P

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The secretion of pituitary hormones is largely controlled by the______.
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hypothalamus
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Steroid hormones produce their effects by
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activating genes
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Parathyroid hormones stimulates:
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osteoclast activity
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Insulin will result in:
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a decrease in the concentration of blood glucose
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The secretion of hormones from the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland is largely controlled by
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impulses from the hypothalamus
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Which of the following hormones exerts its effect primarily o the reproductive organs?
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follicle-stimulating hormone
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An example of a hormone secreted by the adrenal medulla is:
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epinephrine
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Diabetes insipidus is caused by
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a lack of ADH
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A person with an abnormally high metabolic rate, underweight, and as protruding eyes has symptoms of:
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hyperthyroidism
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The hormone that decreases the plasma calcium concentration is:
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calcitonin
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Cancer patients often develop endocrine disorders because:
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cancer cells sometimes secrete hormones inappropriately
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This promotes the movement of amino acids into cells, increases the rate of cell division, and promotes bone growth.
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Growth hormone
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The master gland that controls many bodily functions is the:
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Pituitary
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Which glands control the amount of calcium in the blood and bones?
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parathyroid and calcitonin
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Bodily chemical messengers that send messages via the blood from one set of cells to another, affecting changes are:
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hormones
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A group of cells that gives off or secrete chemicals
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Gland
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This links the nervous system to the endocrine system via the pituitary gland.
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hypothalamus
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This gland affects wake/sleep patterns and seasonal functions.
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pineal
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These glands release hormones in conjunction with stress.
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Adrenal
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This gland controls how quickly the body uses energy, makes proteins and controls how sensitive the body should be to other hormones.
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Thyroid
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Along with the nervous system, the ____ system coordinates the various activities of body parts
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endocrine
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What do you call a hormone in an insect that is a sex attractant?
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pheromone
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The endocrine system is quicker than the nervous system.
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False
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Hormones are chemicals that fall into two basic categories:
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non-steroid(peptide) hormones and steroid hormones
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The receptors for non-steroid peptide hormones are on the:
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plasma membrane
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Steroid hormones _______ bind to plasma membrane receptors.
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do not
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The pituitary is located beneath the ______ in the brain.
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thalamus and hypothalamus
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The hypothalamus regulates:
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heart rate, body temp, water balance, & glandular secretions
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The pituitary gland is divided into what two portions?
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anterior and posterior
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The posterior pituitary stores and secretes:
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ADH and oxytocin
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The functions of oxytocin are:
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cause the uterus to contract, induce labor, & stimulate the release of milk from the mammary glands
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Hypothalamic releasing and release-inhibiting hormones are transported from the hypothalamus to the anterior pituitary by way of ________ .
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a portal system of blood vessels directly connecting the two organs
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Growth hormone promotes:
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cell division, protein synthesis, and bone growth
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Acromegaly
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abnormal growth of the hands, feet, and face, caused by overproduction of growth hormone by the pituitary gland.
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The parathyroid glands are located:
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imbedded in the posterior surface of the thyroid gland
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The thyroid gland is attached to the trachea just ________ the larynx.
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below
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If _____ is lacking in the diet, the thyroid gland enlarges, producing a goiter.
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iodine
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Thyroxine
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the thyroid hormone, accelerates oxidative metabolism though out the body
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triiodothyronine
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Hormone secreted by the thyroid gland (contains three atoms of iodine); stimulates body metabolism; T3.
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If the thyroid fails to develop properly from childhood, a condition called _____ results.
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cretinism
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Hyperthyroidism in adults produces a condition called _____ .
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myxedema
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The thyroid gland produces
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thyroxine (T4), tri-iodothyronine (T3) and calcitonin
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Calcitonin is balanced by the action of:
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parathyroid hormone
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This causes blood phosphate level to decrease
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parathroid hormone (PTH)
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If insufficient PTH is produced, the blood calcium level drops, resulting in:
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tetany, where the body shakes from continuous muscle contraction.
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Calcium plays an important role in:
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neural conduction, muscle contraction, & blood clotting
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The adrenal glands consist of:
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the inner medulla and the outer cortex
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The medulla and the cortex of the adrenal glands function ________.
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independently
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The adrenal medulla secrets _______ under conditions of stress.
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norepinephrine and epinephrine
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The adrenal _____ secretes a small amount of both sex hormones.
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cortex
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Cortisol is a:
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glucocorticoid
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ACTH controls the secretion of :
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aldosterone
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Aldosterone regulates the levels of:
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blood sodium and potassium
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The primary target organ of Aldosterone is:
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the kidney
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The pancreas has both ____ & ____ tissue
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exocrine, endocrine
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The pancreatic endocrine tissues are called :
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Islets of Langerhans
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The pancreatic islets produce:
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insulin and glucagon
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There is/are ____ types of diabetes mellitus.
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two
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In ____ diabetes mellitus the pancreas in NOT producing insulin.
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type I
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Insulin functions to :
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stimulate uptake of glucose by cells
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Glucagon ________ the action of insulin.
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counters
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Type II diabetes usually occurs in people who are:
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obese and inactive
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The ___ are the male sex hormones.
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androgens
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Anabolic steroids are __ forms of testosterone.
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synthetic
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The thymus ______ in size with aging.
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decreases
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The thymus aids the differentiation of ____ cells.
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T
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The _____ produces the hormone melatonin.
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pineal gland
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________ is involved with circadian rythms.
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Melatonin
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The family of chemical messengers that causes the pain and discomfort, as in menstruation are:
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prostaglandins
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What inhibits the synthesis of prostaglandins, and helps reduce pain?
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aspirin

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