Honors Anatomy and Physiology Final Exam Study Guide

The difference between the study of anatomy and physiology
Anatomy is the study of the structures, while physiology is the study of the functions of these structures

The Levels of Organization in the Human Body
Atoms
Molecule
Organelle
Cell
Tissue
Organ
Organ Systems
Organism

What is Hematopoiesis
The formation of blood cells in the living body and is made in the skeletal system

What are the necessary life functions?
Maintaining boundaries
Movement
Responsiveness
Digestion
Metabolism
Excretion
Reproduction
Growth

What are the five survival needs?
Nutrients (food)
Oxygen
Water
Body Temperature
Atmospheric Pressure

What is homeostasis?
The maintenance of stable internal environments

What two body systems control homeostasis?
Nervous and Endocrine Systems

What is the order of the homeostatic control system?
Stimulus, Receptor, Afferent Pathway, Control Center, Efferent Pathway, Effectors, Response

What is the element of the homeostatic feedback mechanism that detects change?
Receptor

What is the element of the homeostatic feedback mechanism that sets the normal range?
Control Center

What is the element of the homeostatic feedback mechanism that is usually a gland?
Effector

What type of feedback operates in such a way to shut off or reduce the initial stimulus?
Negative Feedback

What type of feedback mechanism operates to enhance or increase the original stimulus?
Positive Feedback

Body is erect with feet parallel and arms hanging at the sides with palms facing forward is an example of what?
Anatomical Position

Vertebral is describing what?
Spine

Antecubital is describing what?
Front of the elbow

Scapular is describing what?
Shoulder blade

Thoracic is describing what?
Chest

Peroneal is describing what?
Side of the leg

Gluteal is describing what?
Buttocks

Popliteal is describing what?
Back of the knee

Sural is describing what?
Calf

Sternal is describing what?
Breastbone

Tarsal is describing what?
Ankle

Inguinal is describing what?
Groin area

The lungs are ______ to the heart.
Lateral

The heart is ________ to the lungs.
Medial

The wrist is ______ to the elbow.
Distal

The knee is ________ to the ankle.
Proximal

Ventral Body Cavity includes
Cranial, Thoracic cavity, Abdominal cavity and Abdominiopelvic cavity

Dorsal Body Cavity Includes
Spinal Cavity, Pelvic Cavity

What is a section that divides the body on the longitudinal plane into right and left parts?
Sagittal plane

What type of section could used to separate the thoracic cavity from the abdominopelvic?
Transversal/Cross-Section

____ are compounds that release hydrogen ions (protons) when dissolved in water
Acids

What is the sub-unit of a carbohydrate?
Simple Sugars or Monosaccarides

What is the sub-unit of a protein?
Amino Acids

What is the sub-unit of a lipid?
Fatty Acids and glycerol?

What is the sub-unit of a nucleic acid?
Nucleotides

Hemoglobin is a type of what?
Protein

Starch is a type of what?
Carbohydrate

Triglycerides are a type of what?
Carbohydrates

Collagen is a type of what?
Protein

Keratin is a type of what?
Protein

What are the four types of tissue found in the human body?
Epithelial, Connective, Muscle, Nervous

What is the function of epithelial tissue?
Protection, Absorption, Filtration, and Secretion

What is the function of connective tissue?
Binding tissues together, support and protection

What is the function of muscle tissue?
to produce movement

What is the function of nervous tissue?
send and receive messages to other areas of the body

What type of tissue it well vascularized and has an extensive matrix?
Connective tissue

What tissue is found lining body organs, covering the body surfaces or is found covering glandular surfaces?
Epithelial tissue

What type of tissue contains intercalated disks?
Cardiac muscle tissue

What are the six types of connective tissue?
blood
areolar
bone (oseous)
adipose
cartilage
dense connective

What are the four types of body membranes?
Cutaneous
Mucous
Serous
Synovial

Cutaneous membrane contains what type of tissues?
Epithelial

Mucous membrane contains what type of tissues?
epithelial and connective

Serous membrane contains what type of tissues?
epithelial and connective

Synovial membrane contains what type of tissues?
Connective

The outer membrane that is in contact with the cavity wall is called the ____ membrane
parietal

The inner membrane that is in contact with the organ is called the ____ membrane
visceral

Where would you find the parietal pericardium?
the heart

Where would you find the parietal pleura?
the lungs

Where would you find the visceral peritoneum?
abdominal organs

What protein waterproofs the skin?
Keratin

What type of tissue makes up the external skin region?
stratified squamous epithelial

What layer of the skin is lacking blood supply?
Epidermis

How does the epidermis get nutrients?
Diffusion of blood from underlying dermis

What are the layers of the epidermis from the outermost layer to the innermost layer? (Come Let’s Get Sun Burnt)
Stratum Corneum
Stratum Lucidum
Stratum Granulosum
Stratum Spinosum
Stratum Basale

Acne is an inflammation of the _____ glands?
Sebacceous

The papillary layer of the dermis has structures called the ____ that creates fingerprints.
Dermal Papillae

What are the two most life threatening concerns if a person has severe burns?
Dehydration and infection

What clues would indicate that a person has melanoma?
Asymmetry
Border Irregularity
Color
Diameter > 6mm

What are the functions of the skeletal system?
Support, Storage (minerals and fats), Blood cell production (hematopoeisis)

Vertebrae are considered what type of bone?
Irregular bones

Ankles are considered what type of bone?
Short bones

What type of marrow functions to produce blood cells?
Red marrow

What type of marrow functions to store fat tissue?
Yellow marrow

How is compact bone characterized?
Smooth, homogeneous look

How is spongy bone characterized?
spongy, porous, trabeculae

What would the presence of an epiphyseal plate indicate?
Growth

What is the functioning unit of bone?
Osteon

The middle of an osteon is a canal which contains?
Blood vessels and nerve fibers

The small cavities in bone tissue where osteocytes are found are called?
lacunae

What two hormones control the growth of long bones?
Growth and sex hormones

What two types of bone cells control remodelling?
Osteoblasts and Osteoclasts

What three factors affect bone remodeling?
Mechanical stress, Diet and hormones

An excess of parathyroid hormone can ____ bone breakdown by causing _____ activity of osteoclasts
increase, increase

What are the five regions of the vertebral column from superior to inferior?
Cervical, Thoracic, Lumbar, Sacrum, Coccyx

How many are there of the cervical vertebrae?
7

How many are there of the thoracic vertebrae?
12

How many are there of the lumbar vertebrae?
5

The mastoid process is a landmark found on the ____ bone
temporal

What are the two types of involuntary muscle tissue?
Smooth and cardiac

Which connective tissue surrounds an individual muscle cell?
Endomysium

What is the area between two z lines called? (Also known as the functional contracting unit of muscle)
Sarcomere

What are thin filaments also called?
Actin

What are thick filaments also called?
Myosin

What is the joint movement that decreases an angle between two bones?
Flexion

What is the joint movement that increases the angle between two bones?
Extension

What is the joint movement where you are moving away from the midline of your body?
Abduction

What is the joint movement where your palms are facing down?
Pronation

What is the joint movement where your toes are pulling towards the shin?
Dorsiflexion

What is the joint movement where you are pointing your toes?
Plantarflexion

The term central nervous system refers to the what?
brain and spinal cord

What is the part of the neuron that normally receives the stimuli?
Dendrites

What is the mass of white lipid material that insulate the axon of a neuron?
Myelin Sheath

What is a neuron whose primary function is connection other neurons?
association or interneuron

What is the first step of action potential?
Sodium channels open and sodium diffuses inward

What is the second step of action potential?
The membrane becomes depolarized

What is the third step of action potential?
Potassium channels open and potassium ions diffuse outward while sodium is actively transported out of the cell

What is the last step of action potential?
The membrane becomes repolarized

What are the three major parts of the brain stem?
Midbrain, Pons, Medulla Oblongata

What lobe of the brain contains the primary motor area?
Frontal lobe

What does Broca’s Area control?
Speech

What part of the brain controls temperature, endocrine activity, and thirst?
Hypothalamus

What part of the brain is the vital center for the control of heart rate, respiration, and blood pressure?
Medulla oblongata

What part of the nervous system controls the “fight or flight” response?
Autonomic Nervous System

What is the clear anterior portion of the sclera called?
cornea

Where is the “blind spot” of the eye located?
Optic nerve

What is the portion of the eye that regulates the amounts of light entering the eye?
Iris

Where is the greatest visual acuity found in the eye?
Fovea Centralis

What is the white of the eye called?
sclera

What is the blood rich tunic that contains dark pigment to prevent light from scattering?
choroid tunic

What is the flexible, biconvex-crystal like structure of the eye that focuses images on the retina?
lens

What is the order that light passes as it enters the eye?
cornea
aqueous humor
lens
vitreous humor

What major processes do hormones control?
maintaining electrolyte balance
growth and development
mobilizing body defenses against stressors
regulates cellular metabolism

What type of feedback usually regulates hormone concentrations in the body?
negative feedback

What gland is located in “turk’s saddle” of the sphenoid bone?
pituitary gland

What is the hormone that triggers ovulation of an egg from the female ovary?
leutenizing hormone

What is the antagonist hormone to calcitonin?
Parathyroid hormone (PTH)

What hormone is produced by the pineal gland?
Melatonin

What hormone causes a decrease in the concentration of blood glucose?
Insulin

What are the receiving chambers of the heart?
the atrium

What are the discharging chambers of the heart?
the ventricles

What are valves in the heart for?
prevent the backflow of blood

The mitral valve is located where?
in between the left ventricle and left atrium

What is the pacemaker of the heart?
SA Node

What is the pathway of an impulse in the intrinsic conduction system of the heart, starting with the SA (sinoatrial node)?
Save His Bundles Please
SA Node
AV Node
Bundle of His
Purkinje Fibers

What is the lub sound of the heart?
Closing of Atrioventricular valves

What is the dub sound of the heart?
Closing of Semilunar valves

What is the volume of blood pumped out by a ventricle with each beat of the heart called?
stroke volume

What is the pathway of blood flow in the vascular system?
(Goes from):
Arteries
Arterioles
Capillary Beds
Venules
Veins

What blood vessel has the highest blood pressure?
arteries

What is the order in which food passes through the alimentary canal?
Mouth
Pharynx
Esophagus
Stomach
Small Intestines
Large Intestines
Anus

What is the primary function of the small intestine?
Nutrient absorption

What do swallowing and peristalsis both assist in?
Propulsion

What are the male gonads?
Testes

What are the female gonads?
Ovareis

The endocrine function of the testes is what?
Testosterone production

The exocrine function of the testes is what?
Sperm production

The “sperm forming factories” of the male reproductive system is called?
Testes (interstitial cells)

What is the order of the male duct system? (inside to outside)
Epididymis
Vas Deferens
Urethra

What is the layer of the uterus that sloughs off on a monthly basis?
Endometrium

What is the hormone that is responsible for ovulation?
Leutenizing hormone