Honors Anatomy and Physiology Final Exam Study Guide

The difference between the study of anatomy and physiology
Anatomy is the study of the structures, while physiology is the study of the functions of these structures
The Levels of Organization in the Human Body
Atoms
Molecule
Organelle
Cell
Tissue
Organ
Organ Systems
Organism
What is Hematopoiesis
The formation of blood cells in the living body and is made in the skeletal system
What are the necessary life functions?
Maintaining boundaries
Movement
Responsiveness
Digestion
Metabolism
Excretion
Reproduction
Growth
What are the five survival needs?
Nutrients (food)
Oxygen
Water
Body Temperature
Atmospheric Pressure
What is homeostasis?
The maintenance of stable internal environments
What two body systems control homeostasis?
Nervous and Endocrine Systems
What is the order of the homeostatic control system?
Stimulus, Receptor, Afferent Pathway, Control Center, Efferent Pathway, Effectors, Response
What is the element of the homeostatic feedback mechanism that detects change?
Receptor
What is the element of the homeostatic feedback mechanism that sets the normal range?
Control Center
What is the element of the homeostatic feedback mechanism that is usually a gland?
Effector
What type of feedback operates in such a way to shut off or reduce the initial stimulus?
Negative Feedback
What type of feedback mechanism operates to enhance or increase the original stimulus?
Positive Feedback
Body is erect with feet parallel and arms hanging at the sides with palms facing forward is an example of what?
Anatomical Position
Vertebral is describing what?
Spine
Antecubital is describing what?
Front of the elbow
Scapular is describing what?
Shoulder blade
Thoracic is describing what?
Chest
Peroneal is describing what?
Side of the leg
Gluteal is describing what?
Buttocks
Popliteal is describing what?
Back of the knee
Sural is describing what?
Calf
Sternal is describing what?
Breastbone
Tarsal is describing what?
Ankle
Inguinal is describing what?
Groin area
The lungs are ______ to the heart.
Lateral
The heart is ________ to the lungs.
Medial
The wrist is ______ to the elbow.
Distal
The knee is ________ to the ankle.
Proximal
Ventral Body Cavity includes
Cranial, Thoracic cavity, Abdominal cavity and Abdominiopelvic cavity
Dorsal Body Cavity Includes
Spinal Cavity, Pelvic Cavity
What is a section that divides the body on the longitudinal plane into right and left parts?
Sagittal plane
What type of section could used to separate the thoracic cavity from the abdominopelvic?
Transversal/Cross-Section
____ are compounds that release hydrogen ions (protons) when dissolved in water
Acids
What is the sub-unit of a carbohydrate?
Simple Sugars or Monosaccarides
What is the sub-unit of a protein?
Amino Acids
What is the sub-unit of a lipid?
Fatty Acids and glycerol?
What is the sub-unit of a nucleic acid?
Nucleotides
Hemoglobin is a type of what?
Protein
Starch is a type of what?
Carbohydrate
Triglycerides are a type of what?
Carbohydrates
Collagen is a type of what?
Protein
Keratin is a type of what?
Protein
What are the four types of tissue found in the human body?
Epithelial, Connective, Muscle, Nervous
What is the function of epithelial tissue?
Protection, Absorption, Filtration, and Secretion
What is the function of connective tissue?
Binding tissues together, support and protection
What is the function of muscle tissue?
to produce movement
What is the function of nervous tissue?
send and receive messages to other areas of the body
What type of tissue it well vascularized and has an extensive matrix?
Connective tissue
What tissue is found lining body organs, covering the body surfaces or is found covering glandular surfaces?
Epithelial tissue
What type of tissue contains intercalated disks?
Cardiac muscle tissue
What are the six types of connective tissue?
blood
areolar
bone (oseous)
adipose
cartilage
dense connective
What are the four types of body membranes?
Cutaneous
Mucous
Serous
Synovial
Cutaneous membrane contains what type of tissues?
Epithelial
Mucous membrane contains what type of tissues?
epithelial and connective
Serous membrane contains what type of tissues?
epithelial and connective
Synovial membrane contains what type of tissues?
Connective
The outer membrane that is in contact with the cavity wall is called the ____ membrane
parietal
The inner membrane that is in contact with the organ is called the ____ membrane
visceral
Where would you find the parietal pericardium?
the heart
Where would you find the parietal pleura?
the lungs
Where would you find the visceral peritoneum?
abdominal organs
What protein waterproofs the skin?
Keratin
What type of tissue makes up the external skin region?
stratified squamous epithelial
What layer of the skin is lacking blood supply?
Epidermis
How does the epidermis get nutrients?
Diffusion of blood from underlying dermis
What are the layers of the epidermis from the outermost layer to the innermost layer? (Come Let’s Get Sun Burnt)
Stratum Corneum
Stratum Lucidum
Stratum Granulosum
Stratum Spinosum
Stratum Basale
Acne is an inflammation of the _____ glands?
Sebacceous
The papillary layer of the dermis has structures called the ____ that creates fingerprints.
Dermal Papillae
What are the two most life threatening concerns if a person has severe burns?
Dehydration and infection
What clues would indicate that a person has melanoma?
Asymmetry
Border Irregularity
Color
Diameter > 6mm
What are the functions of the skeletal system?
Support, Storage (minerals and fats), Blood cell production (hematopoeisis)
Vertebrae are considered what type of bone?
Irregular bones
Ankles are considered what type of bone?
Short bones
What type of marrow functions to produce blood cells?
Red marrow
What type of marrow functions to store fat tissue?
Yellow marrow
How is compact bone characterized?
Smooth, homogeneous look
How is spongy bone characterized?
spongy, porous, trabeculae
What would the presence of an epiphyseal plate indicate?
Growth
What is the functioning unit of bone?
Osteon
The middle of an osteon is a canal which contains?
Blood vessels and nerve fibers
The small cavities in bone tissue where osteocytes are found are called?
lacunae
What two hormones control the growth of long bones?
Growth and sex hormones
What two types of bone cells control remodelling?
Osteoblasts and Osteoclasts
What three factors affect bone remodeling?
Mechanical stress, Diet and hormones
An excess of parathyroid hormone can ____ bone breakdown by causing _____ activity of osteoclasts
increase, increase
What are the five regions of the vertebral column from superior to inferior?
Cervical, Thoracic, Lumbar, Sacrum, Coccyx
How many are there of the cervical vertebrae?
7
How many are there of the thoracic vertebrae?
12
How many are there of the lumbar vertebrae?
5
The mastoid process is a landmark found on the ____ bone
temporal
What are the two types of involuntary muscle tissue?
Smooth and cardiac
Which connective tissue surrounds an individual muscle cell?
Endomysium
What is the area between two z lines called? (Also known as the functional contracting unit of muscle)
Sarcomere
What are thin filaments also called?
Actin
What are thick filaments also called?
Myosin
What is the joint movement that decreases an angle between two bones?
Flexion
What is the joint movement that increases the angle between two bones?
Extension
What is the joint movement where you are moving away from the midline of your body?
Abduction
What is the joint movement where your palms are facing down?
Pronation
What is the joint movement where your toes are pulling towards the shin?
Dorsiflexion
What is the joint movement where you are pointing your toes?
Plantarflexion
The term central nervous system refers to the what?
brain and spinal cord
What is the part of the neuron that normally receives the stimuli?
Dendrites
What is the mass of white lipid material that insulate the axon of a neuron?
Myelin Sheath
What is a neuron whose primary function is connection other neurons?
association or interneuron
What is the first step of action potential?
Sodium channels open and sodium diffuses inward
What is the second step of action potential?
The membrane becomes depolarized
What is the third step of action potential?
Potassium channels open and potassium ions diffuse outward while sodium is actively transported out of the cell
What is the last step of action potential?
The membrane becomes repolarized
What are the three major parts of the brain stem?
Midbrain, Pons, Medulla Oblongata
What lobe of the brain contains the primary motor area?
Frontal lobe
What does Broca’s Area control?
Speech
What part of the brain controls temperature, endocrine activity, and thirst?
Hypothalamus
What part of the brain is the vital center for the control of heart rate, respiration, and blood pressure?
Medulla oblongata
What part of the nervous system controls the “fight or flight” response?
Autonomic Nervous System
What is the clear anterior portion of the sclera called?
cornea
Where is the “blind spot” of the eye located?
Optic nerve
What is the portion of the eye that regulates the amounts of light entering the eye?
Iris
Where is the greatest visual acuity found in the eye?
Fovea Centralis
What is the white of the eye called?
sclera
What is the blood rich tunic that contains dark pigment to prevent light from scattering?
choroid tunic
What is the flexible, biconvex-crystal like structure of the eye that focuses images on the retina?
lens
What is the order that light passes as it enters the eye?
cornea
aqueous humor
lens
vitreous humor
What major processes do hormones control?
maintaining electrolyte balance
growth and development
mobilizing body defenses against stressors
regulates cellular metabolism
What type of feedback usually regulates hormone concentrations in the body?
negative feedback
What gland is located in “turk’s saddle” of the sphenoid bone?
pituitary gland
What is the hormone that triggers ovulation of an egg from the female ovary?
leutenizing hormone
What is the antagonist hormone to calcitonin?
Parathyroid hormone (PTH)
What hormone is produced by the pineal gland?
Melatonin
What hormone causes a decrease in the concentration of blood glucose?
Insulin
What are the receiving chambers of the heart?
the atrium
What are the discharging chambers of the heart?
the ventricles
What are valves in the heart for?
prevent the backflow of blood
The mitral valve is located where?
in between the left ventricle and left atrium
What is the pacemaker of the heart?
SA Node
What is the pathway of an impulse in the intrinsic conduction system of the heart, starting with the SA (sinoatrial node)?
Save His Bundles Please
SA Node
AV Node
Bundle of His
Purkinje Fibers
What is the lub sound of the heart?
Closing of Atrioventricular valves
What is the dub sound of the heart?
Closing of Semilunar valves
What is the volume of blood pumped out by a ventricle with each beat of the heart called?
stroke volume
What is the pathway of blood flow in the vascular system?
(Goes from):
Arteries
Arterioles
Capillary Beds
Venules
Veins
What blood vessel has the highest blood pressure?
arteries
What is the order in which food passes through the alimentary canal?
Mouth
Pharynx
Esophagus
Stomach
Small Intestines
Large Intestines
Anus
What is the primary function of the small intestine?
Nutrient absorption
What do swallowing and peristalsis both assist in?
Propulsion
What are the male gonads?
Testes
What are the female gonads?
Ovareis
The endocrine function of the testes is what?
Testosterone production
The exocrine function of the testes is what?
Sperm production
The “sperm forming factories” of the male reproductive system is called?
Testes (interstitial cells)
What is the order of the male duct system? (inside to outside)
Epididymis
Vas Deferens
Urethra
What is the layer of the uterus that sloughs off on a monthly basis?
Endometrium
What is the hormone that is responsible for ovulation?
Leutenizing hormone