Homeostasis Study Guide

Homeostasis
Maintaining internal environment even if external environment changes
Illness or Death
When homeostasis is not maintained
Homeostasis works by
The body operates within normal ranges when a change occurs that takes the body out of the normal ranges, the body will compensate for these changes, by negative feedback
Negative Feedback
the compensation for the body not being in a normal range, Negative feedback is a good thing
Normal Heart Ranges
Adult: 60-90 bpm
–men: 60-70 bpm
–women: 65-80 bpm
Children 1-7 years old: 80-110
Children over 7 years old: 70-90
Infants: 100-160
Bradycardia
Abnormally slow heart rate, less than 60 bpm
Tachycardia
Abnormally fast heart rate, more than 100 bpm
Temperature
The balance between heat lost and heat produced by the body
Importance of Temperature in Homeostasis
If temperature isn’t in homeostasis, the body can’t function properly. Rates of chemical reactions in the body are regulated by body temperature.
Temperature Range
97.00-100.00 Degrees Fahrenheit
Temperature affected by
Genetics, Time of day, parts of the body
Heat is lost from the body by
Perspiration, Respiration, Excretion, Blood vessel dilation
Heat is produced from the body by
Muscle Activity, Metabolism of Food, Gland Activity, Blood Vessel Constriction
Hypothermia
Low body temperature below 95 degrees measured rectally, death usually occurs below 93 degrees
Hyperthermia
When the body temperature exceeds 104 degrees measured rectally
Pyrexia
Fever usually caused by infection or injury. Pyrexia is a good thing, it fights off infection.
Hypothalamus
Controls the temperature in the body
Pyrexia can be a bad thing
If it gets too high it will turn into hyperthermia which is where you really need to be concerned
Respirations
The process of taking in oxygen and expelling carbon dioxide from the lungs and respiratory tract. One respiration is one inspiration and one expiration.
Inspiration
Breathing in, inhale
Expiration
Breathing out, exhale
The normal respiration ranges
Adults: 12-20 breaths per minute
Children: 16-25 breaths per minute
Infants: 30-50 breaths per minute
Three things to check for when taking Respirations
Character, the quality and depth of repirations, Rythm the spacing between breaths, Rate, how fast the breathing is
Dyspnea
Difficult or labored breathing
Apnea
Absence of respirations
Tachypnea
Abnormally fast breathing
Bradypnea
Abnormally slow breathing
Orthopnea
Severe dyspnea in which breathing is very difficult in any position other than sitting or standing erect
Cheyne-Stokes Respirations
Periods of dyspnea followed by periods of apnea
Rales
Bubbling or noisy sounds caused by fluids or mucus in the air passages
Wheezing
Dyspnea with a high pitched whistling or sighing sound during respiration
Cyanosis
A bluish discoloration of the skin as a result of decreased oxygen and increased carbon dioxide in the blood
When taking respirations
Keep in mind to make sure the patient is unaware of you taking their respirations, and make sure you are not listening to bowel sounds
Radial Pulse
Taken on the wrist, lateral
Carotid Pulse
Taken on the neck, medial between the jaw bone and chin
Apical Pulse
Taken on the chest
Pulse Deficit
Where a patients apical pulse is faster than the patients radial pulse. You would assess whether a patient has a pulse deficit by taking both th apical pulse and the radial pulse.
Maintenance of homeostasis when you exercise
You begin to breath more rapidly taking in more oxygen for the muscles eventually your respirations increase to where they can not go any higher or else you can die eventually your muscles will get exhausted and you will have to stop
Acronym for LOC
A-Alert-Eyes are open
V-Verbal-Response to verbal stimuli
P-Pain-Response to painful stimuli
U-Unresponsive-Does not respond to any stimuli
A/O X 4
Alert Oriented, Alert to person, place, time, events. Knows who they are, where they are, general time, and the events to where they are or what happened to them
gastr-
Stomach
Cardi-
Heart
Megal-
Enlarged
-itis
Inflammed
Dermat-
Skin
Plast-
Surgical Repair
Cerebr-
Brain
Path-
Disease
-ectomy
Surgical removal
Enter-
Intestine
-osis
Abnormal Condition
-otomy
Cut into
Aden-
Gland
Angi-
Vessel
-oma
Tumor
Nephr-
Kidney
Hepat-
Liver
Arthr-
Joint
Blephar-
Eyelid
-ologist
Specialist
Rhin-
Nose
Gingiv-
Gum
-malacia
Soft
-ology
Study of
-spasm
Involuntary contractions
-algia
Pain
Crani-
Skull
End-
Inside, within
Hemi-
Half
Oid-
Like, resembling
Hyper-
Above more than normal, excessive
Cyst-
Sac containing fluid, urinary bladder
Chole-
Bile, Gull Bladder
Hypo-
Under, beneath, deficient
-scop
observe
Hyster-
Uterus
-ostomy
Create an opening
Para-
Beside, Beyond
-lysis
Loosening, destruction
Cervic-
Neck
Chondr-
Cartilage
Cyan-
Blue
Hem(at)-
Blood
Ost-
Bone
Psycho-
Mind
Lip-
Fat
My-
Muscle
Lith-
Stone
Ophthalm-
Eye
Proct-
Anus