Homeostasis Study Guide

Homeostasis
Maintaining internal environment even if external environment changes

Illness or Death
When homeostasis is not maintained

Homeostasis works by
The body operates within normal ranges when a change occurs that takes the body out of the normal ranges, the body will compensate for these changes, by negative feedback

Negative Feedback
the compensation for the body not being in a normal range, Negative feedback is a good thing

Normal Heart Ranges
Adult: 60-90 bpm
–men: 60-70 bpm
–women: 65-80 bpm
Children 1-7 years old: 80-110
Children over 7 years old: 70-90
Infants: 100-160

Bradycardia
Abnormally slow heart rate, less than 60 bpm

Tachycardia
Abnormally fast heart rate, more than 100 bpm

Temperature
The balance between heat lost and heat produced by the body

Importance of Temperature in Homeostasis
If temperature isn’t in homeostasis, the body can’t function properly. Rates of chemical reactions in the body are regulated by body temperature.

Temperature Range
97.00-100.00 Degrees Fahrenheit

Temperature affected by
Genetics, Time of day, parts of the body

Heat is lost from the body by
Perspiration, Respiration, Excretion, Blood vessel dilation

Heat is produced from the body by
Muscle Activity, Metabolism of Food, Gland Activity, Blood Vessel Constriction

Hypothermia
Low body temperature below 95 degrees measured rectally, death usually occurs below 93 degrees

Hyperthermia
When the body temperature exceeds 104 degrees measured rectally

Pyrexia
Fever usually caused by infection or injury. Pyrexia is a good thing, it fights off infection.

Hypothalamus
Controls the temperature in the body

Pyrexia can be a bad thing
If it gets too high it will turn into hyperthermia which is where you really need to be concerned

Respirations
The process of taking in oxygen and expelling carbon dioxide from the lungs and respiratory tract. One respiration is one inspiration and one expiration.

Inspiration
Breathing in, inhale

Expiration
Breathing out, exhale

The normal respiration ranges
Adults: 12-20 breaths per minute
Children: 16-25 breaths per minute
Infants: 30-50 breaths per minute

Three things to check for when taking Respirations
Character, the quality and depth of repirations, Rythm the spacing between breaths, Rate, how fast the breathing is

Dyspnea
Difficult or labored breathing

Apnea
Absence of respirations

Tachypnea
Abnormally fast breathing

Bradypnea
Abnormally slow breathing

Orthopnea
Severe dyspnea in which breathing is very difficult in any position other than sitting or standing erect

Cheyne-Stokes Respirations
Periods of dyspnea followed by periods of apnea

Rales
Bubbling or noisy sounds caused by fluids or mucus in the air passages

Wheezing
Dyspnea with a high pitched whistling or sighing sound during respiration

Cyanosis
A bluish discoloration of the skin as a result of decreased oxygen and increased carbon dioxide in the blood

When taking respirations
Keep in mind to make sure the patient is unaware of you taking their respirations, and make sure you are not listening to bowel sounds

Radial Pulse
Taken on the wrist, lateral

Carotid Pulse
Taken on the neck, medial between the jaw bone and chin

Apical Pulse
Taken on the chest

Pulse Deficit
Where a patients apical pulse is faster than the patients radial pulse. You would assess whether a patient has a pulse deficit by taking both th apical pulse and the radial pulse.

Maintenance of homeostasis when you exercise
You begin to breath more rapidly taking in more oxygen for the muscles eventually your respirations increase to where they can not go any higher or else you can die eventually your muscles will get exhausted and you will have to stop

Acronym for LOC
A-Alert-Eyes are open
V-Verbal-Response to verbal stimuli
P-Pain-Response to painful stimuli
U-Unresponsive-Does not respond to any stimuli

A/O X 4
Alert Oriented, Alert to person, place, time, events. Knows who they are, where they are, general time, and the events to where they are or what happened to them

gastr-
Stomach

Cardi-
Heart

Megal-
Enlarged

-itis
Inflammed

Dermat-
Skin

Plast-
Surgical Repair

Cerebr-
Brain

Path-
Disease

-ectomy
Surgical removal

Enter-
Intestine

-osis
Abnormal Condition

-otomy
Cut into

Aden-
Gland

Angi-
Vessel

-oma
Tumor

Nephr-
Kidney

Hepat-
Liver

Arthr-
Joint

Blephar-
Eyelid

-ologist
Specialist

Rhin-
Nose

Gingiv-
Gum

-malacia
Soft

-ology
Study of

-spasm
Involuntary contractions

-algia
Pain

Crani-
Skull

End-
Inside, within

Hemi-
Half

Oid-
Like, resembling

Hyper-
Above more than normal, excessive

Cyst-
Sac containing fluid, urinary bladder

Chole-
Bile, Gull Bladder

Hypo-
Under, beneath, deficient

-scop
observe

Hyster-
Uterus

-ostomy
Create an opening

Para-
Beside, Beyond

-lysis
Loosening, destruction

Cervic-
Neck

Chondr-
Cartilage

Cyan-
Blue

Hem(at)-
Blood

Ost-
Bone

Psycho-
Mind

Lip-
Fat

My-
Muscle

Lith-
Stone

Ophthalm-
Eye

Proct-
Anus