Fundamentals of Nursing Ch 2: Theory, Research, and Evidence-Based Practice

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The nursing instructor asks a group of students to identify a theory that describes the maturation of humans through stages. One student correctly identifies this theory as what?
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Developmental theory
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A nurse is completing a family assessment on a routine home health visit. There is a mother, father, and three children ages 2, 4, and 6 years of age. She watches the children individually as they play and interact with one another. She compares each child with the norms established for the age groups and determines and they are all within normal limits for their ages. The nurse would be utilizing which of the following theories as the basis for this part of the family assessment?
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Developmental Theory
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The nursing instructor asks a group of students to identify a theory that describes, explains, predicts, and controls outcomes in nursing practice. One student correctly identifies this theory as what?
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Nursing theory
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A nursing theorist examines a hospital environment by studying each ward and how it works individually, then relates this information to the hospital as a whole working entity. This is an example of the use of which theory?
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General systems theory
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There are four common concepts in nursing theory. While all concepts are important, the focus of nursing is always on which of the following?
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Person
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Nursing theories are important as they are all directed toward improved client care. Which of the following are goals of nursing theory? (Select all that apply.)
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• Provides knowledge and a rationale for client interventions • Provides a rationale for appropriate nursing actions in a given situation • Identifies and defines concepts that are important to nursing • Increases the nursing body of knowledge
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When looking at a model for evidence-based practice, what is the final step of the process?
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Evaluating practice change
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The nursing student studying research exhibits an understanding when informing the instructor that which of the following is the bridge between theory and practice?
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Evidence-based research
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In nursing class the instructor asks the students about the nursing research process. The student identifies the first nurse to collect data on clients as which of the following?
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Florence Nightingale
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A nurse observes that the past five patients referred from a certain community clinic have been treated for drug and/or alcohol overdose. Based on this information, the nurse assumes that the clinic specializes in the treatment of substance abuse. This is an example of what type of reasoning?
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Inductive reasoning
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A nurse researcher must decide on the method for conducting the research. The researcher that plans to emphasize collection of numerical data and analysis would select which method of research?
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Quantitative research
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One of the primary focuses of nursing research is to:
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generate knowledge to guide practice
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A nurse who works in a pediatric practice assesses the developmental level of children of various ages to determine their psychosocial development. These assessments are based on the work of:
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Erikson
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The nursing instructor asks the students to place the steps of implementing evidence-based practice in order. The correct order is:
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Design a question related to a clinical area of interest. Collect the most relevant and best evidence available. Critically evaluate the collected evidence. Integrate the evidence with clinical expertise, client preferences, and values as the decision is made to make a change. Evaluate the decision or change.
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Who is considered to be the first nursing researcher?
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Florence Nightingale
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Who of the following is considered to be the first nursing theorist who conceptualized nursing in terms of manipulating the environment?
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Florence Nightingale
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A nurse is completing a family assessment on a routine home health visit. The parents have a child with a severe peanut allergy. The mother states that she does not purchase any foods with peanut or peanut oil for her family. The other children are allowed to have foods containing peanuts while they are at school and visiting with friends and family. The nurse would conclude that which of the following theories would most like be the basis for this family’s functioning?
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Adaptation Theory
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A nurse is writing an article for a nursing journal describing a study of the emergency protocols in a hospital emergency department. Which statements accurately describe elements of this process? (Select all that apply.)
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• The introduction reviews the literature and states the purpose of the article. • The method section provides details of how the study was conducted. • The results are often presented in words, charts, tables, or graphs.
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A nurse is discussing dietary issues with a Latino client in the clinic. The client states, “My grandmother always told me that I needed to include beans in my diet so that my muscles would grow.” The information that the client is expressing is known as what?
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Traditional knowledge
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Nurses in an ICU noticed that their clients required fewer interventions for pain when the ICU was quiet. They then asked a researcher to design a study about the effects of noise on the pain levels of hospitalized clients. How does this demonstrate the ultimate goal of expanding the nursing body of knowledge?
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Nursing research helps improve ways to promote and maintain health.
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The registered nurse is teaching a community health class about illness prevention. Which of the following statements reflects understanding of this concept?
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“It is important to enroll in a smoking cessation class.”
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The nurse is using the nursing process to care for a client and is in the process of making a nursing diagnosis for the client. Which of the following best reflects a nursing diagnosis?
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Risk for falls
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A nurse practitioner considering going back to school to obtain a Doctor of Nursing Practice degree (DNP) anticipates that the main focus of the curriculum will be on which of the following?
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Clinical practice
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Which of the following actions should the nurse implement when working with a medically homeless client?
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Encourage client to utilize the free healthcare clinic.
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The nurse caring for a client with a new diagnosis of cancer allows the client to verbalize fears relating to how to tell the children. The nurse’s intervention reflects which aspect of nursing?
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Art of nursing
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A nurse identifies a patient’s health care needs and devises a plan of care to meet those needs. Which guideline is being followed in this case?
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Nursing process
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The RN is working with hospital administration to transform care at their facility. Which of the following nursing competencies will be critical for the nurse to utilize?
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Work effectively in interdisciplinary teams
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Which nursing intervention would be most appropriate for a new mother that calls the nursery for help with breastfeeding?
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Refer the mother for a home care visit.
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Nurse H. graduated several years ago from a 2-year nursing program that he took at a community college near his home city. Recently, Nurse H. has considered moving from providing direct client care into an administrative role, but he recognizes the need to further his education in order to be considered for such a position. Nurse H. most likely possesses which nursing qualification?
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Associate degree
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Which of the following are the best examples of the role of the nurse as a communicator? Select all that apply.
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• Telling a client their blood pressure • Calling a physician about a client’s blood pressure • Informing the physical therapist that client’s therapy was discontinued
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The nurse is describing the role of the nurse entrepreneur. Which of the following statements best describe this role?
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A nurse who manages a health-related business
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The registered nurse communicates with the physical therapist that a client is now on strict bed rest due to bradycardia. Which statement best explains the standard exemplified by the nurse?
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The RN coordinates care delivery
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Which of the following is the best example of a nurse attending an inservice program?
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Attending a hospital program on how to use a new IV pump
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A student nurse understands that the primary aim of the Healthy People 2020 initiatives is
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health promotion.
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Who established the first public health service for the sick and poor?
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Lillian Wald
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The nurse is evaluating client health. Which of the following clients should the nurse determine to be exhibiting the most signs of health?
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A client with a leg amputation that performs activities of daily living with a prothesis
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In what time period did nursing care as we now know it begin?
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18th to 19th century
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During the Reformation, what factor influenced the decline of nursing?
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Women’s subordination to men
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A nurse conducting an inservice on the early history of the education of nurses should include which of the following statements?
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“The focus was on students providing direct care to clients without pay.”
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Which of the following is the best example of client-centered approach to care?
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The nurse asks the client about his health goals
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During the Christian era, nursing care excluded which area?
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Psychiatric services
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The registered nurse is performing a nutritional assessment to ensure that the client’s diet is optimal for wound healing. The nurse’s intervention can be traced back to which of nursing’s key people’s contributions to nursing?
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Florence Nightingale
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The nurse is attempting to provide anticipatory guidance for the parents of an eighteen-month-old boy. Which of the following would be the best statement for the nurse to make?
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“Keep all medications in a locked cabinet.” Correct
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The nurse is conducting a community education class on the 2011 Institute of Medicine Report on the role of nursing in transforming healthcare. Which of the following statements should the nurse include?
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• Nurse practitioners should be allowed to practice independently. • Barriers to diploma nurses achieving a BSN should be removed.
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A nurse applies for membership in a professional nursing organization that is operating in the United States. To which organizations might this nurse apply? Select all that apply.
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• ICN • AACN • ANA
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A nursing student understands which of the following is true of concepts?
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Concepts describe objects, properties, and events and relationships among them
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In today’s healthcare environment nurses use theories to guide all stages of the nursing process. Which of the following are examples of ways that a nurse can utilize theories to guide client care? (Select all that apply.)
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• Collect client data. • Organize client information. • Classify client data. • Analyze client situations.
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A nurse manager is using the AACN PEARL tool as a resource in a hospital setting. Which statements describe examples of the chief focus of this resource? (Select all that apply.)
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• The nurse uses PEARL to plan change initiatives for the unit. • The nurse uses PEARL to find tools to improve patient outcomes. • The nurse uses PEARL to share critical learning with staff.
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What is the central theme of Florence Nightingale’s nursing theory?
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Meeting the personal needs of the client within the environment.
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The evolution of nursing research has significant markers in time. Place the following events in the correct order.
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Florence Nightingale kept records while caring for victims of the Crimean War. Nursing research was deemed to be increasingly important, and research was utilized for the development of nursing practice standards. Clinical research became the emphasis of nursing research resulting in procedures for primary client care, such as vital signs and treatments. The National Institute for Nursing Research funded research for the scientific basis for client care.
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The nursing instructor is teaching about nursing theories. Students are asked to identify facts related to nursing theory. Which of the following facts are true regarding nursing theory? (Select all that apply.)
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• The ultimate outcome for nursing theory is improved client care. • Nursing theory provides a rationale for the care that nurses provide. • Nursing theories may be descriptive or prescriptive. • Nursing theory provides a focus for care that is delivered to clients.
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The second step in implementation of evidence-based practice includes systematic review. In order to complete a systematic review of the literature the nurse must do which of the following?
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Summarize findings from multiple studies that are related to a particular nursing practice.
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A nurse manager is attempting to switch the medical records in an orthopedic office to a computerized format. The nurse asks questions about the accuracy and efficiency of the current record keeping system by using the PICO format. Which statements illustrate the components of this process? Select all that apply.
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• P: The nurse chooses the population involved (orthopedic clients). • I: The nurse considers interventions to make the plan work. • C: The nurse compares the written records to the computerized records.
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A nurse is using the quantitative research process to study the cause of healthcare-associated infections (HIA) and how to prevent them. Which actions are examples of the components of this process? Select all that apply.
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• The nurse collects data from subjects in the study. • The nurse formulates a hypothesis and variables in the study.
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Christine Grady is a nurse ethicist that proposed a framework for evaluating ethics. Grady suggested that a independent review is needed for ethical research. This principle is correctly defined as:
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Informed consent means that “individuals should be informed about the research and provide their voluntary consent.”
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As a researcher begins to form plans for a research project the researcher must decide on the method for conducting the research. The nurse researcher that plans to emphasize collection data and the analyses for the purpose of creating a new theory would select which of the following methods of research?
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Basic research
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Following the identification of a researchable problem, what must the nurse do?
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Select literature relevant to the problem.
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A nurse caring for patients in a hospital setting focuses on ill patients as the center of all nursing activities performed daily. The nurse also provides care based on helping patients to adapt to the hospital environment. This nurse is following the principles of:
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Myra E. Levine
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The nurse researcher would like to gather data about the attitudes of young adults on spirituality and health care. What is the most effective form of research on this topic?
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Qualitative research
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The nursing instructor is discussing nursing theories and concepts with a group of nursing students in a fundamentals course. In guiding the thoughts and understanding of concepts, the instructor discusses nursing concepts specifically. The purpose of concepts in nursing practice include which of the following? (Select all that apply.)
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• Guide the steps of the nursing process. • Suggest appropriate nursing interventions. • Serve in the determination of what information is relevant related to a specific client issue. • Suggest appropriate nursing outcomes for a client.
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A nurse’s personal philosophy is developed by learning through which of the following? (Select all that apply.)
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• Interpersonal relationships • Formal and informal education • Religion and culture • Environment
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Which skill is foundational for a nursing student’s participation in the evidence-based practice process?
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Read and understand a research article.

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