HM406 Chapter 10

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motivation p.306
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the inner striving conditions (wishes, desires and drives) that activate or move a person
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process of motivation p. 306
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needs > drives or motives > achievement of goals
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needs (process of motivation) p. 306
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produce motives that lead to the accomplishment of goals or objectives. caused by deficiencies that may be physical or psychological physical needs (innate or primary needs)- food, water, shelter psychological needs (acquired needs)- esteem, affection, power
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motive p.306
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something that prompts a person to action “whys of behavior” maintain activity and determine the general direction of an individuals behavior achievement of the goal in the motivation process satisfies the need and reduces the motive
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positive motivation p.306
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driving force toward some object or condition
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negative motivation p.306
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driving force away from some object or condition
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positive goal p.306
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desirable and the object of directed behavior
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negative goal p.306
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undesirable and behavior is directed away from it
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goals depend on p.306
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an individuals subjective experience, physical capacity, prevailing norms and values, and the potential accessibility of the goal individuals perception also influence goals
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behavior when goals/needs are blocked p.307
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withdraw- individual becomes less involved in work aggression- individual directly attacks the source of frustration substitution- individual puts something in place of the original object compensation- when an individual goes overboard in one area/activity to make up for deficiencies in another revert or regress- individual’s uses childlike behavior when dealing with a situation repression- individual loses awareness of or forgets incidents that cause anxiety/frustration projection- individual attributes his/her own feelings to someone else rationalization- individual presents a reason that’s less ego deflating or more socially acceptable than a true reason
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theories of motivation p.307
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need hierarchy achievement-power-affiliation two factor expectancy reinforcement
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Maslows need hierarchy p.307
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physiological- needs of the human body to sustain life (water, food, shelter) safety- protection social- needs for love, affection, belonging esteem- needs relating to feelings of self-respect and self-worth, pride self-actualization- needs related to one’s potential * as needs are met, one is motivated
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prepotent need p.307
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need that is dominated over all others
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achievement power affiliation p.308-309
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all people have three needs: a need to achieve a need for power a need for affiliation
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existence relatedness growth (ERG) theory p.308
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human needs can be grouped into 3 categories that were not hierarchical in nature: existence: basic needs for for food shelter water and safety relatedness: involvement with family friends co-workers and employers growth: desire to be creative productive and complete meaning of tasks
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Herzberg two factor theory p.309-310
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focuses on the rewards or outcomes of performance that satisfy needs two sets of rewards 1. related to job satisfaction 2. related to job dissatisfaction (maintenance or hygiene factors)
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expectancy theory p.310
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explains the behavior in terms of an individuals goals, choices, and expectation of achieving these goals people act in such a manner as to increase please and decrease displeasure people are motivated to work if they believe their efforts will be rewarded and if they value the rewards that are being offered increased efforts= increased performance increased performance= increased rewards
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valence p.311
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value an employee places on rewards offered by the organization
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reinforcement theory p.311
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theories deal with how the consequences of a past action influence future actions in a cyclical learning process reinforced behavior will be repeated and behavior that is not reinforced is less likely to be repeated
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intrinsic motivation p.311
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is within the individual and is driven by the interest in, enjoyment of, learning from, and or satisfaction from the task being done
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extrinsic motivation p.311
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factors outside of the individual that drive behavior (pay, occupation)
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job satisfaction p.312
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the individuals mind set about the job or feelings and beliefs an individual has about the job morale- related to group attitudes and job satisfaction is concerned with individual attitudes relates with job performance but not turnover organizational commitment- feels focused more broadly on the organization
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organizational citizenship behaviors (ocb’s) p.312
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positive, voluntary behaviors that enhance organization efficiency
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2 types of organizational commitment p.312
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affective commitment- commitment to the organization that employee displays because they are happy to be members of the organization, believe in it and what it stands for, and intend to do what is best for the organization *stay because they want to stay
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continuous commitment p.312
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commitment that exists when an employee feels the costs of leaving the organization are too great (medical benefits, pension, loss of seniority)
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leadership p.312
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process of influencing the activities of an individual or group in efforts towards goal achievement leadership process- L=f(l,f,s) L is identified as a function of the leader l is the follower f and other situational s variables
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Power p.313
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one of the means by which a leader influences the behavior of followers resource that enables a leader to induce compliance or influence others position power- derived from a persons official position in the organization personal power- comes from personal attributes and expertise
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seven bases (demsions) of power p.313
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legitimate power- comes with the position, stems from internalized values (the higher the position, the higher legitimate power tends to be) reward power- based on ability to reward other (increased pay, promotions) coercive power- authority to punish those who do not comply (fire, threaten, or give undesirable work assignments) expert power- knowledge gained through education or experience. viewed as being competent in their job referent power (charisma)- based on identification of followers. leader is generally well like and admired by others, thus can influence others bc of this identification and admiration) information power- access to information that others see valuable connection power- relationships with important people
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leadership effectiveness p.315
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one that is able to lead and achieve objectives in a certain situation influences others formal leaders- formal authority to exert influence on others informal leaders- no formal job authority but exert considerable influence bc of special skills or talents
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characterists of leaders p.315
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character charisma communication listening passion responsibility vision MUCH MORE ON PAGE 315
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four basic management styles p.316-317
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exploitative autocratic benevolent autocratic consultative participative
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exploitative autocratic p.316
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employees are motivated by fear, threats, and punishment and seldom reward. decisions made by top management and only occasionally does communication move up from employees to the manager
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benevolent autocratic p.316
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indicates that only certain minor decisions are made by employees and commication moving upward is generally ignored. small rewards are given but threats and punishment are the norm
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consultative style p.316
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employees gain confidence information flows up and down, but all major decisions come from the top
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participative management style p.316
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operates on a basis of trust and responsibility employees discuss the job with their superiors and communication flows up down and laterally decision making is spread evenly through the organization
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basic leadership styles p.316
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autocratic leader- makes most decisions laissez-faire leader- allows the group to make the decisions democratic leader- guides and encourages the group to make decisions
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University of Michigan Leadership styles p.316
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employee orientation- identified by their special emphasis on the human relations part of their job production oriented leaders- emphasized performance and the more technical characteristics of work supervisors of high producing sections were most likely to have these traits- receive general rather than close supervision from their superiors spend more time in supervision giver general rather than close supervision to their employees be employee oriented rather than production oriented
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Ohio State Leadership Studies (two dimensions of leadership behavior) p.317
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1. consideration- indicates that behavior that expresses friendship, develops mutual trust and respect and develops strong interpersonal relationships with subordinates supportive of their employees, use employees ideas and allow frequent participation in decisions 2. initiating structure- indicates behavior that defines work and establishes well-defined communication patterns and clear relationships between the leader and subordinate. structure emphasized goals and deadlines, give employees detailed task assignments and define performance expectation in specific terms
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leadership grid (7 possible leadership styles) p.318
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1. impoverished management 2. country club management 3. authority obedience management 4. middle of the road management 5. team management 6. paternalistic management 7. opportunistic management
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leadership practices inventory (successful leaders exhibit 5 best practices) p.319
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measuring practices they found in common leaders -challenging the process -inspiring a shared vision -enabling others to act -modeling the way -encouraging the heart
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situational and contingency approaches p. 319
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emphasize leadership skills, behavior, and roles thought to be dependent on the situation based on the hypothesis that behavior of effective leasers in one setting may be different from that in another
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leadership continuum p.319
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range of possible leadership behaviors 3 components affect the leadership appropriate in a given situation- the manager the subordinates the situation described as.. tells decision, sells decision, discusses decision, asks for input on decision, collaborates on decision, delegates responsibility for decision
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contingency approach p.320
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three variables seem to determine if a given situation is favorable (degree to which the situation enables the leader to exert influence over the group) to leaders- leader member relations task structure position power
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leader effectiveness model p.321
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task behavior relationship behavior
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transformational vs transactional leaders p.325
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transformational leadership- occurs when leaders transform or change their followers in ways that lead the followers to- trust the leader perform behaviors that contribute to the achievement or organizational goals perform at a high level transactional leaders- guide and motivate their followers by clarifying role to task requirements and by use of rewards and punishment
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servant leadership p.325
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servants first, not leaders first; those who worked to be sure that others needs were met and helped others to grow both physically and emotionally
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emerging leadership competencies p.325
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several additional leadership competencies have been identified- emotional intelligence social intelligence metacognition
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leadership development p.327
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process of helping individuals identify and improve their abilities to function in leadership roles techniques used in leadership development programs- 360 degree feedback networking executive coaching mentoring job assignments action learning
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comparison of management and leadership p.328
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both used interchangeably to describe the role of someone who has responsibility for overseeing the work of others and directing that work toward achievement of organizational goals

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