History Systems Chapter 6

The ____ ask, “What’s the mind made of?” whereas the ____ demand, “What does it do?”
structuralists; functionalists

Which of the of the following statements best summarizes the protest of functional psychology against Wundt and Titchener?
Functional psychology claimed that Wundt’s and Titchener’s approaches were too restrictive because they did not study the practical value of mental processes

Functionalism was an intentional protest of the limitations of ____.
Wundt’s experimentalism and Titchener’s structuralism

The most important consequence of functionalism was ____.
the development of applied psychology

Which of the following works were most influential in the development of functionalism?
The work of Darwin and Galton and comparative research

____, a predecessor of Darwin, speculated that all mammals had evolved from a single filament and given movement by God.
Erasmus Darwin

____ argued that our bodies adapt to the environment and those adaptations will be heritable.
Jean-Baptiste Lamarck

____ was an early evolutionary theorist who argued that acquired characteristics could be inherited
Jean-Baptiste Lamarck

____ was a confidant of Darwin who introduced the concept of evolution into geological theory

Why, after many centuries of accepting biblical stories, did scholars question the one about Noah’s ark?
There were too many identified species to fit two of each into a boat.

What event(s) led common people to question whether humans were really unique creatures, totally unlike other species?
Displays of orangutans and chimpanzees became common in zoos, as well as fossil comparisons of gorilla and human skeletons

Darwin’s ideas of evolution were not new. What was new about Darwin’s work was his ____.
hard data to support such a theory

When in England, Darwin displayed a wide variety of physical symptoms. These symptoms were probably ____.
psychosomatic-neurotic in origin

How many years did Darwin wait to present his theory publicly?

A theory of evolution based on natural selection was developed independently by ____.
Charles Darwin and Alfred Wallace

The essential difference between Wallace’s theory of evolution and Darwin’s was that the work of the former ____.
did not have empirical data to support it

____ is the preeminent book of Darwin’s theory of evolution, which details the evolution of humans from lower forms of life
On the Origin of Species

The most fundamental point of Darwin’s theses was the ____.
fact of variation among members of the species

Who predicted that humans in the future will live on the edge of starvation because the population of humans increases geometrically while the supply of food increases arithmetically?

Darwin’s position on Lamarck’s idea that changes due to experiences can be inherited was the ____ of Lamarck’s ____.
acceptance; doctrine

Who could be described as the driving force of England’s scientific establishment?

Today, scientists are sometimes portrayed as offering science as a new religion or as being enemies of religion. This stance could be traced to ____.

In a public debate on evolution, ____ refuted the points made against evolution by ____.
Huxley; Wilberforce

In his book ____, Darwin emphasized the similarity between human and animal mental processes.
The Descent of Man

In his book ____, Darwin explained human emotional gestures, postures, and other aspects of body language that convey emotion as remnants of adaptive movements by animals.
The Expression of Emotions in Man and Animals

One of the early sources of modern child psychology was an article in 1877 by ____.
C. Darwin

In the study of finches’ beaks, the biologists Peter and Rosemary Grant found that ____.
a.Darwin had underestimated the power of natural selection
b.under drought conditions, more thick-than thin-beaked birds survived and reproduced
c.in only one generation, natural selection produced a better-adapted species
d.when heavy rains became common, birds with slender beaks flourished
***e. All of the choices are correct.***

In his journal Mind, Darwin describes ____.
the developmental stages of his son in relation to human evolution

The influence of Darwin’s work can be seen most directly in ____.
comparative psychology

A consequence of Darwin’s work for psychology was ____.
the legitimization of nonexperimental descriptive methods

A consequence of Darwin’s work for psychology was ____.
a focus on individual differences

In the Original Source Material from his autobiography, Charles Darwin described himself as ____.
a.having “no great quickness of apprehension or wit”
b.”a poor critic”
c.”moderate abilities”
d.possessing a “love of natural science [which] has been steady and ardent”
***e.All of the choices are correct***

Today, our acceptance that the study of individual differences is appropriate subject matter for psychology is due to whose work?

Who wrote a 16th-century book on individual differences and argued that children’s education should be individualized to recognize such differences?

Who wrote Hereditary Genius?

Galton’s Hereditary Genius was mainly concerned with ____.
a statistical analysis of the concept of eminent men producing eminent offspring

When Galton founded the science of eugenics, he ____.
invented the term “eugenics”

The early 20th-century American government policy of sterilizing mentally retarded females is an example of ____.

Galton argued that what proportion of eminence could be reliably attributed to environmental influences?

Which of the following did Galton not endorse in the material from Hereditary Genius?
the idea of natural equality

Who first highlighted the importance of central tendency?

Who was the first to show that biological and social data were normally distributed?

Who arrived at the concept of the “average man” to describe findings from a large group of subjects?

The idea of measures clustering around the of center or average of a distribution should be attributed to ____.

Who was the first to show that human mental characteristics followed a normal distribution?

Galton proposed that measurement of human traits could be defined and summarized by two numbers, which are ____.
the mean and the standard deviation

The formula currently used for calculating the correlation coefficient was developed by ____.

The term mental tests was coined by ____, but ____ originated this concept.
Cattell; Galton

Mental tests were originated by ____.

Galton’s measures of intellectual functioning assumed correlation between intelligence and ____.
acuteness of the senses

What had the greatest impact upon Galton’s view on the measurement of intelligence?
Locke’s theory that all knowledge comes through the senses

The aim of the research at the Anthropometric Laboratory was to assess ____.
the collective mental resources of the British people

What additional interest(s) did Galton research?
Arithmetic by smell
Paranoid disorders
The power of prayer
***All of the above***

Which of the following are influenced by Galton’s work?
child development
statistical techniques
testing methods
***All of the above***

Galton found that a substantial proportion of word associations were evidence of ____.
the effects of childhood experiences on the adult

The first experimental attempt to study word associations was by ____.

To study mental imagery, Galton used which self-report method?
the questionnaire

Galton studied paranoid disorders by ____.
imaging that every person or thing he saw was spying on him

In comparing evolutionary theory to theology, Galton’s concluded that ____.
there was insufficient evidence to support religious beliefs

According to ____, animals have no soul and thus are automata.

The notion that there is a continuity of consciousness and cognitive processes between animals and humans was suggested and/or demonstrated by ____.
Darwin’s evidence

According to Darwin, human emotional expressions reflect ____.
the inheritance of animal responses that may not be adaptive for humans

Wundt’s early position on animal intelligence was that ____.
any sensory capacity at all allowed for judgment and drawing of conscious inferences

The first systematic study of animal intelligence was by ____.

The work of Romanes was especially flawed because of his ____.
use of the anecdotal method

Whenever we think we “know what’s on someone’s mind,” we are using which technique?
introspection by analogy

Despite Romanes’s deficiencies in methodology, he is respected by scientists for his ____.
stimulation of the development of comparative psychology

The intent of Lloyd Morgan’s canon was to ____.
make comparative psychology more scientific

The first person(s) to engage in large studies of experimental comparative psychology was/were ____.

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