History of Modern Psychology Chapter 9

Connectionism was what
Thorndike called his experimental approach to the study of association.

Behaviorism was a protest against __________ and ________.
structuralism…functionalism.

Pavlov’s third research area:
conditioned reflexes

Thorndike preferred to call it trial-and-accidental success.
Trial-and-error learning.

Pavlov called his laboratory ____________________.
the Tower of Silence

Reinforcement:
increases the likelihood of a response.

Bekhterev’s discoveries concerned ______________.
associated reflexes.

The element of Pavlov’s work most readily appropriated by Watson was the _________________.
conditioned reflex.

Animal Psychology was an outcome of ______________.
evolutionary theory.

Positivism:
The doctrine that recognizes only natural phenomena or facts that are objectively observable.

According to “Positivism” introspective knowledge ___________ be considered valid knowledge.
cannot (because it is not objectively observable)

Associative Memory
An association between stimulus and response, taken to indicate evidence of consciousness in animals.

Associated reflexes
Reflexes that can be elicited not only by unconditioned stimuli but also by stimuli that have become associated with the unconditioned stimuli.

Conditioned reflexes
Reflexes that are conditional or dependent on the formation of an association or connection between stimulus and response.

Connectionism
Thorndike’s approach to learning that was based on connections between situations and responses.

Law of effect
Acts that produce satisfaction in a given situation become associated with that situation; when the situation recurs, the act is likely to recur. (Thorndike’s)

Law of Exercise (of Law of Use and Disuse)
The more an act or response is used in a given situation, the more strongly the act becomes associated with that situation. (Thorndike’s)

Reinforcement
Something that increases the likelihood of a response.

Trial-and-error learning
Learning based on the repetition of response tendencies that lead to success. (Thorndike preferred to call it trial-and-accidental success.)

Tropism
An involuntary forced movement. (Loeb)

In Pavlovian conditioning, reinforcement IS or IS NOT essential.
It IS ESSENTIAL.

The _____________ or the law of use and disuse states that any response made in a particular situation becomes associated with that situation.
Law of Exercise.

The advantage of Loeb’s concept of Tropism was that ______________ was irrelevant.
consciousness

The crux of Pavlov’s work on conditioning was that _______________________ could be studied in physiological terms.
higher mental processes

The author of “Animal Education: The Psychical Development of the White Rat” was ____________.
Watson

Satisfaction becomes associated with that situation, so that when the situation recurs the act is more likely is the ______________.
Law of Effect

The founder of Positivism was___________.
Comte

V.M.Bekhterev wrote: ________________.
Objective Psychology

Hans the Wonder Horse owned by ______________.
Wilhelm Von Osten retired math teacher from Berlin, Germany.

Wilhelm Von Osten, Hans the Wonder Horse’s owner, wanted to prove _____________ correct.
Darwin….wanted to prove that humans and animals have a similar mind and similar mental processes.

2nd Decade of the 20th Century: Psychologists Disagreed on:
1. the value of introspection
2. the existence of mental elements
3. the need to remain a pure science.

Functionalism:
A system of psychology concerned with the mind as it is used in an organism’s adaptation to its environment.

Functionalism movement: ________________ not revolutionary.
evolutionary

1913 Behaviorism Declares war with Watson’s paper:
Protest against both structuralism and functionalism.
Was deliberately abrupt.
Designed to shatter the two dominant schools.

Functionalists _______ the rules.
rewrote

The functionalists changed psychology by __________ at the inside rather than attacking from the ______________.
chipping away……outside.

Functionalists modified by adding something or changing something else so that a new form of ____________ emerged.
Psychology

In the 2nd decade of the 20th century: Functionalism was maturing; ________________ still maintained a stronghold, but, was no longer holding an exclusive position.
Structuralism

Watson’s Behaviorism:
1. Basic tenets simple, direct & bold.
2. Wanted it to be scientific.
3. Dealt only with observable behavioral acts.
4. Acts had to be described objectively in terms such as “stimulus” & “response”
5. Rejected all mentalistic concepts and terms such as “image” “sensation” “mind” “consciousness”
6. Adamantly rejected “consciousness” – believed that it was comparable to “soul” and had no place or value for Behavioral Psychology.
7. Felt “introspection” was irrelevant.

Watson organized & promoted already existing ideas which had been developing for some time already in psychology & biology.
These ideas were already acceptable to the Zeitgeist.

Watson brought together the ideas of:
1. philosophical tradition of objectivism & mechanism.
2. Animal Psychology
3. Functional Psychology

Appreciation of the need for objectivity had a lengthy history:
1. Descartes – mechanistic descriptions of operations of human body were initial steps towards objective science.
2. Comte – French Philosopher – who founded Positivism that emphasized positive knowledge (facts) which emphasized undebatable facts (or truths). Comte believed that the only valid knowledge is that which is social in nature and objectively observable. Comte’s criteria rules out INTROSPECTION.
3. Positivism became part of the Zeitgeist in science.

The resulting science of Behavior viewed human beings as ______________.
machines.

Background on the influence of Animal Psychology on Behaviorism.
1. Watson believed Behaviorism to be a direct outgrowth of studies in animal psychology.
2. Animal psychology was a product of evolutionary theory.
3. Influenced by George John Romanes (anecdotal method) and Conwy Lloyd Morgan’s (law of parsimony and experimental methods)

Morgan’s Law of Parsimony
Notion that animal behavior must not be attributed to higer mental process when it can be explained in terms of a lower mental process.

Morgan relied on ___________ methods not anecdotal techniques.
experimental

Anecdotal Method
The use of observational reports about animal behavior. (George John Romanes)

Jacques Loeb (1859 – 1924)
Credited with making a significant step toward greater objectivity in animal psychology.

Jacques Loeb (1859 – 1924)
Rejected the anthropomorphic tradition of describing animals as having human attributes.

Jacques Loeb (1859 – 1924)
Rejected the method of introspection by analogy.

Jacques Loeb (1859 – 1924)
Developed his theory of animal behavior on the concept of “Tropism” – an involuntary forced movement. Felt “consciousness” was not necessary.

Tropism
An involuntary forced movement.

Jacques Loeb (1859 – 1924)
Did not totally reject “consciousness” for more evolved species.

Jacques Loeb (1859 – 1924)
Felt that “consciousness” could be revealed by “associative memory”

Jacques Loeb (1859 – 1924)
Believed an animal’s reaction to a stimulus is direct & automatic. The behavioral response is said to be forced by the stimulus and does not require any explanation in term’s of the animal’s consciousness.

Associative Memory
An association between stimulus and response, taken to indicate evidence of consciousness in animals.

Associative Memory Example
Animal responds to its name or reacts to a specific sound by going to the place where it always receives food – this is evidence of a mental connection or an associative memory.

Teacher of Watson at University of Chicago.
Loeb

Robert Yerkes
1. Began animal studies in 1900.
2. Used variety of animals.
3. His research strengthened comparative psychology.

Williard Small in 1900 introduced the _________ maze
rat.

Small’s rat maze became the standard method to study __________.
learning.

Small allowed consciousness into his theory by interpreting the rat’s behavior using _____________ images.
mentalistic

In Watson’s early career, he was also interested in ____________ concepts.
mental

Watson’s 1903 dissertation was called:
“Animal Education: The Psychical Development of the White Rat”

Watson in 1907 discussed the conscious experience of ___________________ in rats.
sensation

Charles Henry Turner (1867-1923)
Published “A Preliminary Note on Ant Behavior in 1906.

Turner’s 1906 article on Ant Behavior
Reviewed favorably by Watson in “Psychological Bulletin.”

In Watson’s review of Turner’s article it was the first time Watson used the term _______________.
behavior.

Charles Henry Turner
1. African American
2. 1907 Ph.D. Magna cum laude from University of Chicago in Zoology.
3. Some claimed he was a psychologist. (Published great deal of research on comparative & animal studies in psychology.)
4. His teaching opportunities were limited due to discrimination.
5. Taught high school science & made important discoveries in insect learning & behavior.

By 1910 there were 8 comparative psychology labs in the US and many universities offered _____________ courses.
comparative psychology

Margaret Floyd Washburn
Titchener’s first doctoral student.

Margaret Floyd Washburn taught ____________ psychology at Cornell.
animal

In 1908, Margaret Floyd Washburn wrote
The Animal Mind

“The Animal Mind” by Washburn was the first ______________ book published in the US
comparative psychology

In Washburn’s “The Animal Mind” she attributed __________ to animals.
consciousness

Method used by Washburn to attribute consciousness to animals was:
Introspection by analogy

Introspection by Analogy
A technique for studying animal behavior by assuming that the same mental precesses that occur in the observer’s mind also occur in the animal mind.

Introspection
Examination of one’s own mind to inspect and report on personal thoughts or feelings.

Textbooks after Washburn’s were ____________ and were focused on ______________.
behavioristic; learning.

Comparative psychologist suffered from a ____ of funding.
lack

Yerkes was advised to take up _____________ psychology because the Harvard president said there was not future in Yerke’s ________________ psychology.
educational; comparative

Students of Yerkes took jobs in ___________ fields because there were not jobs in comparative psychology.
applied.

Comparative psychologists were the _______ to be fired in academia.
first

1911
Journal of Animal Behavior (later Journal of Comparative Psychology) was published.

1906
Pavlov’s lecture reprinted in Science. Introduced Pavlov’s work to American public.

1909
Description of Pavlov’s work published by Yerkes and Morgulis in Psychological Bulletin. This was a more detailed account of Pavlov’s methodology and results.

Pavlov’s work supported by ________.
Objective Psychology and Watson’s research.

1909
Conscious experience was disappearing from animal psychology.

Trend towards greater objectivity in the study of animal behavior was supported with the 1904 German Government investigation into Clever Hans the horse.
-Committee was to investigate whether any deception or Fraud.
-Group headed by Psychologist Carl Stumpf.
-Stumpf concluded no fraud or deceit;
-However, Stumpf asked his student Oskar Pfungst to investigate further.
-Pfungst used the experimental approach.
—–Formed 2 groups of questioners.
———-Group 1 knew the answers to the questions. Group 2 DID NOT know the answers to the questions.
———-Hans only answered questions correctly when the questioners knew the answers.
-Pfungst’s conclusion: Hans unintentionally conditioned by his owner and was receiving some type of information from the questioners.
-Further experiments showed that Hans would tap hoof upon downward movement of Questioner’s head; when Questioner looked up after correct number of taps, Hans the horse stopped tapping his hoof.

Partial reinforcement schedule was used by Von Osten in training Clever Hans the horse.
Pfungst discovered that Von Osten had given Hans sugar cubes and carrots when Hans made a correct response. As the training had continued, Hans was only rewarded occasionally for a correct response. Later, BF Skinner would demonstrate the great effectiveness of partial or intermittent reinforcment in the conditioning process.

Importance of Clever Hans the horse.
1. Demonstrated the value and necessity of an experimental approach.
2. Made psychologists more skeptical at claims of animal intelligence.
3. Showed animals capable of learning and that they could be conditioned to modify their behavior.
4. Experimental study of animal learning came to be seen as a more useful approach rather than earlier speculation about consciousness operating in the animal brain.
5. Pfungt’s report about Clever Hans was reviewed by Watson for the Journal of Comparative Neurology & Psychology.
6. Pfungst’s report influenced Watson to promote a Psychology which only dealt with behavior — not consciousness.

Edward Lee Thorndike (1874-1949) In General
1. One of the most important researchers in the development of animal psychology.
2. His was an OBJECTIVE, MECHANISTIC THEORY OF LEARNING that focused on OVERT BEHAVIOR.
3. Interpreted learning in concrete connections between STIMULUS and RESPONSE although he did permit some references to consciousness and mental processes.
4. Simultaneous Discovery: Thorndike developed his law of effect in 1898; Pavlov developed his similar law of reinforcement in 1902.

Edward Lee Thorndike (1874-1949) His LIFE
1. One of the 1st American Psychologists to receive all his education in the US.
2. Read William James’ Principles of Psychology which inspired him to study Psychology; later he was a student of James at Harvard.
3. Wanted to conduct research with children, but it was prohibited.
4. Inspired by Morgan, Thorndike selected chicks as his test subjects.
5. Thorndike improvised mazes for the chicks by stacking books.
6. Left Harvard (broken heart) went to study with James Cattell at Columbia.
7. Received his Ph. D. from Columbia University in 1898.
8. 1898 DISSERTATION: “Animal Intelligence: An Experimental Study of the Associative Processes in Animals.”
9. Used cats and dogs in puzzle boxes of his own design.
10. His 1898 Dissertation was the first Psychology doctoral dissertation to use animal subjects.
11. Eventually researched chicks, fish, cats & monkeys as well; became uninterested in animal research (perhaps because there were more jobs in applied psych.)

Edward Lee Thorndike (1874-1949) Research at Columbia
1. Joined faculty in 1899.
2. Worked with human subjects, adapting his animal research techniques for use with children and young people on problems in human learning.
3. Branched out into educational psychology and mental testing.
4. In 1910, founded the Journal of Educational Psychology.
5. In 1912, elected President of the APA.
6. Royalties from his tests and textbooks made him wealthy.
7. Thorndike’s 50 years at Columbia are the most productive ever recorded in Psychology. Has 507 items with his name on them.

CONNECTIONISM
Thorndike’s approach to learning that was based on connections between situations & responses.

Thorndike’s CONNECTIONISM
1. Viewed learning as connections between stimuli & responses.
2. This view of learning was a direct application of the older philosophical notion of ASSOCIATION – but, with one significant difference: Instead of talking about ASSOCIATIONS or CONNECTIONS between IDEAS – Thorndike was talking about CONNECTIONS between OBJECTIVELY VERIFIABLE SITUATIONS & RESPONSES.
3. Influenced by ROMANES & MORGAN – spoke of “satisfaction, annoyance & discomfort” – MENTALISTIC CONCEPTS – when discussing the behavior of his experimental animals.
4. Like LOEB, did not give high levels of consciousness to animals.

Thorndike’s CONNECTIONISM:
-in spite of the MENTALISTIC TINGE to his work, his approach was indeed in the MECHANISTIC tradition.
-Thorndike argued BEHAVIOR must be reduced to its simplest elements: THE STIMULUS-RESPONSE UNITS.
-Thorndike shared with the STRUCTURALISTS & BRITISH EMPIRACISTS a MECHANISTIC, ANALYTICAL & ATOMISTIC POINT OF VIEW.
-STIMULUS-RESPONSE UNITS are ELEMENTS OF BEHAVIOR (not consciousness) and are the building blocks from which more complex behaviors are compounded.

Thorndike’s PUZZLE BOX
– BOX: built out of old crates & sticks; Animal had to learn to operate a latch to escape box – idea traced to reports of Romanes & Morgan describing cats & dogs opening latches on gates.
– PROCEDURE: Food-deprived cats place in box (food outside the box); Cats first do random behaviors, eventually, by accident, cat does the correct behavior and unlatches the box & got out to eat food. Subsequent times, the random behavior of the cat diminishes, until the cat’s learning was complete. Cat would then immediately unlatch the crate the next time cat put into the box.

In Thorndike’s PUZZLE BOX, Thorndike used QUANTITATIVE MEASURES OF LEARNING.
1. Logged the # of wrong behaviors (actions that didn’t lead to an escape.)
2. Recorded the elapsed time from the moment cat put into the box until cat escaped.
3. As LEARNING took place, # of wrong behaviors & elapsed time went down.

Thorndike wrote about STAMPING IN AND STAMPING OUT
STAMPING: a response tendency by its favorable or unfavorable consequences.
UNSUCCESSFUL RESPONSE TENDENCIES that did nothing to get the cat OUT of the box – tended to DISAPPEAR – or to be STAMPED OUT over a number of trials.
SUCCESSFUL RESPONSE TENDENCIES that led to successfully escaping the box – were STAMPED IN – after a number of trials.

Thorndike’s “Trial-and-Error” Learning
Learning based on the repetition of response tendencies that lead to success.
Also called TRIAL & ACCIDENTAL SUCCESS LEARNING.

Thorndike’s Laws of Learning
1. Law of Effect
2. Law of Exercise or Law of Use and Disuse
3. REWARD more EFFECTIVE than mere REPITITION.

Law of Effect
Acts that produce satisfaction in a given situation become associated with that situation; when the situation recurs, the act is likely to recur.

Law of Exercise (or the Law of Use & Disuse)
-Companion to the LAW OF EFFECT
-The more an act or response is used in a given situation, the more strongly the act becomes associated with that situation.

Law of Use & Disuse (Law of Exercise)
Law of Use – The more an act or response is USED in a given situation, the more strongly the act becomes associated with that situiaton.
Law of Disuse – Prolonged DISUSE of the response tends to weaken the association with the situation.

Thorndike’s Research – Comments
– Thorndike’s research of human & animal learning among the most significant research programs in history of Psychology.
– Beginning of the ascension of learning theory.
-Thorndike’s OBJECTIVISM influenced BEHAVIORISM.
-1998 – American Psychologist honored Thorndike’s work.
– Pavlov credited Thorndike with making the first steps along the path.

Ivan Petrovitch Pavlov (1849-1936) In General:
-Pavlov’s work helped shift of associationism from subjective ideas to OBJECTIVE PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES (such as glandular secretions & muscular movements)
– Pavlov’s work provided Watson with a new method for studying behavior and for attempting to control and modify it.

Pavlov’s Life
-Born in 1849 in Central Russia (oldest of 11 children of a village priest – position in family helped him develop responsibility and a drive to work hard at early age)
-Intended to study for the priesthood
-Read about Darwin – changed mind and chose to study animal physiology
-Became member of Russia’s (and Soviet’s) INTELLIGENTSIA (The emerging class in Russian Society – distinct from the other classes (aristocracy & peasantry).
-Pavlov was a dedicated intellectual whose whole life centered on his intellectual pursuits.
-Pavlov had an almost fanatical devotion to pure science and experimental research supported by his peasant-beginnings energy and work ethic.

Pavlov’s Life
-1890 – At Age 41 – Pavlov becomes professor of Pharmacology at St. Petersburg Military Medical Academy.

Pavlov’s Life
-From 1897-1936, although lab research was his passion he rarely conducted the experiments himself. (He supervised.)
-During this time period, 150 researchers worked under Pavlov’s direction & produced more than 500 scientific papers.
-Pavlov’s lab worked “like the mechanism of a watch”
-Famous temper that would quickly explode and then rapidly die down.
-Berated research associate for being 10 minutes late during the 1917 Bolshevik revolution (while there was gunfire on the streets.)

Pavlov’s Life
-Failure of experiment would depress him; however, success brought joy and Pavlov would congratulate everyone including the dogs.
-Believed in treating the dogs humanely. Felt that the surgical procedures used on the dogs were unfortunate but unavoidable in scientific research.
-1935 – Monument to a dog (ornate fountain) built on the grounds of Pavlov’s Research Facility.
-Students treated him like royalty – attitude of Pavlov towards a student would determine the hierarchy within the group.
-Pavlov allowed women and Jewish students to work in his lab.
-Did not tolerate anti-Semitism.
-Had a good sense of humor.

Pavlov’s Life – and Relationship with Soviet Union
-Relations with the Soviet Union were difficult.
-Openly critical of 1917 Russian Revolution and of the Soviet System.
-Wrote protest letters to Stalin.
-Despite his attitude, Pavlov was given generous Soviet research support and was allowed to conduct his research free of government intervention.

Pavlov’s Nobel Peace Prize – 1904
Received it for his work on digestion.

Conditioned Reflexes (Pavlov)
Reflexes that are conditional or dependent on the formation of an association or connection between stimulus and response.

Pavlov’s Three Research Areas
1. Function of coronary nerves
2. Primary digestive glands
3. Conditioned reflexes (most relevant to psychology)

Pavlov’s Serendipitous Finding of Conditioned Reflexes found when studying natural reflex of salivaton
-To study digestive glands in dogs, Pavlov surgically diverted the gland so saliva could be collected outside the dog’s cheek.
-Dogs salivated when food was placed in their mouths.
-Pavlov noticed dogs salivated at just the sight of food or the sound the person’s (who was going to feed them) footsteps.
-Pavlov noticed that this unlearned salivation reflex was now conditioned (connected) to stimuli associated with food delivery.
-Pavlov turned attention to studying how this connection or conditioning came about.

Psychic Reflexes
Pavlov’s original Term for Conditioned Reflexes.
-Following the Zeitgeist explanation – Pavlov focused initially on the mentalistic experiences of the lab animals.
-Initially, he described the animal’s mental events in subjective human terms.
-Pavlov, in time, dropped such mentalistic references in favor of a more OBJECTIVE METHODOLOGY.

1927 – Pavlov’s “Conditioned Reflexes” Book
Pavlov gave credit to Rene Descartes for developing the idea of the reflex.

Pavlov’s First Simple Experiments
1. Show dog bread in hand.
2. Give dog bread to eat by putting it into dog’s mouth.
3. Dog salivates.
4. Dog eats.
5. Soon, dog salivates at sight of bread.

Pavlov’s explanations of Dog Salivating
1. Salivating to food in the mouth is INNATE: UNCONDITONAL REFLEX.
2. Salivating to the sight of food is LEARNED: CONDITIONAL REFLEX.
-It was an American Translator, W. H. Gantt, who changed Pavlov’s “Conditional” to “Conditioned”
It is now known as “CONDITIONED” REFLEX.

Pavlov’s Research
-Standardized experimental conditions.
-Used Rigorous controls.
-Elimination of sources of error.

The Tower of Silence (Pavlov)
-Pavlov was concerned about outside influences affecting his results.
-Controlled for such influences by designing special cubicles for dog and for experimenter.
-Dog could not see experimenter.-
-Still Pavlov was concerned about issues of experimental control – so he designed a research building.
– Pavlov’s RESEARCH BUILDING – THE TOWER OF SCIENCE:
1.Three stories
2. Paid by funds supplied by a Russian Businessman
3. Extra-thick windows
4. Double steel, airtight doors.
5. Supported by steel girders set in sand.
6. Surrounded by straw-filled moat
7.Eliminated temperature changes, vibrations, extraneous noise, etc.

A Conditioning Experiment by Pavlov
1. A conditioned stimulus (a light) is shown to the subject.
2. Immediately the unconditioned stimulus (e.g. food) is presented.
3. Dog salivates.
4. After several pairings of the conditioned and unconditioned stimuli (light with food), the dog salivates to the light.
5. Dog has formed an association between the light and the food.
– Must pair the light and the food multiple times.
-This conditioning or learning will not occur unless the light is followed by the food a sufficient number of times.
-Something that increases the likelihood of a response. (like food)
-Reinforcement (being fed) is necessary for learning.
-Demonstrated extinction, spontaneous recover, generalization, discrimination, higher-order conditioning.

Reinforcement (Pavlov)
-Something that increases the likelihood of a response. (like food)
-Reinforcement (being fed) is necessary for learning.

Pavlov’s Work
– The most extensive research program since Wundt’s.

Pavlov’s “Conditioned Reflexes” 1927 – Original Source Material
-Pavlov said his starting point was Descartes’ idea of the “nervous relex”
-Stimulus→nervous receptor → nervous impulse →transmitted along incoming nerve fibers → central nervous system →nervouse impulse →transmitted along outgoing nerve fibers to active organ →leads to activity of cellular structures.
– THUS: stimulus → response; cause → effect.
-Reflexes are the elemental units stemming from the original organization of the nervous system.
-reflexes are the “driving belts” of human-designed machines.
– Beginning of Pavlov’s research – the experimenter was the source of so many different stimuli that the experiments were invalid.
-Even when experimenter was outside of dog’s room in another room, outside sounds, vibrations, changes in light, etc., disturbed the experiment.
-SOLUTION: Special lab built with funds from a Moscow Businessman at the Petrograd Institute of Experimental Medicine: the TOWER OF SILENCE.
– Primary goal of new lab: “protection of dogs from uncontrolled extraneous stimuli.”
-Isolating trench was around the building, isolated floors and rooms, soundproof and separate compatrments for animals and researchers.
-For stimulating animal or registering the corresponding reflex response, electrical methods or pneumatic transmissions were used.
-New lab made it possible to stabilize environmental conditions and conduct successful experiments.

A Note on E. B. Twitmyer (1873-1943)
– Twitmyer and Pavlov – another instance of independent simultaneous discovery.
-Twitmyer was an American.
-In 1902, Twitmyer (former student of Lightner Witmer’s at U of PA) did a dissertation on reflexes – the familiar knee-jerk reflex – While conducting that research Twitmyer noticed that subjects began to respond to stimuli other than the original stimulus.
– 1904 – Twitmyer presented his dissertation to the APA on the Knee jerk reaction. Twitmyer suggested that his findings showed that the knee-jerk could be elicited by other stimuli. Suggested this was a topic worthy of further study – No one in audience was interested. Twitmyer’s findings were ignored.

E. B. Twitmyer’s Obscurity
Reasons for his obscurity:
1. Zeitgeist
2. Twitmyer’s inexperience and inability to continue his research.
3. His talk was scheduled just before lunch.
4. James’ failure to allow time for comments,
5. Some combination of all of the above reasons.
RESULT: Twitmyer missed out on making one of the most significant findings in the history of psychology.

Alois Kreidl
-Another Unknown Person
-Austrian Physiologist
-1896 -Demonstrated the basic principles of conditioning – predating Twitmyer’s report by 8 years.
-Kreidl found that goldfish learned to anticipate feeding through the cues that preceded being fed.

Comments on Pavlov
-Pavlov demonstrated study of higher mental processes in physiological terms (without any mention of consciousness.)
-His conditioning methods have broad practical applications in areas such as behavior therapy.
-Continued the tradition of mechanism and atomism.
-To Pavlov – all animals – whether his lab dogs or humans were machines.
-Pavlov provided Psychology with a basic element of behavior.
-Behavior could be reduced to elements and studied in experimental lab.
-Agreed with James that psychology still not a science.
-Excluded psychology from his work.
-Much later – he identified himself as an experimental psychologist.

Vladimir M. Bekhterev (1857-1927) – In General
-Helped lead psychology away from subjective ideas toward objectively observed overt behavior.
-Less well-known than Pavlov.
-Russian physiologist, neurologist & psychiatrist.
-Pioneer in several research areas.
-Accepted women & Jews as students and colleagues.
-1881 – Received M.D. degree then went to study with Wundt.
-1893 – Appointed chair of Mental & Nervous Diseases at St. Petersburg – Organized a mental hospital.
-1907 – Founded Psychoneurological Institute that is now named for him.
– Pavlov published a negative review of one of Bekhterev’s books – The pair became enemies for life.
– 1927 Bekhterev summoned to treat Joseph STalin’s “depression” – Bekhterev said it was severe paranoia. Bekhterev died later that afternoon…no autopsy, body cremated. Stalin then ordered BEkhterev’s research suppressed and had Bekhterev’s son executed.
-1952 – Yr. Before Stalin died – ordered a postage stamp honoring Bekhterev be issued.

Vladimir M. Bekhterev (1857-1927) – His Research
– Bekhterev’s research focused on the motor conditioning response – Pavlov’s research focused on glandular secretions.

Associated Reflexes
Reflexes that can be elicited not only by unconditioned stimuli but also by stimuli that have become associated with the unconditioned stimuli. (Bekhterev)

Bekhterev’s Research
– He found that REFLEX MOVEMENTS – such as pulling your finger away from the source of an electric shock – could be elicited not only by the unconditioned stimulus (the electric shock) but also by the stimuli that had become associated with the original stimulus.
FOR EXAMPLE: a buzzer sounded at the time of the shock would soon bring about pulling the finger away all by itself.

Bekhterev’s View of Associated Reflexes
Bekhterev considered associated reflexes to be relexive reactions whereas the associationist explained these connections in terms of mental processes.

Bekhterev
-Interested in the motor conditioning response whereas Pavlov concentrated on conditioning glandular responses.
-His basic discoveries: associated reflexes.
-Higher-level and complex behaviors could be explained in the same way (They were an accumulation or compounding of lower-level motor reflexes.)

Bekhterev’s View on Thought Processes
-Thought processes depended on the the inner actions of the speech muscles.
-This view was later adopted by Watson.

Bekhterv’s “Objective Psychology”
-Published in 1907
-Translated into German and French in 1913
-3rd Edition published in English in 1932 as “General Principles of Human Reflexology”

Influence of Functional Psychology on Behaviorism
-Functionalism was another direct antecedent of behaviorism.

Influence of Functional Psychology on Behaviorism
Some functionalists were:
-more objective than previous schools
-called for an objective psychology
-called for focus on behavior instead of consciousness

In 1904, Cattell emphasized __________________________ and criticized introspection.
behavior and objectivity

Applied psychologist had little use for _________________ and their various specialty areas essentially were an objective functional psychology
consciousness and introspection

James Cattell in 1904 at the St. Louis, Missouri World’s Fair said “not convinced that psychology should be limited to the study of ____________.”
consciousness

Watson was influenced by ________’s World’s Fair Speech and Watson adapts this person’s position.
Cattell

If ____________ is the Father of Behaviorism, __________ is the grandfather.
Watson; Cattell

Intellectual climate in the US in the ten years before Watson founded Behaviorism, the US favored the idea of a more _____________ psychology.
Objective

1911 – Walter Pillsbury (student of Titchener) defined psychology as “The ____________ of behavior.” for his textbook.
science

Influence of Functional Psychology on Behaviorism
-1911-Max Meyer published “The Fundamental Laws of Human Behavior”
-1912 – William McDougall published “Psychology: The Study of Behavior”
-1912 – Knight Dunlap – Psychologist at Johns Hopkins where Watson was teaching proposed the “introspection be banned from psychology.”
-1912 – William Montague – presented paper “Has Psychology Lost Its Mind?” to APA in New York. – Montague advocated fro discarding the “concept of mind or consciousness and to substitute concept of behavior as object of psychological study.

J.R. Angell in 1910
-At the University of Chicago
-Most progressive of the functionalists.
-Predicted American psychology was ready for greater objectivity.
-Said that by 1930, it would be advantageous to forget consciousness and describe the behavior of humans and animals objectively.

Watson: The Agent of the Inevitable
– Watson was not the first to propose a science of behavior but, he clearly saw the need for it.
-Watsocn boldly called for a revolution that was already started.

The crux of Pavlov’s work on conditioning was that higher mental processes could be studied in physiological terms. TRUE OR FALSE
True

The author of “Animal Education: The Psychical Development of the White Rate” was Washburn. TRUE OR FALSE
FALSE

Unsuccessful responses were stamped out over a number of trials is ____________________________?
Trial-and-Error Learning

This is necessary for learning to take place.
Reinforcement.

The first text on comparative psychology was written by Margaret Washburn. TRUE OR FALSE
TRUE

Thorndike called his experimental aproach to the study of association:
Connectionism

Bekhterev’s basic discoveries were revealed through his study of motor responses which he called ____________?
associated reflexes

Pavlov’s Nobel Prize was for his work on conditioning. TRUE OR FALSE
FALSE…it was for his work on digestion

One criterion of POSITIVISM is that knowledge must be private in nature. TRUE OR FALSE
FALSE – Positivism states that the knowledge must be objectively observable…which means that it cannot be private.

An involuntary forced movement is called a __________?
Tropism

In Pavlovian conditioning, reinforcement is not essential. TRUE OR FALSE
FALSE

Successes stamped in after a number of trials is called: ___________?
Trial-and-error learning

What increases the likelihood of a response?
Reinforcement

Thorndike posited that “The mind is man’s connection-system.” TRUE OR FALSE
TRUE

V. M. Bekhterev wrote “Objective Psychology” TRUE OR FALSE
TRUE

Loeb argued that animal consciousness was revealed by this: ___________________
Associative Memory

The element of Pavlov’s work most readily appropriated by Watson was the conditioned reflex. TRUE OR FALSE
TRUE

A revolution with fighting in the streets was no excuse for being late if you were one of Pavlov’s lab assistants. TRUE OR FALSE
TRUE

In Pavlov’s terms, the conditional reflex is dependent on the formation of an association. TRUE OR FALSE
TRUE

Bekhterev’s work is distinct from Pavlov’s in the former’s focus on voluntary motor responses. TRUE OR FALSE
FALSE

Thorndike argued that psychology should study behavior as well as conscious experience. TRUE OR FALSE
FALSE

E.B. Twitmyer was the first to describe classical conditioning. TRUE OR FALSE
FALSE

In anticipation of Skinner’s work on reinforcement schedules, Thorndike concluded that reward is as important as repetition of a response. TRUE OR FALSE
FALSE

Watson’s approach to structuralism and functionalism was a revolt. TRUE OR FALSE
TRUE

Who had a theory of Tropisms?
Loeb

After The Animal Mind, textbooks on comparative psychology focused on __________________.
learning.

Pfungst demonstrated that the apparent thinking ability of the horse Clever Hans was really due to the animal’s ability to respond to ___________________.
head movements

Who used puzzle boxes to study animal behavior?
Thorndike

The “original” law of effect states that ______________.
Any act that produces satisfaction is more likely to occur again; any act that produces discomfort is less likely to occur again.

For Pavlov, ______________ is necessary for learning to take place.
reinforcement

While Pavlov was exploring conditioning in Russia, an American named _____________ also discovered the existence of conditioned reflexes.
Edwin Burket Twitmyer

Objectrive Psychology was authored by _____________.
Bekhterev

Watson was not the first to deman an objective psychology and, according to one historian, __________ is considered the grandfather of Watson’s behaviorism.
Cattell