History Ch. 17 – 31

In the presidential election of 2000, George W. Bush
won the electoral college vote.

In an effort to support his pledge of no new taxes, President George H. W. Bush earned a reputation for
vetoing bills passed by Congress.

President Clinton’s appointment of women, blacks, and Hispanics to the federal courts
underscored his efforts to create a government that “looked like America.”

The temperance reform movement stigmatized
members of the Irish, Italian, and German communities.

The progressive agenda in the early twentieth century
incorporated a belief in the capacity of experts to utilize scientific methods to improve society.

A strike by 147,000 anthracite coal miners in Pennsylvania in 1902 led to
a reduction in hours worked and an increase in wages.

The progressive movement in the United States began at the
grassroots level and percolated up to the national level of government.

Alice Paul’s approaches to suffrage activism were influenced by
Emmeline, Christabel, and Sylvia Pankhurst.

The Germans were outraged by the terms of the Treaty of Versailles because
they had agreed to an armistice based on Wilson’s Fourteen Points.

Patriotic fervor in the United States during World War I led to
the virtual disappearance of the German language from public school curriculums.

The National War Labor Policies Board was successful in enacting
the eight-hour day, a living minimum wage, and collective bargaining rights for workers in industry.

The immediate cause of President Wilson’s decision to ask Congress for a declaration of war against Germany in 1917 was
German submarine attacks on American vessels in the sea lanes to Great Britain.

President Wilson’s most controversial involvement in Latin America occurred when he
intervened in Mexico’s affairs.

President Wilson’s policies toward Latin America were governed in large part by
the Monroe Doctrine.

Germany reacted to the blockade in 1914 by
retaliating with a submarine blockade of Great Britain.

Between 1915 and 1920, in an effort to escape the South’s cotton fields and kitchens, blacks
left the South for northern industrial cities.

A complex web of European military and diplomatic alliances determined the scope of World War I, but the event that triggered the war was
the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria by a Bosnian Serb terrorist.

The Red scare of 1919 and 1920 was
a reaction to U.S. labor unrest, Russian bolshevism, and a flurry of terrorist attacks.

The Selective Service Act of 1917 authorized the draft of
all young men.

The Zimmermann telegram
promised Mexico its former territories in the United States if it would declare war on its northern neighbor.

The U.S. government passed the Espionage Act, the Trading with the Enemy Act, and the Sedition Act to
punish any opinion it considered “disloyal, profane, scurrilous, or abusive” to the American flag or uniform.

World War I combat made wide use of
trench warfare using poison gas and barbed wire.

Before the outbreak of World War I, Europe was divided into
the Triple Entente and the Triple Alliance.

In negotiating the 1919 peace treaty in Paris, the Allies wanted
to weaken Germany so that it would never threaten its neighbors again.

Black migration to the North during World War I led to
ninety-six lynchings and race riots in two dozen northern cities.

Pancho Villa led a rebellion of Mexican farmers who
believed the new American-backed government had betrayed the revolution’s promise to help the common people.

By late 1917, progressives and prohibitionists had successfully
lobbied Congress for passage of the Eighteenth Amendment.

Opponents in the U.S. Senate to the Treaty of Versailles included
Republican isolationists.

Much of the tension between rural America and urban America in the 1920s hinged on the belief of rural Americans that
cities, with their diverse populations, had spawned an assault on traditional values.

Herbert Hoover came to the presidency
with modern ideas about how businesses should operate.

During the 1920s, the primary economic problem facing the United States had to do with
consumption

The Works Progress Administration, which operated from 1935 to 1943,
generated jobs for 13 million unemployed men and women.

In 1936, the Supreme Court supported agricultural processors and distributors when it ruled against the
Agricultural Adjustment Act.

By the end of 1938, opposition to the New Deal had increased, as evidenced by
congressional elections in which Republicans gained seven seats in the Senate and eighty in the House.

President Roosevelt’s plan to remove judicial obstacles to New Deal reforms in his second term of office was
called court packing.

The United States was reluctant to accept Jewish refugees from Nazi oppression largely because
of anti-Semitism.

During World War II, segregated camps, barracks and units were reserved for
African Americans.

The mission of kamikaze pilots was to
defend Okinawa and so prevent U.S. troops from getting within bombing range of their home islands.

The McCarran-Walter Act of 1952
ended the ban on immigration and citizenship for Asians.

With the collapse of the Nationalist government in China, the
focus of U.S. foreign policy shifted to Japan.

The National Security Council was established to
advise the president on defense planning.

In presenting the domino theory to Congress, President Truman
warned that if Greece fell to the rebels, “confusion and disorder might well spread throughout the entire Middle East.”

Dwight D. Eisenhower, in his farewell address, warned against
the influence of the military-industrial complex.

The South and West were sometimes referred to as the Gun Belt because
the regions had captured the lion’s share of Cold War spending for research and for the production of bombers and missiles.

Most American women who were employed in the 1950s worked in
clerical, service, and domestic jobs.

The Eisenhower administration
allowed the welfare state to grow and the federal government to take on new projects.

Key to President Eisenhower’s “New Look” in foreign policy was
a smaller conventional army bolstered by strength in airpower and nuclear weapons.

In American industry in the 1950s, technological advances
chipped away at the number of jobs in the steel, copper, and aluminum industries.

An unintended consequence of the federal government’s program to relocate Native Americans was the
emergence of a militant pan-Indian movement two decades later.

The smog that plagued Los Angeles was largely a function of
sprawling urban and suburban settlements without efficient public transportation.

During the early 1950s, the politics of the middle way
portrayed President Eisenhower as a leader above partisan politics who would govern by compromise and consensus.

The revolution in the visual arts that began in New York City in the 1950s
stressed energy and spontaneity over recognizable forms.

During Theodore Roosevelt’s administration, the land set aside as government reserves
more than tripled.

After Democrats swept the congressional elections of 1910, progressive reform
continued in areas such as mine and railroad safety and workday limitations.

Alice Paul’s approaches to suffrage activism were influenced by
Emmeline, Christabel, and Sylvia Pankhurst.

The progressive movement in the United States began at the
grassroots level and percolated up to the national level of government.

J. P. Morgan’s actions in the panic of 1907 earned him
the tacit approval of President Roosevelt for U.S. Steel’s acquisition of Tennessee Coal and Iron.

As governor of Wisconsin, Robert La Follette united his supporters by
emphasizing reform over party loyalty.

The progressive agenda in the early twentieth century
incorporated a belief in the capacity of experts to utilize scientific methods to improve society.

In negotiating the 1919 peace treaty in Paris, the Allies wanted
to weaken Germany so that it would never threaten its neighbors again.

Before Woodrow Wilson became president in 1912, he had
served as president of Princeton University and as governor of New Jersey.

The U.S. labor situation in the post-World War I years resulted in
more than 3,600 strikes involving 4 million workers.

The Hoover administration responded to the problems of the American people during the Great Depression by
asking employers not to lay off their employees.

At base, the Great Depression was caused by
severe problems in the United States and international economies.

In their study of life in a small midwestern town, the authors of Middletown concluded that
America had become “a culture in which everything hinges on money.”

In light of events during his presidency, these words from President Herbert Hoover’s 1929 inaugural address would turn out to be ironic:
“Given a chance to go forward with the policies of the last eight years, we shall soon with the help of God, be in sight of the day when poverty will be banished from this nation.”

Before winning the presidential election of 1932, Franklin Delano Roosevelt had
served as governor of New York.

In 1937, the Farm Security Administration was
established to help tenant farmers become independent.

President Roosevelt was able to restore America’s confidence in government and the private banking system by
broadcasting his fireside chats on the radio.

In 1942, President Roosevelt authorized the roundup and internment of all Americans of Japanese descent because
a large number of people believed that Japanese Americans were potential sources of espionage and subversion.

After the attack on Pearl Harbor, Japanese admiral Isoroku Yamamoto’s fundamental military strategy
was to win the war quickly, before the United States could mobilize its manpower and resources.

The six-month battle to force the withdrawal of Japanese forces from Guadalcanal in February 1943 demonstrated
how costly and difficult it would be to defeat Japan.

The War Production Board, which set production priorities and pushed for maximum output, was headed by
business leaders who were paid almost nothing for their efforts.

For the Soviet Union, World War II
meant the loss of more than twenty million citizens, and weakened agricultural and industrial sectors.

Situation comedies in the 1950s tended to
idealize family life and promote the feminine mystique.

Although Alfred Kinsey’s books Sexual Behavior in the Human Male and Sexual Behavior in the Human Female sold well, they were criticized chiefly because
the author refused to make moral judgments on his findings that sexual promiscuity was more prevalent than had been thought.

The kitchen debate between U.S. vice president Richard Nixon and Soviet premier Nikita Khrushchev in 1959
offered a revealing look at the Cold War from the personal perspective of two staunch adversaries.

President Eisenhower believed that the development of nuclear power for domestic purposes
should be left in the hands of private enterprise.

The smog that plagued Los Angeles was largely a function of
sprawling urban and suburban settlements without efficient public transportation.

In American industry in the 1950s, technological advances
chipped away at the number of jobs in the steel, copper, and aluminum industries.

The South and West were sometimes referred to as the Gun Belt because
the regions had captured the lion’s share of Cold War spending for research and for the production of bombers and missiles.

In 1968, Secretary of Defense Robert S. McNamara, a strong supporter of U.S. involvement in Vietnam,
left the Johnson Administration because he believed the North Vietnamese wouldn’t quit even with more and more bombings by U.S. forces.

The U.S. policy of détente with the Soviet Union meant
a new focus on discussions with the Soviet Union on arms control and trade.

During the Tet Offensive of January 1968,
key cities and every major American base in South Vietnam were attacked by the Vietcong and North Vietnamese forces.

The presidential candidacy of George C. Wallace in 1968 appealed to
Americans who were outraged by assaults on traditional values by students and others.

President Nixon’s unilateral decision to expand the war in Southeast Asia to Cambodia was designed
to bomb North Vietnamese sanctuaries there.

The U.S. military adjusted its personnel assignments in 1966 because
of the disproportionately high death rate among black soldiers who were serving in Vietnam.

Ronald Reagan responded to terrorist attacks on Americans around the world by
refusing to negotiate with the attackers.

Ronald Reagan, in his First Inaugural Address, promises a return to
federalism.

During the Reagan years, feminists were successful in their efforts to
retain the basic principles of Roe v. Wade.

Investigators looking for illegal activities in the executive branch led to the 1973 resignations of all of the following officials except
President Nixon.

When Congress blocked President Reagan’s efforts to help opponents of the leftist Sandinista government in Nicaragua,
administration officials acted secretly and illegally to undermine congressional authority.

Following the 1972 election, Americans learned that President Nixon and his associates had been guilty of
using unlawful means to silence critics of the Vietnam War.

In 1977, the United States and Panama completed treaties that provided for
Panama’s takeover of the Panama Canal in 2000.

Nixon responded to the Roe v. Wade decision in 1973 by
avoiding public comment on the issue.

Defense spending under President Reagan
increased beyond the level of spending during the Vietnam War.

The United States intervened in the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait because the
United States needed to maintain access to Middle Eastern oil resources.

All of the following can be considered major costs of the U.S.-led war in Iraq except
serious damage to the political alliance between the U.S. president and the British prime minister.

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