History After 1877 Essay

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Why did the Radical-led Congress pass the Civil Rights Act of 1866?
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It was a response to the “black codes” and the neo-slavery system created by unrepentant southern legislatures.
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The Specie Redemption Act of 1875:
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allowed for the redemption of greenbacks in gold
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Under Lincoln’s plan for Reconstruction:
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10 percent of the 1860 voters had to take an oath of allegiance to the Union
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During the Civil War, Congress passed:
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the Homestead Act of 1862, which gave 160 acres to settlers who lived on the land for five years
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Carpetbaggers were:
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Union veterans
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Jay Gould and James Fisk triggered a scandal with their scheme to:
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corner the gold market
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“Hard-money” advocates argued that government war bonds should be:
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paid off in gold
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After the war, rumors swept the South that ex-slaves would receive:
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forty acres and a mule
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All of the following are reasons why Republicans lost control in the South EXCEPT:
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black voters switched to support the Democrats
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Lincoln’s assassin, John Wilkes Booth:
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was a pro-Confederate actor
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Johnson violated the Tenure of Office Act when:
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he tried to remove one of his cabinet members without Senate permission
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All of the following statements about the Fifteenth Amendment are true EXCEPT:
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it ended slavery
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The Radical state governments in the South did all the following EXCEPT:
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cut taxes
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Ulysses S. Grant
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brought little political experience and judgment to the presidency
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Emancipation had what impact on the South?
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It left the South’s labor system in disarray
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Southern efforts to recreate a society that looked similar to the Confederacy had what political impact?
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Moderate Republicans moved to support Radical Republicans’ Reconstruction policies.
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What was the most significant enduring legacy of Reconstruction?
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The passage of the Thirteenth, Fourteenth, and Fifteenth Amendments.
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Johnson’s Proclamation of Amnesty excluded the people he blamed for leading the South into secession. They were:
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the wealthy planters, merchants, and bankers
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At the end of the Civil War, the newly freed slaves were given:
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medical and legal assistance from the Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands
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Johnson’s Reconstruction plan:
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would restore the union fairly quickly
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The primary objective of the Ku Klux Klan was:
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oppressing blacks and white republicans
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President Johnson fully broke with Congress in 1866 when he:
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vetoed a bill to continue the Freedmen’s Bureau
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By the time President Grant took office, southern resistance to the Reconstruction efforts had:
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turned violent
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What state was the only one in the nation that did not ratify all three constitutional amendments related to ending slavery (the Thirteenth, Fourteenth, and Fifteenth)?
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Kentucky
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Why did southern Democrats agree to the Compromise of 1877?
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it ensured the last federal troops would be withdrawn from Louisiana and South Carolina.
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When the votes were first counted in the 1876 presidential election:
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no candidate had an Electoral College majority
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During Reconstruction, African Americans:
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attempted to establish schools
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Northern voters supported Grant mainly because of his:
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military record
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Why did Congressional Republicans write the “Wade-Davis Manifesto”?
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to protest Lincoln’s veto of the Wade-Davis Bill and accuse Lincoln of exceeding his constitutional authority
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Why did the Radical-led Congress pass the Civil Rights Act of 1866?
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It was a response to the “black codes” and the neo-slavery system created by unrepentant southern legislatures.
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Many former Confederates resented the new state Constitutions imposed by Radical Republicans because:
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their provisions allowed for black voting and civil rights
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Johnson violated the Tenure of Office Act when:
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he tried to remove one of his cabinet members without Senate permission
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Andrew Johnson was:
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impeached by the House but not convicted by the Senate
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In South Carolina, the fact that lower-class whites enjoyed unprecedented political power under Radical Republican rule:
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led many former Confederate leaders to oppose the Radical state legislature
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In the North, the Civil War especially elevated the power of:
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business leaders
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Southern efforts to recreate a society that looked similar to the Confederacy had what political impact?
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Moderate Republicans moved to support Radical Republicans’ Reconstruction policies.
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Lincoln’s assassin, John Wilkes Booth:
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was a pro-confederate actor
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The main purpose of the Union League was to:
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organize groups of Republicans in the South
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In response to the Klan, President Grant:
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tried to protect black rights
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What happened after the end of Reconstruction?
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The protections of black civil rights crumbled under the pressure of restored white rule and unfavorable Supreme Court decisions.
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All of the following factors helped accelerate economic growth after the Civil War EXCEPT:
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the use of prison labor by railroad companies
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The Industrial Workers of the World:
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had its origin in the mining and lumber camps of the West
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All of the following statements are reasons why child labor was problematic EXCEPT:
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they took high-paying jobs from immigrants
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Why was there a growth of craft unions during the Civil War?
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The war sparked an increased demand for skilled labor.
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Marxism, one strain of socialism, was imported to the United States mainly by:
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Germans
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Crédit Mobilier is indicative of the type of shady big business financial practices that occurred during the Gilded Age because it:
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bribed officials and grossly overcharged for its services
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The Molly Maguires
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aimed to right the perceived wrongs against Irish coal workers
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A transcontinental railroad was not built before the Civil War because:
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North-South sectional differences prevented Congress from selecting a route
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The Knights of Labor declined for all the following reasons EXCEPT:
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its leader Terrance Powderly died
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The National Labor Union
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was influential in getting Congress to enact an eight-hour workday for federal employees
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Violence erupted at the Homestead Works in 1892 when:
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Henry Frick tried to break a strike by bringing in Pinkertons
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The Knights of Labor
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called for men and women to have equal pay for equal work
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Which of the following statements about the Socialist Party of America is NOT true?
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Its support was confined to industrial workers in the Northeast.
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Holding companies:
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are firms that control the stock of other companies
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Why did Chinese refer to the Geary Act of 1892 as the “Dog Tag Law”?
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It required Chinese to carry their residential permit with them at all times or risk imprisonment and deportation.
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Which of the following statements about the Socialist Party of America is NOT true?
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Its support was confined to industrial workers in the Northeast.
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William D. “Big Bill” Haywood:
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was the leader of the Industrial Workers of the World
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President Grover Cleveland’s response to the Pullman strike was to:
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send federal troops to keep the trains running
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“Trusts” like Rockefeller’s Standard Oil Trust were vulnerable because they:
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were appealing targets for prosecution on the grounds of monopoly or restraint of trade
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Who developed the first alternating current electric system?
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George Westinghouse
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All of the following statements are true of the Pinkertons EXCEPT:
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they relied on Chinese labor to fill their ranks
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The greatest growth of the Knights of Labor took place:
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in the mid-1880s, when the union had several strikes against the railroads
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Which of the following best accounts for the success of Standard Oil?
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Its corporate structure—known as vertical integration—allowed the company to grow tremendously.
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Mary “Mother Jones” Harris promoted all of the following causes EXCEPT:
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temperance
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The National Labor Union
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was influential in getting Congress to enact an eight-hour workday for federal employees
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The fight for survival in the trans-Mississippi West made men and women:
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more equal partners than were their eastern counterparts
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Why was hydraulic mining so damaging to the environment?
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It caused tons of dirt and debris to clog rivers, kill fish, and pollute downstream farmland.
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By the late nineteenth century, Chief Joseph of the Nez Perce Indians believed:
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the time had come to stop fighting and put a stop to his people’s needless deaths
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The first great cowtown was:
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Abilene, Kansas
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The Comstock Lode refers to:
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a mining discovery of gold and silver in Nevada
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If there had been no white hunters in the West, the buffalo
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population would still have experienced a devastating decline
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The major prophet of the New South gospel was:
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Henry W. Grady
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Cattle drives:
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were largely over by 1886
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What was the purpose of the Dawes Severalty Act?
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It sought to “Americanize” Indians by dealing with them as individuals.
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The American Tobacco Company was:
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dominating the U.S. tobacco industry by the twentieth century
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The Newlands Reclamation Act of 1902:
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provided funds for irrigation works
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Bourbons:
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was a term used to refer to the New South political leadership meant to depict that leadership as reactionary
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The very poor generally did not migrate to the West because:
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they generally could not afford the expense of transportation, land, and supplies
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In 1877, President Rutherford Hayes addressed the American approach to dealing with Native Americans, saying:
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“Indian wars have had their origin in broken promises and acts of injustice on our part”
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Cattlemen rationalized violence against sheepherders because:
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they saw sheepherder ethnicity or religious beliefs as inferior
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Much of the development of the western plains has been shaped by its:
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arid climate
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In the late 1800s, the South experienced major increases in the production in all of the following areas EXCEPT:
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Automobiles
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In the landmark case Woodruff v. North Bloomfield Gravel Mining Company:
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the judge ruled on the legality of dumping mining debris in water sources
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The conventional explanation that the buffalo disappeared from the plains due to overhunting by whites in the West is incomplete because:
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it does not account for environmental factors, such as changes in climate and competition for forage with other animals
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Under Bourbon rule in the South, state spending for public education:
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dramatically declined
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Range wars erupted by the late nineteenth century because of:
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conflicts over land and water rights between ranchers and farmers
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Six states were created from the western territories in the years 1889-1890. These states were not admitted before 1889 because:
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Democrats in Congress were reluctant to create states out of territories that were heavily Republican
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Why was the expansion of railroads significant to the growth of the cattle industry?
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As the railroads increased the ability to ship huge numbers of western cattle, more “cowtowns” were established in the West.
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Following the 1867 “Report on the Condition of the Indian Tribes,” Congress decided that the best way to end the Indian wars was:
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to persuade the Indians to live on out-of-the-way reservations
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The historian Frederick Jackson Turner argued that:
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the frontier shaped America’s national character
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Lester Frank Ward’s version of reform Darwinism argued all of the following EXCEPT:
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humanity can not control the process of evolution
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As America industrialized and immigration increased, access to secondary education in the United States:
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expanded dramatically
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All of the following contributed to epidemics, disease, and high mortality rates in the growing cities EXCEPT:
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the banishment of animals to outside city limits
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One of the reasons parks and outdoor recreation became popular in the late nineteenth century was because:
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concerns over congestion and disease led many to seek ways to restore their vitality and improve their health
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Facing severe restrictions in their free time, married working women often:
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found fellowship with other women on the public streets while tending to other responsibilities
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Vaudeville shows were popular because:
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they included something to please every taste, social class, and type
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Why were bicycles especially popular with women?
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They allowed women to break free of Victorian restrictions by offering opportunities for freedom and exercise.
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William Graham Sumner:
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argued in his book Folkways that it was a mistake for the government to interfere with established customs
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Women’s access to higher education by the end of the century:
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expanded significantly to the point that women made up one-third of all college students
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Frederick Law Olmsted is most famous for designing:
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Great urban parks in America
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The spread of public education between the 1880s and 1900 reflected the desire:
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to Americanize immigrant children
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The first professional baseball team was the:
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the Cincinnati Red Stockings
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Why was the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 significant in American immigration history?
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It was the first federal law to restrict immigration on the basis of race and class.
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The author of Pragmatism: A New Name for Some Old Ways of Thinking was:
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William James
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One of the reasons mass transit was significant to developing cities was because:
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it allowed larger numbers of people to become commuters and live away from the central city
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Why was Lester Frank Ward’s Dynamic Sociology considered a challenge to William Graham Sumner’s “social Darwinism”?
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Ward argued that cooperation among people better promoted progress, while Sumner believed in competition.
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A strict social Darwinist would object to all the following EXCEPT:
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a governmental policy of “hands off” in regard to business
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Herbert Spencer
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coined the phrase “survival of the fittest”
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The Morrill Acts of 1862 and 1890:
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established and funded land-grant colleges
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John Dewey’s “instrumentalism”:
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said that ideas were instruments for action
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In the late nineteenth century, the least likely place you would find a woman spending her leisure time was at:
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a saloon
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Angel Island was:
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the equivalent of Ellis Island located offshore from San Francisco
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The American Protective Association:
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was a nativist group strongest in the upper Mississippi Valley
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William Graham Sumner
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argued in his book Folkways that it was a mistake for the government to interfere with established customs
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All of the following statements about newspapers in the late nineteenth century are true EXCEPT:
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they usually did not support either of the national political parties
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President Grover Cleveland’s response to the Pullman strike was to:
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