History 1301 (Test #3 review)

Flashcard maker : Bettina Hugo
Bank of the United States (BUS)
Tariff of 1816 (protective)
This protective tariff helped American industry by raising the prices of British manufactured goods, which were often cheaper and of higher quality than those produced in the U.S.
Clay’s American System
Bonus Bill
A bill introduced by John C. Calhoun to provide a federal highway linking The East and South to The West using the earnings Bonus from the Second Bank of the United States
Marbury v. Madison
Dartmouth College v. Woodward
Date: 1819
This was a Supreme Court case which maintained Dartmouth University’s original charter against changes proposed by the New Hampshire state legislature. This is significant in that it protected corporations from domination by state governments.
Gibbon v. Ogden
Date: 1824
This was a suit that grew out of an attempt by the New York State to grant a private concern a monopoly of waterborne commerce between New York and New Jersey. However, Marshall reasserted that Congress had the sole power to regulate interstate commerce. This is significant in that it struck states’ rights and upheld sovereign powers of the federal government
McCulloch v. Maryland
Date: 1819
This was a Supreme Court case which strengthened the power of federal authority and confirmed the constitutionality of the Bank of the United States in ways such as stating that the State of Maryland did not have power to tax the bank. This is significant in that it bolstered the power of the federal government at the expense of the states.
Commercial Convention, 1816
At this convention, it was agreed that US ships would be able to trade in all parts of the British Empire except the West Indies.
Rush Bagot Agreement
The Rush-Bagot Treaty or \”Rush-Bagot Disarmament\”, was a treaty between the United States and Britain limiting naval armaments on the Great Lakes and Lake Champlain, following the War of 1812.
Convention of 1818
The Convention respecting fisheries, boundary and the restoration of slaves between the United States of America and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, also known as the London Convention, Anglo-American Convention of 1818, Convention of 1818, or simply the Treaty of 1818, was an international treaty …
Adams-Onis Treaty (Transcontinental)
The Adams-Onís Treaty of 1819, also known as the Transcontinental Treaty, the Florida Purchase Treaty, or the Florida Treaty, was a treaty between the United States and Spain in 1819 that ceded Florida to the U.S. and defined the boundary between the U.S. and New Spain.
Canning proposal
British proposed US combine with England in a joint declaration renouncing any interest in acquiring american territory and warning europe to keep away from latin american republics.
Monroe’s Doctrine
The Monroe Doctrine was a U.S. foreign policy regarding domination of the American continent in 1823. It stated that further efforts by European nations to colonize land or interfere with states in North or South America would be viewed as acts of aggression, requiring U.S. intervention.
A devotion to the interests of one geographic region over the interests of the country as a whole, ultimately led to the Union’s worst crisis: civil war between the North and the South in the early 1860s
Panic of 1819
severe depression that followed the economic boom of the post-War of 1812 years; the Second National Bank, trying to dampen land speculation and inflation, called loans, raised interest rates, and received the blame for the panic. All this helped divide commercial interests of the East from the agrarian interests of an expanding West.
Public Land Act, 1820
Lowering the prices of public land
Federal acreage could not be bought on credit
Relief Act, 1821
Huge boom in purchase of western lands, extended payment period to relieve economy
Missouri Compromise
1820, The issue was that Missouri wanted to join the Union as a slave state, therefore unbalancing the Union so there would be more slave states then free states. The compromise set it up so that Maine joined as a free state and Missouri joined as a slave state. Congress also made a line across the southern border of Missouri saying except for the state of Missouri, all states north of that line must be free states or states without slavery.
Tallmadge Amendment
In 1819, Representative Tallmadge proposed an amendment to the bill for Missouri’s admission to the Union, which the House passed but the Senate blocked. The amendment would have prohibited the further introduction of slaves into Missouri and would have mandated the emancipation of slaves’ offspring born after the state was admitted.
Election of 1824
No one won a majority of electoral votes, so the House of Representatives had to decide among Adams, Jackson, and Clay. Clay dropped out and urged his supporters in the House to throw their votes behind Adams. Jackson and his followers were furious and accused Adams and Clay of a \”corrupt bargain.\”, John Quincy Adams won after Henry Clay gave his support to Adams, securing his Presidency. When Adams appointed Clay as his secretary of state, Jackson’s supporters raged that a corrupt bargain had cheated Jackson of presidency.
William H. Crawford
was Sec. of Treasury under James Monroe Presidency; and a canidate for Presidency in 1824 he represented the south in this election
James Monroe
5th president serving from 1817-1825; presidency marked the Era of Good Feelings, Panic of 1819, and a fierce national debate over the admission of the Missouri Territory; noted for Monroe Doctrine (1823); negotiated the Louisiana Purchase; served as Secretary of State and Secretary of War during the War of 1812 under President James Madison.
John Q. Adams
6th president from 1825-1829; served in the Senate and House of Representatives; son of President John Adams; helped formulate the Monroe Doctrine as Secretary of State; lost his re-election to Andrew Jackson; viewed as one of the greatest diplomats in American history.
John C. Calhoun
Vice President under Andrew Jackson; leading Southern politician; began his political career as a nationalist and an advocate of protective tariffs, later he becomes an advocate of free trade, states’ rights, limited government, and nullification.
Henry Clay
Distinguished senator from Kentucky, who ran for president five times until his death in 1852. He was a strong supporter of the American System, a war hawk for the War of 1812, Speaker of the House of Representatives, and known as \”The Great Compromiser.\” (responsible for the Missouri Compromise). Outlined the Compromise of 1850 with five main points. Died before it was passed however.
Andrew Jackson
a Democratic-Republican who was voted into office in 1828. The people wanted representation and reform from the administration of John Quincy Adams. Jackson believed that the people should rule. He was the first president from the west, and he represented many of the characteristics of the west. Jackson appealed to the common man as he was said to be one. He believed in the strength of the Union and the supremacy of the federal government over the state government.
Panama Congress
made to support domestic instability in panama, and to develop trade contacts with the monroe doctrine.
Tariff of 1828
a protective tariff passed by the U.S. Congress that came to be known as the \”Tariff of Abominations\” to its Southern detractors because of the effects it had on the Antebellum Southern economy; it was the highest tariff in U.S. peacetime and its goal was to protect industry in the northern United States from competing European goods by increasing the prices of European products.

Attempt to keep the American system running.

Spoils (rotation) system
practice of rewarding supporters with government jobs. Jackson’s system of periodically replacing officeholders to allow ordinary citizens to play a more prominent role in government
Kitchen Cabinet
A small group of Jackson’s friends and advisors who were especially influential in the first years of his presidency. Jackson conferred with them instead of his regular cabinet. Many people didn’t like Jackson ignoring official procedures, and called it the \”Kitchen Cabinet\” or \”Lower Cabinet\”.
Nullification Controversy
(1832-1833) showdown between President Andrew Jackson and the South Carolina legislature, which declared the 1832 tariff null and void in the state and threatened secession if the federal government tried to collect duties. It was resolved by a compromise negotiated by Henry Clay in 1833
Foote Resolution
It called on Congress to stop land sales completely. It was proposed by eastern factory owners who were afraid a liberal land policy would drain workers to the west.
Jefferson’s day dinner
The dinner where Jackson announced by his toast that he believed that the federal government should have more power than the states. Further increased the hatred between Calhoun and Jackson. After this event, Calhoun ran for the Senate from South Carolina (and was elected) and resigned from the vice-presidency.
Tariff of 1832
reduced some duties but retained high taxes on imported irons, cottons, and woolens; leads to the nullification crisis
Compromise Tariff of 1833
Date: 1833
This compromise main purpose was to resolve the nullification crisis by providing that tariffs be lowered gradually, over a period of ten years to 1816 levels. This showed that it opposed to the protectionist New England and middle states while it was favored by the South.
National Republicans
They became the Whig party during Jackson’s second term. John Quincy Adams and Henry Clay guided this party in the 1830s. They were the Jeffersonian Republicans, along with numerous former Federalists who believed that the national government should advocate economic development.
The Whigs were originally colonists supporting independence. In the mid 1830s, the Whig Party opposed Jackson’s strong-armed leadership style and policies. The Whigs promoted protective tariffs, federal funding for internal improvements, and other measures that strengthened the central government. Reaching its height of popularity in the 1830s, the Whigs disappeared from the national political scene by the 1850s.
Specie Circular
Issued by President Jackson in 1836, was meant to stop land speculation caused by states printing paper money without proper specie (gold or silver) backing it. It required that the purchase of public lands be paid for in specie. It stopped the land speculation and the sale of public lands went down sharply. The panic of 1837 followed.
Martin Van Buren
Senator, vice president, and 8th president of the United States; the Panic of 1837 ruined his presidency, depression, divorce bill, jackson’s shadow, he was voted out of office and taken over by whigs in 1840. He later supported the Free Soil Party, wizard of albany, little magician
Favorite sons strategy
Log cabin, Hard Cider Campaign
– A strategy used by the Whig party in election of 1840 to make Harrison look like the common man who drinks cider and lives in a log cabin even though it was a false image.
– The Whigs had no platform (so there was no possibility of a divided party), so the log cabin and hard cider technique was used to gain support for Harrison.
– \”Tippecanoe and Tyler too\” campaign slogan.
– Portable log cabins rolled through the streets with barrels of cider
Tippecanoe and Tyler, too
\”Tippecanoe and Tyler Too!\” \”Tippecanoe and Tyler Too!\” was the rallying cry for the Whigs in 1840. The Whigs had nominated General William Henry Harrison for President. Harrison was famous for winning the Battle of Tippecanoe. John Tyler was running against Harrison.
William Henry Harrison
was an American military leader, politician, the ninth President of the United States, and the first President to die in office. His death created a brief constitutional crisis, but ultimately resolved many questions about presidential succession left unanswered by the Constitution until passage of the 25th Amendment. Led US forces in the Battle of Tippecanoe. (9th President)
Second Great Awakening
A series of religious revivals starting in 1801, based on Methodism and Baptism. Stressed a religious philosophy of salvation through good deeds and tolerance for all Protestant sects. The revivals attracted women, Blacks, and Native Americans. It also had an effect on moral movements such as prison reform, the temperance movement, and moral reasoning against slavery.
Charles G. Finney
Known as the \”father of modern revivalism,\” he was a pioneer of cooperation among Protestant denominations. He believed that conversions were human creations instead of the divine works of God, and that people’s destinies were in their own hands. His \”Social Gospel\” offered salvation to all
Dorothea Dix
A New England teacher and author who spoke against the inhumane treatment of insane prisoners, ca. 1830’s. People who suffered from insanity were treated worse than normal criminals. Dorothea Dix traveled over 60,000 miles in 8 years gathering information for her reports, reports that brought about changes in treatment, and also the concept that insanity was a disease of the mind, not a willfully perverse act by an individual.
Seneca Falls Covention
The meeting took place in Seneca Falls, New York on July 19th and 20th 1848. 300 Women and 40 men went to the second day to discuss the rights of women. They wrote the Declaration of Sentiments, which among other things, tried to get women the right to vote.
Theodore Dwight Weld
a prominent abolitionist in the 1830’s. inspired uncle tom’s cabin. wrote ‘American slavery as it is’. weld put together a group called the \”land rebels.\” he and his group traveled across the old northwest preaching antislavery gospel. weld also put together a propaganda pamphlet called american slavery as it is.
William Lloyd Garrison
prominent american abolitionist, journalist and social reformer. editor of radical abolitionist newspaper \”the liberator\”, and one of the founders of the american anti-slavery society.
Frederick Douglass
Influencial writer. one of the most prominent african american figures in the abolitionist movement. escaped from slavery in maryland. he was a great thinker and speaker. published his own antislavery newspaper called the north star and wrote an autobiography that was published in 1845.
Slavery trade
A large triangular trading system between English mainland colonies, the West Indie, and the African shore. Molasses is traded from the Indies up to the colonies where it is distilled into rum. The rum is traded to Africa in exchange for slaves who are traded in the indies for more molasses.
Brought a large system of trade that greatly stimulated both the colonies in the Indies and on the mainland as well as bringing slaves to the Indies and back up to the mainland.
Runaway slaves
Fugitive slave law of 1850 came from the Compromise of 1850; paid federal commissioners were appointed and given authority to issue warrants, gather, posses and force citizens to help catch runaway slaves; the slaves could not testify inthier own behalf, \”Man-Stealing Law\”. shocked moderates into being antislaveryites
Nat Turner
Slave from VA that led group of slaves to kill their slaves holders abd familes. Turner caught and executed on Nov.11, 1831. Slave states stricker control on slave population.
The militant effort to do away with slavery. It had its roots in the North in the 1700s. It became a major issue in the 1830s and dominated politics after 1840. Congress became a battleground between pro and anti-slavery forces from the 1830’s to the Civil War.
Black Christianity
Black throughout South developed own Christianity, more emotional than whites, used Christian salvation to express dreams of Freedom
– Many Blacks from all over, learned common language \”Pidgin\”, survived for many generations
– Blacks used music to pass time or slave spirituals for politics
– Often spontaneous and rarely written down, blacks danced and sang to music when permitted, also used for storytelling
Brer Rabbit
Tales told around the fireside of the weak getting the better of the strong, listeners could enjoy the thrill of a vicarious victory over their masters. Fox=master rabbit=slaves, weaker animal could overcome the stronger one because they were smarter
Manifest Destiny
national ideal first promoted by editor O’Sullivan
Election of 1844
Henry Clay vs. James K. Polk (Polk wins)
Panic of 1837
The Panic of 1837 was a financial crisis in the United States that touched off a major recession that lasted until the mid-1840s. Profits, prices, and wages went down while unemployment went up.
James K. Polk
11th president of the United States
Dark horse candidate, huge proponent of manifest destiny
John Tyler
Took office after the death of William Henry Harrison in 1841. He was a democrat but was swayed by his adoptive Whig Party. He signed a law to end the independent treasury but he vetoed attempts to create a Fiscal Bank. \”His accidency\”.
Mexican-American War
(1846-1848) Conflict after US annexation of Texas; Mexico still considered Texas its own; Victor: US; granted all land from Texas to California (minus the Gadsden Purchase) in the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
Nicholas P. Trist
chief clerk of state department, negotiated and signed Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
1848) Ended Mexican-American War; Mexico gave up all claims to land from Texas to California for $15 million
Zachary Taylor (Old Rough and Ready)
General that was a military leader in Mexican-American War and 12th president of the United States. Was a Whig. Sent by president Polk to lead the American Army against Mexico at Rio Grande, but defeated. Died in 1850
Winfield Scott (Old Fuss and feathers)
General in the Mexican-War; \” Old Fuss and Feathers\” ; succeeded in battling his way up to Mexico City by 1847. President because he could protect country
Texas annexation

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