History 1111 Mid-Term Study Guide

were one of the first tools created by hominins—–used to remove meat from scavenged remains.

Southwest Asia*
Upon emerging out of Africa, early hominins first spread to what other continent?

Homo sapiens
first used leaves for clothing, before they learned to weave.

The earliest trade item that has been identified was what material, used to make tools?

Shamanistic spiritual rituals
Archaeologist J. David Lewis-Williams theorizes that the painted caves of the Paleolithic era were used

During the Ice Age, the ____ was the first animal domesticated by humans.

Amber beads
Material evidence for human habitation in eastern Siberia during the Ice Age thawing period, c. 16,500-12,500 years ago, includes

Clovis points are used as evidence to date the presence of humans in what area?

Pushed the dates back by several thousand years, to before 11,500 BCE
What has the discovery of human settlements at Monte Verde in Chile and Taima Taima in Venezuela done to the theories of when humans first arrived in the Americas?

is a social and cultural construction of behavioral norms. Sexual dimorphism is one characteristic of gender, and often used as an outward marker of gender identity, to which are attached certain behavioral patterns.

a landmass that existed during the Ice Age and linked Siberia to Alaska.

What part of their ancestors’ bodies did the Natufians remove to place in their altar niches?

Mesopotamian grains were generally made into one of two products for consumption:
bread and _____.

Mesopotamian cities invented the first metal alloy in the period of c. 3300 BCE; this first alloy was

Mesopotamian cuneiform script was usually written on what material?

The Gods
To defend their power, Mesopotamian kings claimed that their authority to rule was derived from

Create and publicize a law code.
One of Hammurabi’s most significant acts as king of Babylonia was to

Unification of Egypt under the pharaohs involved linking upper and lower Egypt; where is lower Egypt located?

What was Pharaoh Khufu’s contribution to Egyptian history?

The Minoan state of Crete was particularly well known for building

The proto-Indo European language family originated in

The battle of Qadesh in 1274 BCE was the largest chariot battle in the Middle East and was fought between Egypt and

The Assyrians came to power through their economic prosperity from

The people referred to as Phoenicians by the Greeks were called _____________ by the Egyptians.

Phoenicians city-states grew wealthy from trade in purple dye, foodstuffs, and what wood used for ship-building?

The first mention of the people called Israel occurs in 1207 BCE in the records of what conquering people?

Minoan Crete
In the c. 1450 BCE the Mycenaeans conquered what other Mediterranean state?

Heaven and Earth
In Enuma Elish, the goddess Tiamat is killed and her dismembered body divided into

whose land produced surpluses gained more economic powers over others and social stratification based on economic status appeared. Wealthy landowners sponsored temples, which gave them a priestly status and more power.

Scholars unanimously agree that there was a global flood similar to that mentioned in both the Epic of Gilgamesh and the biblical story of Noah’s Ark.

Seals in Ur
What physical evidence links Mesopotamia to Harappa?

Control the Yellow River.
The possibly mythic Emperor Yu of the Xia Dynasty is known for his attempt to

Shen Nong
Which Culture Hero is credited with introducing agriculture to China?

According to the Mandate of Heaven Theory, the Shang lost power and were replaced by the
Zhou because the Shang lost

Under Achaemenid rule, the traditional Mesopotamian urban assembly was empowered to serve in what capacity?

What was the administrative language of the Achaemenid Empire?

In Sparta, the most important occupation of Spartan men was as a

Supported a revolt of Anatolian states in Ionia
Although it was perhaps inevitable, Greek city-states and Persia went to war in 499 when Athens

Law code
What was recorded on the Twelve Tablets of Rome in 450 BCE?

In 27 BCE the Senate bestowed what title on Octavian, after he ended the civil wars that had plagued the Republic?

The magi are the priestly class of what religion?

The geometric system of the planets devised by Claudius Ptolemy in the second century CE put what at the center of the system?

join a Jain monastery.
Chandragupta Maurya abdicated his throne in 297 to

After the Battle of Kalinga, and his conversion to Buddhism, Ashoka adopted the doctrine of

Ritually starved himself to death
How did the founder of the Jains, Mahavira, die?

Parent and child
The fundamental relationship pattern indentified by Confucius was that of

According to the Daode Jing, an effective ruler is one who rules naturally by

In 25 BCE, what state conquered the Zhou and built China’s first empire?

Silk Road
One of the Han Wudi’s concerns was to suppress the Xiongnu and other nomadic peoples where?

Mycenaean probably borrowed from Minoan.
What was the relationship between Minoan and Mycenaean civilizations?

Heinrich Schliemann transform Greek
showed that the Iliad and Odyssey were based on a historical past.

Peloponnesian War
What is best known (now) as the “suicide of Greece”?

Who was Rome’s main rival for control of the Mediterranean around 200 B.C.E.?

Before the life of Jesus, which of these characterize the Roman attitude towards religions of the empire?

The peoples that created Vedic India were part of what larger group?

defeat his brother in a civil war, expand his empire through force, send family members to Sri Lanka to spread Buddhism.

During which dynasty did the “Period of Warring States” occur?

The way
What does Dao mean?

Which Chinese dynasty expanded into Korea, forging cultural and commercial connections with the Koreans and other groups, while engaging in numerous conflicts with the Xiongnu?

Who founded the Persian Empire?

It is possible that the city of Caral-Supe is as old as the pyramids of Egypt.

North America
The Clovis points are fluted oval spearheads found in

Record keeping
One of the most intriguing artifacts discovered at Caral-Supe was a quipu, which was used by the people of Caral-Supe and by later Inca for

What early American people were known as the “rubber people”?

Scholars theorize that overpopulation may have been a problem for some Polynesian islands.

Meroë was established in c. 650 BCE by ___________ who were pushed south along the Nile
by the Assyrians.

Coptic Christianity
As it replaced Meroë in the fourth century CE, Aksum took over trade with the Roman Empire and soon converted to

Aksum backed its currency with what commodity?

Beginning around c. 600 CE there was a massive migration of what people into the Great Lakes of Africa?

The Maya were culturally influenced by what other early American people?

From the beginning of the universe
Among the four calendars used by the Maya, the Long Count measured time in what way?

After being driven out of Mecca in 622, where did Muhammad and his followers settle?

According to Islamic tradition, the Ka’ba in Mecca is a sanctuary that goes back to the time of

In 751 a Persian and Arab army defeated _________ and Chinese forces to take control of the Silk Road.

The Shia offer prayers to Ali
How do the Sunni and Shia differ in their interpretation of the five pillars?

They were left in place as figureheads
By 945 Turks had seized power from the Abbasid caliphs in Baghdad; what happened to the caliphs?

In 726 Byzantine emperor Leo III attempted to reform Christian practice by banning the use of

the month of fasting
Sunni religious authority did not object to the new scientific thought of the tenth century because science was useful in determining

Charles Martel of the Carolingians acquired the name Martel, “the Hammer,” because of his military victory over whom at the Battle of Tours?

Because Pepin the Short was crowned with holy oil, he introduced the idea that he was king by the authority of

Although called the pope, the official title of the head of the church is Bishop of

Emperor of the Romans
What title did Charlemagne acquire in 800 from Pope Leo III?

In the feudal system that arose in ninth-century Frankia, what was the basic service that vassals owed their lords?

Grants of land
In feudalism, what was a fief?

First Crusade
Anti-Jewish feelings and violence increased after what eleventh-century event?

In 751 a Persian and Arab army defeated _________ and Chinese forces to take control of the Silk Road.

he had a vision predicting his victories if he launched a conquest.
Abd al-Malik was determined to renew Arab efforts at conquering because he believed that

slaves and gold.
The West Africa to China trade network in which the Mamluks played such a crucial role began with the West African trade in

Al Khwarizmi borrowed the zero to nine decimal system from

the month of fasting.
Sunni religious authority did not object to the new scientific thought of the tenth century because science was useful in determining

Charles Martel of the Carolingians acquired the name Martel, “the Hammer,” because of his military victory over whom at the Battle of Tours?

Because Pepin the Short was crowned with holy oil, he introduced the idea that he was king by the authority of

Although called the pope, the official title of the head of the church is Bishop of

Charlemagne’s reign as Frankish king represents the full synthesis of Roman, Christian, and ________ elements.

Emperor of the Romans
What title did Charlemagne acquire in 800 from Pope Leo III?

Adelard of Bath, in the early twelfth century, translated many Greek scientific texts from

Confucian texts.
The bureaucratic exams instituted by the Tang centered on knowledge of

Who defeated the Tang at the Battle of Talas in 751?

To aid commerce, the Song were the first people in the world to print what on paper?

What literary format did Murasaki Shikibu contribute to world literature?

The only contemporary written account of the first Korean state, the Choson kingdom, comes from

In the fourth century CE, the Chinese state of Jin introduced Confucianism, writing, and ___________ into Koguryo, Korea.

The first Japanese villages during the Jomon period, developed around __________ rather than agriculture.

With the introduction of Buddhism to Japan in c. 553 CE, what aspect of Chinese culture was
also exported to Japan?

a typhoon (kamikaze)
What destroyed the second Mongol fleet which attempted to invade Japan in 1281?

As Confucianism became more popular in Japan, it led to a decrease in women’s status among aristocratic classes, but it was moderated by what influence?

The name “Vietnam” originated in the name for the region by what other Asian power?

introduction of the camel.
A dramatic change in transportation crossing the Sahara began in the early centuries of the common era with the

According to the Kebra Negast, the Solominid Dynasty was descended from Solomon of the
Hebrews and the Queen of

According to one oral tradition, Sundiata came to power in 1235 because he helped the Malinke defeat

Mansa Musa of Mali brought Iberian architects to Timbuktu to build a

only a divine figure.
Coptic Christians believe that Christ was

An advanced calendar.
The Maya are noted for:

The gold trade along with the trans-Saharan slave trade.
The power exerted by West African kingdoms before 1500 CE was based upon:

Renaissance humanism:
Sought to study Greek and Roman classical authors in order for humanity to be able to better itself.

Medieval European Feudalism refers to:
A form of government based on a personal bond between noblemen in the High Middle Ages.

The holy book of Islam.

Arabian satisfaction with their Roman rulers.
Besides its powerful equality message, the quick spread of Islam throughout the Middle East and North Africa in the first few generations of its founding can be attributed to:

Nero promoted Christians into high government positions.
Christianity triumphed in the Late Roman Empire in part because:

Pax Romana
A long period of general peace and prosperity during the Roman Empire.

The first people to tolerate other religions.
One of the most important cultural contributions of the Romans was:

Confucius taught
Goodness should be the basis of human relations and the family should be the central unit of society.

Mandate of Heaven
The right to replace an emperor who did not care for the welfare of the people.

Athens, Greece
The first functioning democracy in the ancient world arose in:

The first religion that has consequences for earthly human action.
Which of the following are contributions of the ancient Hebrews to world civilization?

Budda Suffering
Obsession with the material world and selfish desires.

2000 B.C.E., the Aryans
Migrated into northern India and created the caste system.

Egyptian Pyramids
They were built to be used as tombs.

The Nile River.
Which river influenced Ancient Egyptian Civilization the most?

The writing system invented in Mesopotamia was known as:

The Tigris and Euphrates River valley.
Which of the following river valleys is most closely associated with Mesopotamian civilization?

bronze in tools and in weapons.
Which of the following is a characteristic of the Neolithic Revolution?

What concept held the feudal relationship together?

magnetic compass
The most important navigational improvement to European shipping int he twelfth century was the adoption of the

First crusade
Anti jewish feelings and violence in Europe increased after what eleventh century event.

Adelard of bath, in the early twelfth century translated many Greek scientific texts from

The song Dynasty synthesis from 960-1279 joined confuciansism and daoism with

Veiling of women
Muslims and hindus in india resisted sharing religious cultural practices but some hindus did adopt what practice

Tang expansion and dominance in asia is obvious in the Taika and great reforms modeled on cina which were adopted by what asain state in 645

Confucian texts
The bureaucratic exams instituted by the tang centered on knowledge of

Who defeated the tang at the battle of talas in 751

What beverage was introduced to tang china from southeast asia and became popular internally and for trade?

To aid commerce the song were the first people in the world to print what on paper

Bubonic plague
Chinas oppression during the Yuan dynasty was compounded by what fourteenth century disaster

What literary format did murasaki shikibu contribute to world literature?

with the introduction of buddhism to japan in c. 553 CE what aspect of chinese culture was aslo exported to japen?

The taika Great Reform movement of 645 led to a power struggle between two uji the soga and

The only contemporary written account of the first korean state the choson kingdom comes from

having to speak japanese
Monasteries were important to japanese state and a source of tension largely due to what exception

a typhoon
That destroyed the second mongol fleet which attempted to invade japen in 1281

the name Vietnam orgiginated int eh name for the region by what other asian power.

mississippina spread over much of north american and was probably dominated by the city of

Reunification of China
Which of these was achieved by the Yang jian and his sui dynasty

Rival kingdoms in korea
What were silla paekche and korguryo

Japans native nature based religion was called

The sassanid empire was centered in what is now

Vikings came from Norway, sweden and

Pilgrimage to mecca
The five pillars of islam inculde: fasting, daily prayer and

Abu bakr muhammads father in law became the first

Ghengis khans yam system
A plan for improved agricultural production

were both poor rulers
Merovingian kings were powerful but their cultural background caused the breakdown of their kingdoms because

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