HHS 231

how we choose to live our lives with vitality and meaning
dimensions of wellness
physical, emotional, intellectual, spiritual, interpersonal/social, and environment
physical dimension of wellness
running, commute, sports, swimming, exercise, physical activity, nutrition
emotional dimension of wellness
feelings, honest with self and others, self esteem, acceptance
intellectual dimension of wellness
open to new ideas
spiritual dimension of wellness
since of morals and beliefs
interpersonal/social dimension of wellness
good social/communication skills, spending time with family
environment dimension of wellness
where you live, awareness, transportation, involved in changing environment
any situation that triggers physical and emotional reactions
stress response
the physiological reaction that accompanies a stressor
stress triggered by a pleasant stressor; positive
the stress triggered by an unpleasant stressor; negative
types of stressors
major life changes (moving, new friends), daily hassles (traffic, errands), college (academic, financial), internal (pressure on ourselves, negative self talk), interpersonal and social (date, argument), environment (noisy neighbors, cramped apartments)
managing stress strategies
regular physical activity, nutrition, adequate sleep, spiritual/social wellness, self talk, relax body
physical activity
any body movement carried out by the skeletal muscles and requiring energy (taking notes, walking to class, on computer)
planned, structured, repetitive movement of the body designed to improve or maintain physical fitness/activity (more specific type of physical activity)
physical fitness
a set of physical attributes that allows the body to adapt to the demands and stress of physical effort (more effort, greater the benefits)
how active should i be
30 minutes of moderate-vigorous PA 5 days/week OR vigorous cardio for 20 mins 3x/week, 8-10 strength training twice/week
moderate physical activity
about 70-80% of max heart rate, breathing hard but can still talk, best defined as activity that is 3-6 METS
vigorous physical activity
anything over moderate, breathing hard and can’t talk
components of physical fitness
cardiorespiratory endurance (lungs and heart), muscle strength (strength training- bike, run, swim), muscle endurance (how long can go for, strength or cardio), flexibility (range of motion, stretching), body composition (fat mass vs lean body mass)
principles of training
specificity, progressive overload, reversibility, individual differences
specificity training
what are you doing, how are you going to increase, type and amount, same activity over time
progressive overload training
are you challenging self, add appropriate rate, increasing amounts, increasing time, gets harder, not specifically same workout, relies on the idea that the rate of improvement in a fitness program depends upon your initial fitness level
FITT principle
Frequency: how often, Intensity: how hard, Time: how long (duration), Type: mode of activity, reflects progressive overload
reversibility training
“use it” or “lose it”, improvements are lost when demands are lower
individual difference training
everyone is not created equal, just because you don’t have the same strengths doesn’t mean you can’t do it, non-responders are individuals who do not benefit from exercise
chemicals in foods required for growth and function
essential nutrients
must come from food: carbs, protein, fat, vitamins
nonessential nutrients
sufficient amounts that can be mad in body: amino acids, cholesterol
naturally occurring plant chemicals that may reduce risks of cancer or illness
nutrients that contains energy
carbohydrates, protein, fat/lipids
nutrients that doesn’t contain energy
vitamins, minerals, water
calorie contents
Carbs= 4 kcal, Lipid/Fats= 9 kcal, Protein= 4 kcal, Alcohol= 7 kcal
designing a healthful diet
adequate, balanced, varied, moderate
adequate diet
are you getting what you need, provides enough energy, nutrients, etc., needs macronutrients
describes the portion of the energy intake that should come from each macronutrient, energy intake that should come from macronutrient is Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range (AMDR)
balanced diet
contains combination of foods which provide proper balance of nutrients, includes energy density & nutrient density foods
energy density
number of calories in certain amount of food
nutrient density
the amount of nutrients per calorie value of the food
calculating calorie content
if a food contains 3 grams of fat and has total 155kcal. there is 9 kcal in fat, so multiply 3×9=27 fat kcals. divide this by the total calories 27/155= 17% fat
recommended dietary allowance (RDA)
meets the average daily nutrient intake
tolerable upper intake level (UL)
highest average daily nutrient intake level to pose no risk of adverse health effect to almost all individuals
science and study of food (nutrients) and its connection to physiology, health, and well being
refers to eating many different types of foods each day
necessary amounts of carbs, fats, and protein for maintaining healthy weight
calculate daily protein requirements
determine body weight. convert pounds to kilograms (lbs/2.21=kg). multiply by 0.8 g/kg for average adult requirement
SMART goals
Specific, Measurable, Action-oriented, Realistic (losing 1lb/week for 3 months), Timeline (short term/long term)
short-term goals
less than 3 months
long-term goals
4 months or more
i want to eat, the psychological desire to consume specific food
i need to eat asap, the physiological sensation that prompts us to seek food and eat
feeling of fullness and satisfaction from food, can be from: liquids, carb, fibers, mixed meals, fat content, protein content
supermarket savvy
shop the periphery not aisle ends, shop once per week, bulk food options, unit pricing
requirements on food labels
statement of identity (new, whole grain), net contents (weight), ingredients, info of food manufacture, nutrition info
nutrition fact panel info
must include serving size, % daily value, trans fats
choosing food based on labels
choose food with least number of ingredients, choose food with less than 30% fat
problems with food labels
portions are not standardized, serving size set by manufactures
ecological models of behavior
suggests individuals are influenced by a combination of interpersonal variables, public policy factors, sociocultural factors, and physical environment factors
different levels of intervention
public policy (legislation and other social regulations to influence physical activity), physical environments (altering physical characteristics), sociocultural environments (workplace, community)
workplace encouraging physical activity
require showers and changing rooms, offer gym facilities, workplace culture
community encouraging physical activity
increase funding for walk/bike trails, mandate for building to be within 10 minutes apart
personal environment wellness
reusable shopping bags, showers vs baths, turn off water when brushing teeth or shaving, reusable coffee cups/water bottles, unplug electronics when not in use
heart system
right side- pulmonary circulation, left side- systemic circulation, blood pressure
blood pressure
the force exerted by blood on the walls of blood pressure, 2 phases: systole (contracting) and diastole (relaxing), best time to take is right when you wake up which is when its at its lowest
anatomy of cardiorespiratory system
arteries (major freeways), veins (transport oxygen back to heart), capillaries (smaller streets off freeways), alveoli
benefits of cardio test
heart (stronger), lung capacity (more oxygen capacity), diseases and illness (usually drop), immune function (slightly increased), metabolic rate (increase), fat and carb burners, tension and stress, self esteem (goes up), energy levels, body image (more positive), self conception and depression (decreases), psychological health improved 1 year (maintain)
factors affecting lung capacity
gender (size), chest cavity size, altitudes, hemoglobin (O2 carrying capacity), air quality, cardio training
gold standard
VO2 max test, the maximal rate at which oxygen can be consumed per minute, 3 types of field test: 1.5 mile run/walk, 1 mile walk test, 3 minute step test
cross training
multiple dimensionally, comfort zone, specificity issues, injury
interval training
variable intensity with bursts of higher intensity, sprint intervals; rest intervals, ladders, supplement training
why stretch
posture, flexibility, recovery, blood flow, decrease muscle soreness (DOMS), injury, mental relaxation
the range of motion (ROM) in a joint or group of joints, 4 types: static, dynamic, ballistic, PNF, involves moving your joints through a full range of motion
static stretching
most common form, can increase long-term flexibility by ability to hold a stretch near the end ROM, do after activity, 2 types: active, passive
passive static stretching
muscles are stretched by a force applied by an outside force, outside force is in control
active static stretching
muscles are stretched by the contraction of opposing (antagonist) muscles, safest form of stretching, you are in control
dynamic stretching
continuous movement through a natural range of motion, do after warm up and before workout, increases blood flow to the muscles by leg extension, exercise without weights, arm circles, leg swings, squats, most teams do this before games
ballistic stretching
bouncing movement, used by athletes performing fast and explosive movements, running through a movement you do on regular basis
PNF stretching
proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation, contract muscles then relax to facilitate the stretch
FITT for Flexibility
F: 2-3 days(minimum) or 5-7 days (ideal) per week, I: gentle tension, T: 15-30 second/stretch and 2-4 reps/stretch, T: major muscle groups
workout plan
1. warmup 2. dynamic stretch 3. weights/cardio 4. cool-down 5. static stretching
how to prevent low-back pain
warm up thoroughly, progress gradually, stretch hamstrings and hip flexors, strengthen abs and lower back, do low-back/core exercise at least 3 days/week
IQ Test
verbal/linguistic ability, logical/mathematical skills
Howard Garner’s Theory of multiple intelligence
musical, spatial, body-kinesthetics, intrapersonal, interpersonal
brain plasticity
ability of the brain to adapt continually to changing environment, plastic means changeable, changes as you challenge it, there is no age limit, brain can change physical size and neutral activity, keep your brain active by mental wellness training
sensitive periods
brain must receive appropriate sensory input from the environment to develop normally, appropriate sensory input: patterned stimuli, colored visuals, sounds, object to touch, interaction, can get over stimulated from being too involved
wellness behaviors for brain
physical activity: improved brain function and increased leaning and exam performance, sleep: brain regions involved in learning are reactivated during sleep, sleep deprivation can inhibit learning, adequate sleep allows new skills to be incorporated into long-term memory, naps can improve subsequent performance on a given learning task, brain is resting and making connections when we sleep, nutrition: eat for energy, whole nutrient dense foods, multivitamins, de-clutter to improve focus and concentration
dietary guidelines in college
maintain calorie balance over time to achieve and sustain a healthy weight, focus on consuming nutrient-dense foods and beverages
common nutrient problems for college students
skipping the first meal, increased evening eating, overweight and obesity, consuming majority of calories in one meal or immediately before bed (body doesn’t like to digest while trying to sleep- doesn’t like to multitask) causes: higher body fat levels, harder to stay awake in class, poorer quality of sleep, more frequent colds, and limits fitness gains, inadequate whole fruit and vegetable consumption, drinking too many of your calories (coffee, smoothies), inadequate whole fruit and veggie consumption, high fat and processed food intake
solutions for common nutrient problems
eat within 1-2 hours of waking up (bring breakfast or something small with you, start with liquids), keep food in dorm rooms, combine a high fiber, high carbs, and high protein food, try higher fiber and protein foods for evening snacks, keep fruit and veggies in room, add veggies to fast food or restaurant meals, choose foods with added veggies, drink more water throughout the day to prevent thirst, seek lower calories alternative in the beverages you enjoy, eat more whole fruit and veggies (has water in it so don’t have to drink just water), have at least 3 in diet: low fat protein, vegetables, grain based carbs, whole fruit, low fat dairy
types of fiber
insoluble: gets water out and moves through body, soluble: gooey mess, in oatmeal, want more insoluble
the non-digesible parts of plants, moves things along through body, adequate fiber intake can prevent disease and illness (colon cancer, diabetes), the AI for fiber is in women 25 g and men 30 g, americans tend to lack fiber in their diet
vitamins have no energy content, can be helpful if your food intake is not balanced or sporadic, tops-off vitamins that are insufficient in your diet, 1 per day (avoid mega-doses), not governed by FDA, best to get vitamins from foods but a good insurance policy, not all vitamins are created equal
calories are less if black, danger of calories when adding stuff and getting fancy drinks
evaluating body size and shape
measuring a person’s healthful body weight: body composition, body mass index (BMI), assessment of fat distribution pattern (this is genetic)
body composition
relative proportion of lean body mass to adipose mass, use: dual energy x-ray absorptiometry, skin folds, bod pod, under water weighing (used to be golden), bioelectric impedance analysis, minimum % body fat levels for males is 4-5% and females is 11-13%, spot reduction doesn’t work- body composition is key
underweight= <18.5, healthy weight=18.5-24.9, overweight= 25-29.9, obese=30>
body fat distribution patterns
apple pattern: not as good, increased risk of chronic disease, pear pattern: better because fat is not around heart or liver, decreased risk of chronic disease
genetic contribution to body weight
account for about 25% of a person’s fat, thrifty gene theory: doesn’t want to spend energy so stores more fat, set point theory: body doesn’t like to stay in weight range, whatever genetics doesn’t account for the environment does
body types
3 types: ectomorph, mesomorph, and endomorph
light frame, small joints, lean muscle mass, hard to gain weight, “faster” metabolism
large bone structure, lean and more defined muscles, naturally “athletic looking” physique, gains fat and muscle more easily than ectomorphs
gains muscle and fat easily, is generally short and “stocky”, round/thick physique, hard to lose fat, “slower” metabolism, solid and generally soft body
contributions to weight management
basal metabolism (BMR)= energy needs to maintain body function, about 2/3 of total energy expenditure, influenced by: genetics, body composition, biological sex and age, growth and hormone, history of diets, caffeine/alcohol/medication, environment
minimum kcal need to support muscle mass
females= about 1300-1500 kcal/day, males= about 1600-1900 kcal/day, just to survive without physical activity, starving the body if eating less
thermic effect of food
mechanical breakdown, chemical breakdown, absorption and delivery, conversion of products to ATP
categories of physical activity
exercise, none exercise or activities of daily living: fidgeting, talk with hands, occupational activity (construction), leisure activity
calorie needs
depends on: size of muscle mass required for a job, body weight, FITT principle, how much time you spend sitting
weight loss
aim for body fat loss, 1 lbbody fat= 3500 calories, recommended weight loss per week = 1-2 lbs, decrease intake by 500/day or increase output by 500/day or combine energy out and energy in
weight gain
proteins and carbs, healthy fats (polyunsaturated, omega-3&6), eat every 2 hours- starting early and ending late, increase consumption of fluids in addition to regular meals, 500-1000 calories + per day (gradually in 100 kcal increments)
metabolic rate
starts decline at age 20, about 3-4% per decade
body image
the values one has toward their bodies, a person’s perception about his or her body, thoughts and feelings, how much you value your body and whole see our own body, level of satisfaction towards physical self (perception, thoughts, feelings, subjective)
influences of body image
parents, gender roles, peers, role models, media
social norms
men socially referred to as: strong, powerful aggressive courageous, smart, tall dark and handsome, women socially referred to as: beautiful/pretty, cute, sweet, emotional, loving, nurturing
body image across the lifespan
perception of ourselves is lifelong and can fluctuate depending on time of lifespan, most vulnerable times: women= adolescence, pregnancy, postpartum, males= puberty, middle-age, kids become body conscious as young as 3 years old
eating disturbances
attitudes about food, weight, and body size lead to: very rigid eating, excessive exercise, jeopardizing health, happiness and safety
muscle dysmorphia
cognitive and behavioral phenomena, belief of not being sufficiently muscular and lean
symptoms of muscle dysmorphia
perception of weakness, self-esteem is dependent on size, check appearance frequently, avoid situations involving body exposure, abandon social commitments to adhere to their training schedule
positive influence of body image
develop a healthy lifestyle instead of dieting, shape and size doesn’t determine your worth, be less critical of yourself and others, give yourself and others a compliment, view social and media messages critically, be kind to yourself, decrease judgement, conduct positive dialogue with others
muscle physiology
muscles consist of many muscle fibers (cells) connected in bundles, muscle fibers are made up of myofibrils
hypertrophy and atrophy
think about building muscle and losing muscle
slow-twitch fibers
are fatigue resistant, don’t contract as rapidly and forcefully as fast-twitch fibers, are used in aerobic activities, move slow so doesn’t get as tired, usually use blend of two fibers, endurance athletes use this
fast-twitch fibers
fatigue more quickly than slow-twitch fibers, contract rapidly and forcefully, are used in anaerobic activities, a lot more force than slow-twitch, majority of fibers are set at birth- determine what you are better at, strength athletes use this
motor unit
a motor neuron and all the fibers it is connected to, as more force is needed the more motor units are recruited
resistance/strength training
muscular strength, muscular endurance, functional strength, progress is dependent on genetics- not everyone will improve to the same extent, depends on muscle fiber distribution (fast-twitch adapt more readily), increased muscle mass and size of muscle fibers, increased utilization and coordination of motor units, increased strength of tendons, ligaments, and bones, not only do the muscles get stronger but it may take longer to see results
muscular strength
assessed by determining the 1-rep maximum (1RM)- the maximum resistance that can be lifted once, push yourself too hard too fast may hurt more than just the muscle but also the bone, tendon, etc.
muscular endurance
assessed by counting the maximum number of a muscular contraction
FITT principle for resistance training
F: 2-3 days/week, I: 40-80%, T: one complete movement of exercise, T: endurance vs strength,
Strength training
strength- how many you can do and how much weight, will not bulk you up, men will become bigger than women due to testosterone levels (10x more), women get lean and toned as the lack testosterone to build large muscles, helps maintain weight loss long-term due to increases in muscle/enzymes (BMR)
Cardio exercise
a combination of cardio and muscle fitness is the best exercise, cardio is effective for weight loss, will peak your metabolism for the time that you are active and the it returns to your resting metabolic rate
pain is bad- its okay to be sore but not for it to hurt, want to have a ‘burn’ in the target muscle, don’t want to over exert yourself (form starts to go down), DOMS
fat cells will always stay the same (amount) but will decrease in size, fat cannot convert to protein or muscle, all macronutrients can be converted to fat if not used, check that your input and output are balance
Free weights vs machines
exercise machines are generally safer, convenient, and easy to do, free weights require more care, balance, and coordination
bals, balance boards, and bands
build strength, want to stay in the natural ROM, be careful not to hyperextend, balance and plank help stabilizing you
static (isometric) exercise
muscle contraction without a change in the length of the muscle
dynamic (isometric) exercise
muscle contraction with a change in the length of the muscle, concentric contraction- muscle applies force as it shortens (bicep curl), eccentric contraction- muscle applies force as it lengthens
program design
Step 1: complete a need/wants analysis (goals, timeline, history), Step 2: select training variables (ordered exercises: big before small, high skill before low skill, core at the end, muscle balance: push-pull, multi-joint vs single-joint), Step 3: evaluation and review (progressive overload, sty on program for 3-6 weeks then change it up, use a journal, SMART goals), consider weight, current fitness level, and any special health concerns
weight training safety
use proper lifting techniques, use spotters and collars with free wights, be alert for injuries, always warm-up, always cool down, learn to use/be a spotter, passive spotter- someone who isn’t really paying attention while spotting
Eating before/during/after exercise
Before: most activity requires glucose, pre-fuel 1-2 hours before (carbs, low fat, protein, fluids), During: eat if exercise in morning or if longer than 45 min workout, 30-45 grams carb/hr, hydrate, 1lb=2 cups of water loss, losing >2% of body weight will have negative impact on quality, gains, and comfort, replace water with 3 cups per 1 lb lost during training, After: simple carb, protein, fluids, think about recovery plan, 30 minutes-1 hour body likes to have nutrients after workout, eat chocolate milk, PBJ, yogurt, fig newton, or fruit juice
long term movement in time, can be easily replaced by new generation
becomes popular relatively quickly
gadgets for physical activity
overload to muscles, consider motivation purchase or participate, if it claims to need minimal effort or time then most likely its too good too be true, may be more harm then good by different positions
electronic muscle stimulation (EMS)
impulses sent to nerves resulting in muscle contraction, may temporarily improve muscle tone, exercise is still important, not approved for weight loss, girth reduction, or obtaining “rock hard” abs, have not seen weight loss or other positive effects that it says it provides
exercise videos
Pros: availability, variety, cost effective, Cons: limited educational provided, watching the video, lack of personal attention
Pros: intense workout at home, progressive levels, Cons: DOMS, form and technique, no modification, marketing, rhabdomyolysis
rapid destruction of muscle resulting in myoglobin in urine, when kidneys are so over work that the body shuts down
toning shoes
instability helps active muscles, no difference between toning and running shoes
fitness trends for 2010
exergaming (catering to the needs of older generation), cost conscious workouts, boomer fitness, express workouts <30 min (circuits), personal training, functional strength training, tech-based workouts (ipod, PDA, metabolic testing device)
The Biggest Loser
Pros: accountability (24 hour coverage), competition (with huge incentive), uses activity and change of food intake, motivating for participants/role models, turns them into active individuals, Cons: rate of weight loss, weight loss vs body composition, dangerous (if attempt these same ways), doesn’t translate to real life, safe weight loss is 2lbs/week, may loose more weight if obese than people at normal weight
means when an exercise causes more harm than good
any purposeful change in your eating habits in order to elicit a specific goal or outcome (weight loss/gain, vegetarian/vegan, gluten/wheat free), from latin word diaita which means “manner of living”, component of wellness, think in terms of lifestyle, practice portion control, don’t restrict but moderate
dieting promises
look and feel younger, decrease inflammation in ever organ, increase metabolism, lift your mood, drop a size, make heart resistant to disease, decrease risk of cancer, increase bone density, repair skin, rejuvenate immune system
while on a diet stay away from
alcohol, breads, flour, coffee, granola, duck/beef, fruit juice, pasta, pizza, pickles, rice, soda, sugar, hard cheese
common elements of fad diet
are essentially low calorie diets (well below average requirements), omit certain food groups (this can lead to deficiencies), promote the loss of water weight (restrict water intake), can result in long-term problems that can mess up digestive system (GI distress, ketosis, cholesterol), Atkins diet promotes protein and eliminates carbs
diet trends
value and home cooking (less money=more home-cooked meals), gut health (be aware of digestion process), smaller portions (main dishes are shrinking and dish size is decreasing), local and sustainable- knowing where food comes from (farmers markets), new drinks (pomegranate juice, unsweetened tea)
vegetarian who doesn’t eat animals (eggs, honey)
vegetarian who includes milk and cheese in diet
vegetarian who includes milk and cheese and egg products in diet
partial vegetarian, semi-vegetarian, or pescovegetarian
vegetarian who includes eggs, dairy products, and small amounts of poultry/seafood in diet
comes from meats, so vegetarians eliminate cholesterol except normal body cholesterol
Why choose vegetarianism
limiting ecological impacts, ethical treatment of animals, religion, food safety (mad cow, e-coli, salmonella), long-term health (allergies, digestive issues)
benefits of vegetarianism
most vegetarians have a lower risk of cardiovascular disease and colon and breast cancer, may result in fewer digestive problems, substantial decrease inn water, oil, farm, and energy uses
challenges of vegetarianism
may be low in protein, vitamin B12, vitamin D, iron, calcium, zinc, vegetarians should include a higher food variety at meals
frequency should be at least 3-5 days/week, benefit is: better sleep, improved immune system, decreased risk of cancer
ecological model
always best to intervene at multiple levels at a time, affect different levels (campus, town, state, country, world)
calories are energy, carbs, fats, protein, and alcohol contain energy
skill-related component of fitness is most involved in braking quickly when a car in front of your stops suddenly
warm ups
consists of two phases
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