Gawel, Joseph E. (1997). Herzberg’s theory of motivation and maslow’s hierarchy of needs. Practical Assessment, Research & Evaluation, 5(11).
Retrieved September 19, 2008 from http://PAREonline. net/getvn. asp? v=5&n=11 . This paper has been viewed 245,512 times since 11/13/1999. Herzberg’s theory of motivation and Maslow’s hierarchy of needs Joseph E. Gawel, The Catholic University of America Among various behavioral theories long generally believed and embraced by American business are those of Frederick Herzberg and Abraham Maslow.
Herzberg, a psychologist, proposed a theory about job factors that motivate employees. Maslow, a behavioral scientist and contemporary of Herzberg’s, developed a theory about the rank and satisfaction of various human needs and how people pursue these needs. These theories are widely cited in the business literature. In the education profession, however, researchers in the ’80s raised questions about the applicability of Maslow’s and Herzberg’s theories to elementary and secondary school teachers: Do educators, in fact, fit the profiles of the average business employee?That is, do teachers (1) respond to the same motivators that Herzberg associated with employees in profit-making businesses and (2) have the same needs patterns as those uncovered by Maslow in his studies of business employees? This digest first provides brief outlines of the Herzberg and Maslow theories.
It then summarizes a study by members of the Tennessee Career Ladder Program (TCLP). This study found evidence that the teachers in the program do not match the behavior of people employed in business.Specifically, the findings disagree with Herzberg in relation the importance of money as a motivator and, with Maslow in regard t...
o the position of esteem in a person’s hierarchy of needs. Herzberg’s theory of motivators and hygiene factors Herzberg (1959) constructed a two-dimensional paradigm of factors affecting people’s attitudes about work. He concluded that such factors as company policy, supervision, interpersonal relations, working conditions, and salary are hygiene factors rather than motivators.
According to the theory, the absence of hygiene factors can create job dissatisfaction, but their presence does not motivate or create satisfaction. In contrast, he determined from the data that the motivators were elements that enriched a person’s job; he found five factors in particular that were strong determiners of job satisfaction: achievement, recognition, the work itself, responsibility, and advancement.These motivators (satisfiers) were associated with long-term positive effects in job performance while the hygiene factors (dissatisfiers) consistently produced only short-term changes in job attitudes and performance, which quickly fell back to its previous level. In summary, satisfiers describe a person’s relationship with what she or he does, many related to the tasks being performed. Dissatisfiers, on the other hand, have to do with a person’s relationship to the context or environment in which she or he performs the job.
The satisfiers relate to what a person does while the dissatisfiers relate to the situation in which the person does what he or she does. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs In 1954, Maslow first published Motivation and Personality, which introduced his theory about how people satisfy various personal needs in the context of their work. He postulated, based on his observations as a humanistic psychologist, that there is a general pattern of needs recognitio
and satisfaction that people follow in generally the same sequence.He also theorized that a person could not recognize or pursue the next higher need in the hierarchy until her or his currently recognized need was substantially or completely satisfied, a concept called prepotency. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs is shown in Table 1. It is often illustrated as a pyramid with the survival need at the broad-based bottom and the self-actualization need at the narrow top.
Table 1 Maslow’s hierarchy of needs Level Type of Need Examples 1 Physiological Thirst, sex, hunger 2 Safety Security, stability, protection Love and Belongingness To escape loneliness, love and be loved, and gain a sense of belonging 4 Esteem Self-respect, the respect others 5 Self-actualization To fulfill one’s potentialities According to various literature on motivation, individuals often have problems consistently articulating what they want from a job. Therefore, employers have ignored what individuals say that they want, instead telling employees what they want, based on what managers believe most people want under the circumstances. Frequently, these decisions have been based on Maslow’s needs hierarchy, including the factor of prepotency.As a person advances through an organization, his employer supplies or provides opportunities to satisfy needs higher on Maslow’s pyramid. TCLP study in relation to Herzberg’s theory According to Bellott and Tutor (1990), the problems with Herzberg’s work are that it occurred in 1959–too long ago to be pertinent–and did not cover teachers.
They cite earlier research by Tutor (1986) with Tennessee Career Ladder Program as a means of overcoming both those problems. TCLP has three levels, the largest and beginning one of which (Level I) has 30,000 members.Bellott and Tutor believe that the data from the study clearly indicate that the Level I participants were as influenced by motivation factors as by hygiene factors (Table 2), contrary to Herzberg’s position that hygiene factors do not motivate. Table 2 Distribution of motivation and hygiene tendencies among teachers at the various Career Ladder levels (from Bellott and Tutor) Tendency Level I Level II Level III Total Motivation 71 101 149 321 Hygiene 70 11 24 105 Total 141 112 173 426 The survey asked classroom teachers, “To what extent did salary influence your decision to participate in the (TCLP) program? Teachers responded using a scale of from 1 (little influence on deciding to participate in the program) to 7 (large influence).
The results for the four highest-average items, shown in Table 3, indicate that at all three levels teachers viewed salary as a strong motivating factor, easily the most important of 11 of Herzberg’s hygiene factors on the survey. Table 3 The importance of various of Herzberg’s hygiene factors in teachers’ decisions to participate in TCLP (from Bellott and Tutor) Factor Level I Level II Level III Personal life 3. 658 4. 794 4. 984Possibility for growth 4. 013 5.
528 5. 394 Salary 5. 980 6. 500 6. 468 Status 2. 960 4.
373 4. 261 Items ranked lower than those shown were Interpersonal relations with peers, with students, and with superiors; job security; school policy and administration; supervisor; and working conditions. On Herzberg’s five motivation factors,
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