Application of motivation theories in Oracle Direct in Prague. ABSTRACT Motivation is one of the most important factors affecting human behavior and performance. This is the reason why managers attach great importance to motivation in organizational setting. Rensis Likert, has called motivation as “the core of management”. Effective directing of people leads the organization to effectiveness, both at organizational and individual levels. This paper focuses on motivation theories which originate from Maslow thought and applies them to Oracle Direct organization.
The Oracle Direct case study, brought from personal experience, says how people working in this organization can be motivated and encouraged to work more efficient. The theories are applied in Oracle Direct objectives to motivate their employees worldwide. Motivation is the set of forces that leads people to behave in certain ways. It refers to energy and commitment with which an individual or group performs a task or role. It is one of key management elements. Managers attempt to motivate people to behave in ways that are in the organization’s best interest.
More contemporary thought on motivation has a source in need-based perspectives. Martin & Fellenz (2010, p. 156) note that need theories address the question of what motivates human behavior in organizations. They emphasize particular aspects of an individual’s need or the goals that they seek to achieve as the basis for motivated behavior. Among major need theories are distinguished Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, the Alderfer’s ERG theory and Herzberg’s two-factor theory. In the 1940s psychologist Abraham Maslow developed his theory.
umed that people have an innate desire to satisfy their needs. He developed a model of needs to explain purposive behavior (Maslow, 1943, 1987) and arranged them in hierarchy of importance, with basic needs at the bottom of hierarchy. Formed in pyramid, the model consists of five basic categories of needs ranging from physiological or survival to career fulfillment needs. The three bottom sets of needs are termed deficiency needs, because they must to be satisfied for the person to be fundamentally comfortable and to be able to move forward to satisfy higher level needs.
The top two sets of needs are called growth needs because they concentrate on personal growth and development. The physiological needs are the most basic in the hierarchy. They include wide range of needs required to stay alive and function normally like need for food, accommodation, air to breathe. Consecutive are safety needs that provide security for individuals and their families, in organizational context they include the need for job security. The third in hierarchy, social needs focus on social support necessary to life.
Examples would include need for friendship, love, and acceptance by peers and from organizational point of view the need to work as part of team. The fourth level, esteems needs, encompasses concepts of achievement, adequacy, recognition and reputation. In the company it includes the formal recognition by management as well as informal social recognition from peers and others. At the top of hierarchy are self-actualization needs. They are related to the opportunity of the individual to realize their full potential and become what she or he can be.
While scientific support fails to reinforc
Maslow’s hierarchy, his theory is very popular, being the introductory motivation theory for many practitioners. To handle issues present in the Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs, Clayton Alderfer devised the ERG theory in 1972. He presented a simplified model consisted of three level hierarchy of needs that imposes more accurately with scientific research. The three needs stands for existence, relatedness and growth needs. All of them are comparable to Maslow’s needs. Alderfer’s ERG theory demonstrates that more than one need may motivate at the same time.
A lower motivator need not be substantially satisfied before one can move onto higher motivators. The ERG theory also accounts for differences in need preferences between cultures better than Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs; the order of needs can be different for different people. This flexibility reasons many observed behaviors. The ERG theory acknowledges that if a higher-order need is frustrated, an individual may regress to increase the satisfaction of a lower-order need which appears easier to satisfy: frustration-regression principle.
In contrast to Maslow’s theory, managers have to understand that individual operates with the need to satisfy several motivators simultaneously. Based upon the ERG theory, leadership which focuses exclusively on one need at a time will not motivate employees effectively. Furthermore, the frustration-regression principle has further impact on motivation in the workplace. As an example, if employees are not provided opportunities to grow, an employee might regress to fulfilling relatedness needs, socializing with co-workers more.
Or, the inability of the environment or situation to satisfy a need for social interaction might increase the desire for more money or better working conditions. If manager recognizes these conditions soon enough in the process, they can take steps to satisfy those needs which are frustrated until such time that the worker can again pursue growth. Another need-based theory of motivation, dual-structure theory (originally called the two-factor theory), was formulated by Frederick Herzberg. He published his findings in 1959 in “The Motivation to Work”.
The dual-structure theory is based upon the belief that motivation can be splitted into hygiene factors and motivation factors. Herzberg concluded that there were two types of motivation: * Hygiene Factors which can cause lack of motivation when are not present. They affect the level of dissatisfaction, but are rarely quoted as creators of job satisfaction. These include: level and quality of supervision, interpersonal relations, physical working conditions, salary, job security, company policies and administrative procedures. Motivation Factors, such as sense of achievement, recognition, responsibility, nature of work itself, growth, advancement; which will motivate when present. Job dissatisfaction isn’t usually blamed on Motivation Factors, but they are cited as the cause of job satisfaction. These two separate ‘needs’ are the need to avoid unpleasantness and discomfort and, at the other end of the motivational scale, the need for personal development. A shortage of the factors that positively encourage employees (the motivating factors) will cause employees to focus on other, non-job related ‘hygiene’ factors.
According to Kozlowski (2011, p. 44) the model assumes a simple approach to the problem of needs and their satisfying by employees by bringing everyone to the same pattern of needs, which means that all employees strive to meet the higher needs what cannot be always true. The model assumes too large simplification of the organizational reality and personality
- Attachment Theory
- Lesson Plan
- Problem Solving
- Computer Science
- Forensic Science
- Mixed Economy
- Orders Of Magnitude
- Qualitative Research
- Regulatory Focus Theory
- Roman Numerals
- Scientific Method
- Silent Spring
- Social Science