Groups Within Society

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Six Degrees of Kevin Bacon is a popular trivia game to see how people are connected to the famous actor.
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Groups have a common identity but not shared expectations.
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F
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When people gather in the same place at the same time but lack organization or lasting patterns of interaction, they form a(n)
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NOT Both a and b
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A set of people who interact on the basis of shared expectations and who possess some degree of common identity.
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Group
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A small group of people who interact over a relatively long period of time on a direct and personal basis.
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Primary group
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A triad is a group with two members.
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A group in which interaction is impersonal and temporary in nature.
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Secondary group
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People who influence the attitudes and opinions of others are said to be
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Leaders
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A ____ is simply a means of classifying people according to a shared trait or a common status.
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Social category
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The out-group is the web of relationships that is formed by the sum total of a person’s interactions with other people.
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Aggregate
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An aggregate is a group of people gathered in the same place at the same time who lack organization or lasting patterns of interaction. – Movies, airplane passengers
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Social category
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A social category is a group of people who share a common trait or status. – Women, teens, left-handed people
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Dyad
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A dyad is a group with two members.
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Triad
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A triad is a three-person group.
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E-community
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An e-community is a community of people who interact through the Internet or other electronic communication. – Newsgroups, chat rooms, blogging
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Social network
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A social network is a web of relationships that is formed by the sum total of an individual’s interactions with other people. – Without clear boundaries or common identity – Business networking
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Leaders
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Leaders are people who influence the attitudes and opinions of others. – CEO, Board of Directors, President
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Instrumental leaders
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Instrumental leaders are leaders who are task-oriented.
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Expressive leaders
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Leaders who are emotion-oriented and maintain morale. – Football captain
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Society
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A group made up of smaller groups – Every individual in society participates in groups
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Group
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– Consists of 2 or more people – Interaction -Shared expectations – Common identity
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Small group
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– Consists of 10-45 people – Face to face interactions
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Formal group
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– Defined structure, goals, and activities – Boy Scouts, sorority
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Informal group
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– No official structure or rules of conduct – Friends
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Primary group
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– Long term interaction – Stronger communication – Family, counseling
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Secondary group
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– Interaction is impersonal and temporary – Limited involvement – Classroom, business
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Reference groups
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– Identification with a particular group’s standards and attitudes – School club, music group
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Out-group
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– Does not belong or identify with
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In-group
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– Belongs and identifies with – Sports team
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In-groups and out-groups reflect clearly defined boundaries
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Group functions
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1. Define boundaries 2. Select leaders 3. Set goals 4. Assign tasks 5. Control member behavior
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Stanley Milgram
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1964 Hypothesis to randomly select 2 people and connect them through their social network (small world concept)
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A basketball team is an example of this type of group.
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In-group
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All of the following are examples of expressive leaders except
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Out-group
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Leaders are people who influence the attitudes and opinions of others. What are the two categories that studies suggest that leaders fall into?
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1. Instrumental 2. Expressive
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What is the difference between a primary and secondary group?
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A primary group is a small group of people who interact over a relatively long period of time on a direct and personal basis. A secondary group is a group in which interaction is impersonal and temporary in nature.
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According to David Orenstein, which two things are the foundation for social life?
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Groups and group activities
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Group without clear boundaries or common identity.
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Social network
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What is the difference between an in-group and an out-group?
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The group that a person belongs to and identifies with is called an in-group. Any group that the person does not belong to or identify with is called an out-group.
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How large can a small group be?
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Sociologists consider a small group one with few enough members that everyone is able to interact on a face-to-face basis. The more members, the greater the number of face-to-face relationships. Sociologists have found that 15 is the largest number of people that can work well in one group. When the group is larger than that, members have a tendency to sort themselves into smaller groups.
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What is the difference between a formal group and an informal group?
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In a formal group the structure, goals, and activities of the group are clearly defined. In an informal group there is no official structure or established rules of conduct.
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Passengers on a train are an example of an aggregate group.
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The in-group represents people that interact with one another regularly on the Internet.
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