GHIST Ch. 26

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d. Yugoslavia under Tito.
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The eastern European nation that defied Stalin’s attempt to occupy it after the war was a. Vichy under Petain. b. Finland under Ulbricht. c. Poland under Yaruzelski. d. Yugoslavia under Tito. e. Germany under Petain.
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e. both b and d
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The Yalta System a. in spite of some diplomatic turmoil, remained essentially unchanged, and successful, until the outbreak of the Korean War in mid-1950. b. was immediately strained by major differences about the future of central Europe. c. was fatally weakened by the United States’ occupation of Bavaria, which Stalin denounced as a “calculated provocation.” d. was probably never a “real” system, as the presumption of future mutuality of goals and procedures probably lasted only a few months after the German surrender. e. both b and d
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b. stated that the United States would provide aid for any nation that was being threatened by communist subversion.
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The Truman Doctrine a. involved direct Soviet economic aid to Greece and Turkey. b. stated that the United States would provide aid for any nation that was being threatened by communist subversion. c. was the basis for substantial United States aid to India and Iran. d. tolerated a limited expansion of Communist control over areas of the Middle East. e. was to be a non-political attempt to advance free governments in North Africa.
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e. Marshall Plan.
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The European Recovery Program was better known as the a. Five Point Program. b. Stillman Plan. c. Acheson Plan. d. European Community. e. Marshall Plan.
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d. the view that the plan was an effort by the United States at imperialist domination of Europe.
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Soviet reactions to the Marshall Plan included a. military occupation of Finland and Denmark. b. direct participation in its aid benefits. c. the creation of a program of competitive financial aid to East Asia. d. the view that the plan was an effort by the United States at imperialist domination of Europe. e. a new policy of international cooperation.
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c. plans to merge the American, British and French occupation zones in Germany into a West German republic.
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Events causing Stalin to become uneasy about United States intentions between 1945 and 1950 included a. the provision of American economic and military aid to the Ukraine. b. the stationing of United States ground forces in Finland and Iraq. c. plans to merge the American, British and French occupation zones in Germany into a West German republic. d. the ban on Soviet participation in the European Recovery Program. e. the American threat to use atomic weapons the Middle East.
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a. it was accompanied by a publicly stated American threat to use atomic weapons on Moscow if Soviet planes attacked allied aircraft.
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All of the following are true about the Berlin Airlift except a. it was accompanied by a publicly stated American threat to use atomic weapons on Moscow if Soviet planes attacked allied aircraft. b. it was a result of Stalin’s effort to prevent the creation of a separate West German state. c. it resulted in an increase of tension between the superpowers. d. it provided Berlin with daily supplies. e. it did not block the separation of Germany into two states in 1949.
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b. NATO.
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The treaty of 1949 between the United States, Canada, Belgium, Luxembourg, France, Britain, the Netherlands, Italy, Denmark, Norway, Portugal, and Iceland created the military alliance known as a. the Warsaw Pact. b. NATO. c. COMECON. d. SEATO. e. CENTO.
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d. the development of the Warsaw Pact as a military balance to NATO.
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Soviet actions to balance Western initiatives, and unite, protect, and develop its zone of influence in Europe included a. the secret treaty with France, made in 1949 and publicized only in 1959, to share military alliance information in times of international stress caused by America. b. the creation of the Warsaw Pact, which created a trade zone in eastern Europe. c. the creation of the German Federal Republic in 1949. d. the development of the Warsaw Pact as a military balance to NATO. e. a treaty with Turkey and Greece guaranteeing their boundaries against attacks by Yugoslavia.
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b. He did not expect a communist victory.
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At the outset of the Chinese civil war, how did Josef Stalin react? a. He trusted and admired the independent-minded communist leader Mao Zedong. b. He did not expect a communist victory. c. He sent troops to aid the communist faction. d. He supported Chiang Kai-shek. e. He agreed to bomb Chinese border towns.
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b. the Chinese Communists steadily increased their power in the north until, by 1945, between twenty and thirty million people were under their control.
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Between the mid-1930s and the end of World War II, a. Chiang Kai-shek finally obtained a firm grip on all but northwest China, and implemented a “crash program” of modernization, which won peasant support. b. the Chinese Communists steadily increased their power in the north until, by 1945, between twenty and thirty million people were under their control. c. Japan made peace with Chiang in 1940, joining him in a war against Mao’s Communists. d. Mao Zedong married Chiang’s daughter, which reunited China until the late 1950s. e. the Chinese Communist party changed its focus from organizing peasants to winning over the middle class city dwellers and the large bankers in Shanghai.
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b. peasant enthusiasm for Mao’s promises to give land to the peasants.
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Factors weakening Chiang Kai-shek during the Civil War included a. middle class indifference toward his regime because of its refusal to provide them with lucrative government jobs. b. peasant enthusiasm for Mao’s promises to give land to the peasants. c. the refusal of the United States to give even limited military support to the Nationalistvarmies. d. the fact that 85,000 former Japanese occupation troops were fighting in his army and elite Japanese units formed his bodyguard. e. Chiang’s alliance with Japan during World War II.
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c. Taiwan
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Which island was increasingly seen by United States as a crucial element in American defense strategy in the Pacific during the winter of 1949-1950? a. Oahu b. Hong Kong c. Taiwan d. Sakhalin e. Hainan.
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a. was fought by a United Nations force composed mainly of South Korean and United States troops against North Korean forces and, after late 1950, Chinese “volunteers.”
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The Korean War a. was fought by a United Nations force composed mainly of South Korean and United States troops against North Korean forces and, after late 1950, Chinese “volunteers.” b. began only five months after the Soviet and American governments had established a new, unified government there and withdrawn their armies of occupation. c. was caused by domestic disagreements between Korean factions in the south. d. involved large numbers of Chinese troops after United Nations air forces bombed Manchuria. e. was finally won when 250,000 American troops captured the North Korean capital after a four month siege.
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c. led a multiparty coalition in an anti-colonialist struggle against the French in the 1940s and early 1950s.
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Ho Chi Minh a. was Mao Zedong’s only major rival for leadership of the Chinese Communist Party. b. had concluded an agreement for Vietnamese independence in 1946 with the French, but then became engaged in a civil war against militant Buddhists. c. led a multiparty coalition in an anti-colonialist struggle against the French in the 1940s and early 1950s. d. sought exile in China after his defeat in Vietnam in 1954. e. became a democratic politician in North Viet Nam.
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d. Czechoslovakia.
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In the 1950s unrest in Eastern Europe against Soviet led communist rule occurred in all of the following nations except a. Hungary. b. East Germany. c. Poland. d. Czechoslovakia.
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e. China opposed the peace terms claiming long-standing Chinese territorial rights in Vietnam.
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Which of the following was not a consequence of the French defeat in the Indochina war of 1954? a. Vietnam was divided into a communist north and a non-communist south. b. A demilitarized zone separated the two parts of Vietnam. c. Cambodia and Laos were declared independent states. d. French forces withdrew from Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos. e. China opposed the peace terms claiming long-standing Chinese territorial rights in Vietnam.
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a. Poland
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Wladyslaw Gomulka was successful in curbing Russian dominance and instituting domestic reforms during the 1950s in which East European country? a. Poland b. Hungary c. East Germany d. Romania e. Bulgaria
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b. That they had to grant leeway for the adoption of some domestic reforms inside East European countries.
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What did the events of 1956 in Eastern Europe teach Russian government officials? a. That the U.S. would use force in defending anti-communist movements. b. That they had to grant leeway for the adoption of some domestic reforms inside East European countries. c. That there was only one road to Socialism. d. That national independence for Eastern European countries was inevitable. e. That Eastern Europe would unite into a politically unified state with or without Russian support.
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c. Nikita Khrushchev.
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Who initiated the term “peaceful coexistence”? a. Mao Zedong. b. John Kennedy. c. Nikita Khrushchev. d. Fidel Castro. e. Richard Nixon.
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d. brought the world to the brink of nuclear war, but, eventually, produced a lessening of Cold War tension between the superpowers.
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The Cuban Missile Crisis a. was the first major Mexican-Cuban crisis. b. was a direct attempt by the United States to remove Fidel Castro from power. c. was a direct attempt by the Soviet Union to launch a nuclear attack on America. d. brought the world to the brink of nuclear war, but, eventually, produced a lessening of Cold War tension between the superpowers. e. caused several military confrontations between the superpowers in world “hot zones.”
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b. was aggravated by the lack of Soviet support for Chinese efforts to reclaim Taiwan.
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The Sino-Soviet dispute a. was rooted in a struggle between the Chinese and the Soviets for control of Tibet. b. was aggravated by the lack of Soviet support for Chinese efforts to reclaim Taiwan. c. bore no relationship to the level of Soviet economic assistance to China. d. saw Mao describe China as the international leader of industrialized nations. e. produced a Soviet invasion of China in 1965.
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c. It was weakened by Mao Zedong’s belief that, after Stalin’s death, Mao’s status as the most experienced Marxist ruler should make him the leading socialist.
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In the 1950s and 1960s what happened to the relationship between the Soviet Union and Mao Zedong’s China? a. It remained unchanged. b. It was altered by the Soviet Union’s increased interest in increasing world tensions, especially with the militarily dangerous United Nations. c. It was weakened by Mao Zedong’s belief that, after Stalin’s death, Mao’s status as the most experienced Marxist ruler should make him the leading socialist. d. It was destroyed by Mao’s threat to occupy southeastern Siberia if the Soviet government continued to make, test, and store nuclear weapons there. e. It improved because of a joint fear of the United States’ ambitions in South Asia.
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c. the United States, fearful of a communist victory in the elections agreed to at Geneva, had ignored the Geneva Accords and militarily aided the South Vietnamese government.
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Warfare resumed in Vietnam in 1959 because a. of the Afghan invasion of Kazakhstan. b. Ho Chi Minh rejected the Geneva Accords. c. the United States, fearful of a communist victory in the elections agreed to at Geneva, had ignored the Geneva Accords and militarily aided the South Vietnamese government. d. Ngo Dinh Diem began a Communist takeover of South Vietnam. e. of the Chinese communist invasion of nearby Cambodia.
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b. he believed that the combined forces of the Viet Cong and the North Vietnamese army would have taken over all of Vietnam if he hadn’t.
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Lyndon Johnson sent more American troops to South Vietnam in 1965 because a. he wanted to stop the South Vietnamese policy of giving free land to the peasants. b. he believed that the combined forces of the Viet Cong and the North Vietnamese army would have taken over all of Vietnam if he hadn’t. c. he wanted to conquer all of Vietnam. d. he planned to establish Vietnam as a staging point for an American military onslaught into China. e. he viewed all of Vietnam as the perfect target for a final Cold War nuclear confrontation.
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d. North Vietnam couldn’t reach a political accord with South Vietnam, and finally attacked and defeated the south two years later.
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After a peace treaty was signed in Paris in 1973 to end the Second Indochinese War, a. President Johnson decided to escalate the fighting in nearby Laos. b. North and South Vietnam settled their differences peacefully. c. America took control of all of Vietnam. d. North Vietnam couldn’t reach a political accord with South Vietnam, and finally attacked and defeated the south two years later. e. the United States elected Richard Nixon to be its new president.
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e. Afghanistan.
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Under Ronald Reagan, the United States was able to help sustain a Vietnam-like war that long embroiled Soviet forces in a. Angola. b. Uzbekistan. c. Turkmenistan. d. Kazakhstan. e. Afghanistan.
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d. the Cold War.
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The expression “new world order” refers to the optimistic hopes and expectations that resulted from the end of a. World War II. b. the Korean War. c. the Second Vietnam War. d. the Cold War. e. Star Wars.
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False
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The term ‘Iron Curtain’ was first used by Nikita Krushchev.
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False
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The Marshall Plan was a military alliance directed against Soviet aggression.
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True
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The Geneva Conference of 1954 divided Vietnam at the 17th parallel but envisioned unification elections would be held by 1956.
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True
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In spite of President Eisenhower’s promise in the 1950s to “roll back” communism, in reality United States officials realized that any intervention in Eastern Europe could lead to nuclear war.
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False
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Communist China sent Chinese troops to assist Ho Chi Minh and the Viet Cong in the Second Indochina War.
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False
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“Star Wars” was John F. Kennedy’s plan to send men to the moon by the end of the 1960s.

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