Geol 351

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All of the following mineral resources are usually imported by the United States, EXCEPT…
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sand and gravel
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What geologic processes (relating to the rock cycle) concentrate diamonds, potassium, and bauxite respectively?
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Igneous, sedimentary, weathering
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Why is cyanide heap leaching used to extract gold from some deposits?
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The gold concentration is too low to be extracted using traditional methods.
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What phase of mining generally causes the least environmental degradation?
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exploring and testing
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Most water pollution associated with mining operations has to do with
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water passing through mines
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What is the approximate concentration factor of a metal that has a natural concentration (percentage) of 0.003 and a percentage in ore of 0.9?
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300
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Where you expect to find mercury deposits
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Near Convergent plate boundaries
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Which type of mineral would most likely be found in a dry lakebed?
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Evaporate deposits
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Kimberlite pipes are a source of what material
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Diamond
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The process of converting an old, unsightly mining site into an environmentally safe, clean, and useful area is called _______
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mine reclamation
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Hydrothermal mineral deposits would be least expected to form in what type of plate tectonic setting?
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transform boundary
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About 94% (by weight) of all the minerals mined in the United States are used for…
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building materials
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Weathering processes are primarily responsible for the concentration of what types of ore?
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aluminum
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If surface mines tend to cause greater environmental impacts, why are they used?
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surface mines are more economical
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You are working in the field as a geologist.You are mapping a large iron ore deposit. After you identify the amount of ore that is currently available, you speculate that there is a vast volume in the same area that could be extracted with the use of technology not yet developed. This part of the deposit is a _______.
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resource
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How is biotechnology helping to reduce the environmental impacts of mining?
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through efficient treatment of mine wastes and contaminated water
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What is the principal social impact of mining operations?
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boom and bust cycles that impact local economies and social structure
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Placer deposits are expected in what type of rock?
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sedimentary
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Smelter emissions often cause what type of adverse environmental degradation?
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acid rain
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A concentration of minerals that could now be legally mined at a profit is called a ______________.
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reserve
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_______ account(s) for the production of nearly 90% of energy consumed in the United States
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fossil fuels
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Of the following choices, the best place for a geothermal energy plant would be _______.
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In the region of Yellowstone National Park
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______ is the term for the time when one-half of Earth’s oil has been extracted and used.
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Peak Oil
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Methane hydrates may be a viable future energy source because
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they are abundant and clean burning
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All of the following are problems associated with the use of nuclear power, EXCEPT
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a shortage of uranium resulting in high cost of energy production.
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Why does acid rain result from fossil fuel consumption
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fossil fuel burning creates nitrogen and sulfur oxides
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oil and gas are known as _____
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hydrocarbons
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All of the following are geologic factors necessary for the safe disposal of radioactive waste, EXCEPT…
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frequent earthquakes.
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Why is coal usage likely to increase in the future?
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is an abundant resource in relation to oil and gas
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The ultimate source of the energy in fossil fuels is
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the sun
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coal type is based upon
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the carbon percentage and heal value
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the ultimate source of geothermal energy is
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heat generated in earths interior
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Which of the following geologic features is not required for an oil or gas deposit to form?
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volcanic rock
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What types of environmental impacts are associated with the use of coal?
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all the above
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Which of the following geologic situations is most likely to contain significant oil concentrations?
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300-million-year-old rocks that accumulated in a subsiding sedimentary basin
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Nuclear fission is the process of
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splitting of heavy atoms to make light atoms
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What is the most important aspect of future oil supplies?
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when oil production will peak
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Between the mid-1970s and the mid-1990s, energy consumption in the United States
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increased, but at a slower rate
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What is an associated problem or hazard of geothermal energy?
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all of the above are true
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Why is our society beginning to seek a new energy path?
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all of the above are reasons to seek a new energy path.
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In what ways are soil surveys useful for land-use planning?
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They provide the basis for rating limitations for specific land uses.
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How do soils become fertile
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mild weathering of parent material and addition of organic matter
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All of the following are important with regard to the engineering properties of soils, EXCEPT…
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soil fertility and suitability for agriculture
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According to the Universal Soil Loss Equation, in order for soil loss to be low, factors R, K, L, S, C, and P all must be _______?
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low
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Soil cohesion is enhanced by the presence of
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clay and silt particles
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Which of the following is correct about sediment reduction
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sediment is one of our greatest pollutants
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Blocky soils are usually found in the ______ horizon
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B
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Weathered material that remains in its place of formation is called
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residual soil
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Moving downward from the surface, what is a typical order for soil horizons C, B, E, A, and O?
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O,A,E,B,C
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Soil fertility can be reduced by
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soil erosion
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Soils are important to environmental work for which of the following reasons?
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all of the above are true
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what is hydraulic conductivity
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the ability of a porous material to transmit water
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A sharp peak in sediment yield in the Piedmont region around 1960 corresponded with a period of
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rapid urbanization
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Soil taxonomy is a classification system based on
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physical and chemical properties of the soil profile
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Which soil horizon is known as the zone of accumulation?
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B horizon
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In what way is color an indicator of soil drainage?
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Well-drained soils tend to be and aerated and red in color
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Why are the impacts of off-road vehicles so large?
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all of the above are true
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Why was Times Beach, Missouri, evacuated in 1983?
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soils had become contaminated by dioxin
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Which of the following statements is true about soil surveys?
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all of the above are true
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The characteristics of a soil depend on all of the following, EXCEPT…
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atmospheric pressure
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Most deserts lying around 30 degrees latitude are caused by
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descending air
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Glacial ice covers what percent of the global land area?
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10%
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In what way can human practices contribute to desertification?
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overgrazing by livestock
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Air bubbles in the Antarctic ice sheet show that
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carbon dioxide is relatively low during cold periods
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How can scientists collect data about changes in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations for the last 800,000 years?
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Studying ice cores
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What is an interglacial?
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a warm period when glacial ice volume is relatively low
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Why was Erik the Red able to explore Greenland in the 10th century AD?
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His explorations took place during a particularly warm climatic period
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The greenhouse effect represents
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trapping of heat by atmospheric gases
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The Kyoto Protocol is an international agreement concerning
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Reduction of carbon dioxide emissions
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How does glacial ice form
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Snow is retained for many years and compacted into ice by overlying snow
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Why are mathematical models important to the study of climate change?
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They have predictive capability
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Loess is deposited by
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wind erosion
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What effect does a large volcanic eruptions typically have on the atmosphere?
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cooling for one or two years
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All of the following are abrupt climate changes that may occur as a result of global warming, EXCEPT…
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a sudden disappearance of hurricane activity
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How has glacial ice aided the study of climate change?
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Glacial ice contains trapped air bubbles that archive former atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations.
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Which of the following is a possible cause of glaciation?
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both of the above are true
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The ocean conveyor belt is responsible for
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Keeping northern Europe Relatively warm
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You are studying climate change in the American Southwest over the past 200 years. Which type of proxy measurement might you collect in this part of the world?
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Tree ring data from ancient trees
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How might we reduce our emissions of carbon dioxide into the environment?
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all of the above are true
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What is the main engineering problem associated with permafrost?
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melting of permafrost creates subsidence
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ore
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rock in which whose valuable or useful metal is economic to mine
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Igneous metal deposits
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form in association with magma and water when minerals concentrate during the formation of igneous rocks
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Sedimentary mineral deposits
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are precipitated from a solution, typically seawater, formed by weathering reactions that break down rocks at Earth’s surface, or are sorted and redistributed by the flow of water, wind, or ice
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Concentration Factor
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Cm/Cmc the concentration factor (CF) is the increase in the concentration of a mineral required to generate an ore
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Igneous Mineral deposits
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Hydrothermal ores, plutons
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Sedimentary deposits
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Placers, Evaporates
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Pegmatites
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Crazy looking pieces in a rock, kitchen countertop, injected minerals into rocks

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