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Geography Chpt 7

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The one way in which culture is NOT transmitted to younger generations is by
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mutation
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The smallest distinctive item of culture is called a
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culture trait
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The culture landscape
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is the earth’s surface as modified by human action
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The elements of the ideological subsystem of a culture
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are the intangible items giving distinctive content and character to a culture
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The development of a new form of culture trait by the fusion of two or more different parent elements is called
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syncretism
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When social group is unresponsive to a useful innovation, it is said to display
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cultural lag
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Change within culture groups is induced by
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diffusion and innovation
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Pidgin and creole languages are distinguished from one another by the fact that pidgin
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is always a second language for all its speakers; creole has become a distinctive first language of a society
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Which of the following is the most important medium for transmitting culture?
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language
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The Indo-European language family
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is made up of separate languages collectively spoken by about one-half of the world’s population
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Cultural convergence implies that
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world populations increasingly share a common technology
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Which of the following statements about culture is not true?
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culture is genetically tied and transmitted as a racial characteristic
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The spread of English as a worldwide language was the result of
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the establishment of overseas colonies and former English dominance in world trade
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The elements of the sociological subsystem of a culture include all of the following EXCEPT
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language
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Which of the following religions has remained dominant in its origin?
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Islam
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Religions are important keys to human geographic understanding because
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religious beliefs intimately affect all facets of a culture
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Buddhism, Islam, and Christianity have been called “universalizing” religions because each
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claims universal applicability and seeks converts
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It is believed that the Indo-European protolanguage originated about 5,000 years ago in
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Eastern Europe or southern Russia
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A primary basis for the partition of the Indian subcontinent following British rule was to
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recognize the existence of distinctive regional religious concentrations and animosities
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A language may be defined as
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an organized system of speech communication
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The most distinctive contrast between folk and popular culture is that
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folk culture reflects the traditional way of life of groups isolated from resistant to outside influences; popular culture simply implies the general mass of people confirming to ever-changing fads and common modes of behavior
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The use of English as the official language of Nigeria demonstrates
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the concept of lingua franca
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Ethnic communities are composed of populations with distinguishing
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cultural heritages
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The study of place-names as evidence of past cultural presence and change is called
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toposcopy
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Which one of the following items is an example of a cultural trait?
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technology
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The world’s oldest major religion is
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Hinduism
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The spread of culture traits from one area to another areas is called
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diffusion
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Which one of the following groups of areas was among the world’s earliest centers of plant and animal domestication?
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Southwest Asia, West Africa, Andean South America
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A religion that teaches that a person’s status in this life is determined by his/her existence in previous lives is
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Hinduism
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The term referring to socially created distinctions between masculine and feminine roles in society is
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gender
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Monotheistic religions include
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Judaism, Christianity, and Islam
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A group of languages thought to have shared the same origin is
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Hindi, Russian, and Spanish
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The political movement devoted to the creation of a Jewish state is
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Zionism
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Most of the people in the Middle East speak
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Arabic
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What is the Koran?
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the sayings of Allah revealed to Mohammed
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The movement to make English the official language of the United States
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is seen by its opponents as discriminatory and harmful to the education of ethnic minority children
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Which one of the following is an example of an ethnic group?
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Mexican Americans
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Which one of the universalizing religions originated in India and was brought by missionaries into China, Korea, Japan, Southeast Asia, Tibet, and Mongolia, where it became the dominant religion?
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Buddhism
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Which one of the following languages belongs to the same language subfamily with English
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German
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Acculturation is the term applied to
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the process by which one culture group adopts the characteristics of another, dominant group
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T/F:Cultural integration is the term applied to the intermixture of ethnic traits within a pluralistic society.
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False
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T/F:Possibilism is the viewpoint that humans are the active agents in shaping culture, selecting from the environment the opportunities and resources their need and technical levels make evident and needed.
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True
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T/F:Nearly three-quarters of the world’s population adhere to tribal and ethnic religions.
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False
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T/F:Value systems that are nonreligious in nature tend not to be binding on the societies that hold them.
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False
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T/F:Ethnicity always contains a spatial or territorial implication.
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True
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T/F:Both language and religion are indispensable attributes of all cultures.
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False
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T/F:Although they display some important dialect differences, essentially all people of India have Hindi as their native tongue.
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False
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T/F:The “Bantu line” in Africa bounds the last pocket of Bantu-speakers facing linguistic extinction from Arabic advance.
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False
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T/F:Syncretism implies the fusion of old and new culture traits into a new, composite form.
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True
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T/F:English was established as the official United States language by Constitutional amendment in 1981.
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False
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T/F:A culture complex is the intermixture within an area of social traits drawn from two or more separate culture hearths.
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False
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T/F:The sociological subsystem of a culture expresses accepted patterns of interpersonal and group behavior and agreed-upon institutions.
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True
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T/F:Depopulation of the Chaco Canyon settlements was caused by abrupt and disastrous climatic change.
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False
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T/F:Ethnocentrism is the feeling of superiority of one’s own ethnic group.
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True
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T/F:All the universalizing religions had their origin hearths in the Near East.
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False
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T/F:Sociofacts include the institutions and patterns of group and personal relationships that unite a culture.
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True
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T/F:Significant human alteration of the natural landscape has occurred only since the Industrial Revolution of the 18th and 19th centuries.
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False
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T/F:Vernacular speech is the nonstandard language or dialect of locality.
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True
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T/F:Cultural lag is the period between introduction of an innovation in major cities and its adoption at lower levels in the urban hierarchy.
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False
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T/F:The sharpest distinctions and greatest inequalities between the sexes were expressed historically in hunting and gathering cultures.
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False