Geography Chapter 4

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Energy
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sun provides solar energy that heats earth’s atmosphere and surface unevenly distributed by latitude and fluctuates seasonally and is unevenly distributed throughout time and space
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Transmission
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the passage of shortwave and longwave radiation through atmosphere shortwave comes in longwave goes out
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insolation input
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all the radiation that arrives at earth’s surface (direct radiation and diffuse) Greatest in tropics decreases poleward
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Scattering
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changing the direction of light without altering wavelengths wavelengths scatter when they run into molecules (insolation encounters an increasing density of atm. gases) the sky is blue because of scattering
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Refraction
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change in speed and direction when light moves from one medium to another (outer space to atmosphere…atmosphere to water) adds 8 minutes of sunlight (4 at sunrise, 4 at sunset)
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Reflection
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bouncing back of insolation without being absorbed energy is deflected away, unchanged in direction from which it came
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Albedo
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the reflective property, or intrinsic brightness of a surface…percentage of insolation that is reflected (0% is total absorption, 100% is total reflection)
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Cloud greenhouse warming
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increase in greenhouse warming caused by clouds (clouds reflect albedo=cooling the earth’s surface, BUT they also act as insUlation, trapping longwave radiation from the earth and raising minimum temperatures)
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Absorption
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assimilation of radiation by molecules of matter and its conversion from one form of energy to another
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Percentages of absorbed radiation
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69% of insolation is absorbed 45% is absorbed by surface and ocean 24% by clouds, dust, gases, ozone this is all converted to LONGwave radiation
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Albedo (reflection)
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Surface – 3% Clouds – 21% Diffuse (redirected by something) scatter- 7% Total- 31%
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Atmospheric absorption
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Ozone – 3% Clouds – 3% Gases and Dust – 18% Total- 24%
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Surface absorption
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Direct – 25% Diffuse – 20% Total- 45%
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Mechanisms of heat transfer
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Conduction Convection Advection
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Conduction
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molecule-to-molecule transfer of heat energy as it diffuses through a substance vibrating molecules causes collision to transfer heat from from warmer to cooler materials
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Convection
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energy transferred vertically by movement
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Advection
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energy transferred horizontally by movement
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The Greenhouse Effect
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Shortwave radiation comes in and when longwave radiation comes back, the greenhouse gases absorb the longwave radiation emitting back to the surface (temporarily stopping its trip back to outer space)
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Greenhouse gases
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Carbon dioxide water vapor methane nitrous oxide CFCs
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Clouds
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cirrus- HIGH clouds- more trapping=net warming stratus- LOW clouds- more reflection=net cooling
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Daily Radiation Patterns
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total amount of insolation peaks at noon, but it varies with time of year and latitude temperature LAGS the insolation so temperature actually peaks around 3 p.m. when a max of insolation is already absorbed and emitted back to the atmosphere from the ground
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Energy Balance
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earth’s surface RECEIVES shortwave and longwave radiation and LOSES it as well so that a balance is maintained
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Net Radiation
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expended from a nonvegetated surface through 3 pathways Latent Heat (LE) Sensible Heat (H) Ground Heating (G) as a whole has a net radiation balance but a great deal of latitudinal variability
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Latent heat (LE)
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heat transfer due to evaporation or condensation of water
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Sensible heating (H)
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heat you can sense transferred through convection and conduction
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Ground Heating (G)
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energy flow in/out of the ground via conduction balanced on an annual basis

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