General Psychology Chapters 9-14

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Behaviorism
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-an approach to psychology that emphasizes the study of observable behavior and the role of the environment and prior experience as determinants of behavior
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Ivan Pavlov and Classical Conditioning
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-studied the saliva glands in dogs and eventually discovered that he could condition dogs to salivate at the ring of a bell -the bell ringing can be the conditioned stimulus
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Unconditioned Stimulus
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-a stimulus that already elicits a certain response without additional learning
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Unconditioned Response
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-a response elicited by an unconditioned stimulus
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Conditioned Stimulus
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-an initially neutral stimulus that comes to elicit a conditioned response after being paired with an unconditioned stimulus
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Conditioned Response
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-a response that is elicited by a conditioned stimulus; occurs after the conditioned stimulus is paired with an unconditional stimulus
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Spontaneous Recovery
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-the reappearance of a learned response after its apparent extinction
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Extinction
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-the weakening and eventual disappearance of a learned response; in classical conditioning, it occurs when the conditioned stimulus is no longer paired with the unconditioned stimulus
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Higher-Order Conditioning
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-a procedure which a neutral stimulus becomes a conditioned stimulus through association with an already established conditioned stimulus
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Stimulus Generalization
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-after conditioning, the tendency to respond to a stimulus that resembles one involved in the original conditioning
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Stimulus Discrimination
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-the tendency to respond differently to two or more similar stimuli
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John B. Watson’s contribution to Classical Conditioning
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-teaching to fear -Watson paired a loud noise with the presence of a white rat for an 11-month-old boy named little Albert -eventually just the presence of the white rat caused Albert to cry even if there was no noise -also used counterconditioning to reverse a fear of rabbits in a young boy
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B.F. Skinner and Operant Conditioning
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-operant conditioning: a response becomes more likely or less likely to occur based on the consequences -reinforcement strengthens the likelihood of a response occurring again -punishment weakens the chances of a response occurring again -positive reinforcement: increase of intensity of a response -negative reinforcement: removal or delay of an unpleasant stimulus
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Stanley Milgram and the Obedience Study
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-the shock study in which the participants were told to shock the learners every time they got a question wrong
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Milligram’s survey of Psychiatrists and their opinions compared to actual experiences
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-psychiatrists said they expected participants to not go above 150 volts -however, the participants did and would administer shock if promoted to
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Results of Replication Studies of Milgram’s Experiment
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-many different people have gone through replications of this study and have all inflicted shock in which they thought it was quite powerful
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Stanford Prison Study-methodolgy/design and findings/conclusions
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-set up a prison and used college students as guards and prisoners -within a short time the prisoners and guards were living their roles and prisoners were displaying physical symptoms -the experiment showed that social situation affects behavior causing some people to behave in ways that seem out of character
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Criticisms of the Stanford Prison Study
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-guards were encouraged to treat prisoners harshly -the data reported was said to have been focused on the more dramatic events -selective sampling was used
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Why People Obey
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-some follow because of consequences -others follow because of entrapment
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Entrapment
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-a process in which individuals escalate their commitment to a course of action in order to justify their investment in it
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Social Cognition
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-an area in social psychology concerned with social influences on thought, memory, perception and beliefs
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Attribution Theory
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-the theory that people are motivated to explain their own and other people’s behavior by attributing causes of that behavior to a situation or disposition
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Situational Attribution
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-identifying the cause of an action as something in the situation or environment
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Dispositional Attribution
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-the cause of an action as something in the person such ad a trait or motive
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Fundamental Attribution Error
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-the tendency in explaining other people’s behavior to overestimate personality factors and underestimate the influence of the situation
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Cognitive Dissonance
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-a state of tension that occurs when a person holds two cognitions that are psychologically inconsistent or when a person’s belief is incongruent with his or her behavior
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Familiarity Effect
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-the tendency of people to feel more positive toward a person, item, product or other stimulus the more familiar they are with it
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Validity Effect
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-the tendency of people to believe that a statement is true or valid simply because it has been repeated many times
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Solomon Asch and Conformity/Groupthink
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-Asch conducted the line experiment -students were presented with different lengths of lines -when tested alone people almost always were right, when tested in a group, only 20% got it right and would apologize for not agreeing -groupthink: the tendency for all members of a group to think alike for the sake of harmony and to suppress disagreement
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Mental Disorder
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-any behavior or emotional state that causes an individual great suffering, does not go away after a reasonable length of time, is self-destructive, seriously impairs the person’s ability to work or get along with others or causes the person to endanger others or the community
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Purpose of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)
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-provides clear diagnostic categories, so that clinicians and researchers can agree on which disorders they are talking about and then can study and treat those disorders
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Four Limitations of the DSM
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-over-diagnosis, power of diagnostic labels, confusion of mental disorders with everyday problems & illusion of objectivity
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Drapetomania
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-a mental disorder that is defined as \”the urge to escape from slavery\”
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Projective Tests
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-psychological tests used to infer a person’s motives, conflicts, and unconscious dynamics on the basis of the person’s interpretations of ambiguous stimuli
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Rorschach Inkblot Test
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-cards with symmetrical abstract patterns of ink blots -the patient is asked to report what they see in the inkblots
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Generalized Anxiety Disorder
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-a continuous state of anxiety marked by feelings of worry and dread, apprehension, difficulties in concentration and signs of motor tension
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Panic Disorder
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-an anxiety disorder in which a person experiences reoccurring panic attacks, periods of intense fear and feelings of impending doom or death, accompanies by physiological symptoms such as rapid heart rate and dizziness
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Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)
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-an anxiety disorder in which a person who has experiences a traumatic or life-threatening event has long-lasting symptoms such as recurrent intrusive thoughts, flashbacks, nightmares and increased physiological arousal
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Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD)
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-a disorder in which a person feels trapped in repetitive, persistent thoughts (obsessions) and behaviors (compulsions)
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Major Depression
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-a disorder marked by excessive sadness, loss of interest in usual activities, feelings of worthlessness and hopelessness, thoughts of suicide and physical symptoms (such as fatigue and loss of appetite)
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Biology and the Development of Mood Disorders
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-major depression occurs about twice as often among women as among men -because women are more likely to discuss this, diagnosing depression in men is probably underreported
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Factors Contributing to Depression
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-genetic predisposition/neurotransmitter imbalances, childhood violence or neglect, losses of important relationships, cognitive habits
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Borderline Personality Disorder
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-a disorder characterized by extreme negative emotionality and an inability to regulate emotions; often results in unstable relationships and feelings of emptiness and abandonment
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Anti-social Personality Disorder
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-a personality disorder characterized by a lifelong pattern of irresponsible antisocial behavior such as lawbreaking, violence and other impulsive, reckless acts and lack of remorse for harms inflicted
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Purpose, benefits, drawbacks: Antipsychotic Drugs (neuroleptics)
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-purpose: block or reduce the sensitivity of the brain receptors that respond to dopamine -benefits: reduce agitation, delusions and hallucinations and shorten schizophrenic episodes -drawbacks: can cause muscle rigidity, hand tremors and other involuntary muscle movements
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Purpose, benefits, drawbacks: Antidepressant Drugs
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-purpose: treatment of depression -benefits: boost norepinephrine and serotonin levels -drawbacks: produce dry mouth, headaches, nausea, etc.
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Purpose, benefits, drawbacks: Anti-anxiety Drugs (tranquilizers)
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-purpose: to reduce anxiety -benefits: helps individuals who are temporarily having an anxiety attack -drawbacks: not considered treatment and only works temporarily
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Purpose, benefits, drawbacks: Lithium Carbonate
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-purpose: bipolar disorder -benefits: it is unknown why it helps but the levels must be monitored -drawbacks: tremors or kidney damage
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Cautions about/Limitations of Drug Treatments
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-the placebo effect -high relapse and drop out rates -disregard for effective non-medical treatments -unknown risks of prolonged drug use -untested off label uses
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Universal Facial Expressions
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-anger, happiness, fear, surprise, disgust, sadness and contempt
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Paul Ekman- regarding coding system for facial expressions
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-when people try and hide their feelings they typically use different groups of muscles than they do for authentic ones
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Facial Feedback
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-the process by which the facial muscles send messages to the brain about the basic emotion being expressed
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Genetic Influences on Weight and Body Shape
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-genes set the set point for body weight -also influence how much brown fat people have
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Set-Point Theory
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-the genetically influenced weight range for an individual; it is maintained by biological mechanisms that regulate food intake, fat reserves and metabolism
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Bulimia Nervosa
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-an eating disorder characterized by episodes of excessive eating followed by forced vomiting or purging
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Anorexia Nervosa
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-an eating disorder characterized by fear of being fat, a distorted body image, radically reduced consumption of food and emaciation
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Body Image Distortions
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-not seeing yourself accurately
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Self-fulfilling Prophecy
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-an expectation that becomes reality because of the tendency of the person holding it to act in ways that bring it about
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Self-Efficacy
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-a person’s belief that he or she is capable of producing desired results, such as mastering new skills and reaching goals
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Work Conditions and Job Satisfaction
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-companies that foster good conditions tend to have more satisfied and productive employees

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