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General Psychology- Chapter 7- Learning

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Learning
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Refers to a relativly permanant change in behavior or knowledge that is due to experience
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Classical Conditioning
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a type of learning in which a stimulus acquires the capacity to evoke a response that was originally evoked by another stimulus
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Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS)
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a stimulus that evokes an unconditioned response without previous conditioning
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Unconditioned (UCR)
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is an unlearned reaction to an unconditioned stimulus that occurs without previous conditioning.
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Conditioned stimulus (CS)
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is a previously neutral stimulus that has, through conditioning, acquired the capacity to evoke a conditioned response
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Conditioned Response (CR)
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is a learned reaction to a conditioned stimulus that occurs because of previous conditioning.
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Acquisition
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refers to the initial stage of learning something.
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Stimulus Contiguity
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Is a temporal (time) association between two events.
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Extinction
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Is the gradual weakening and disappearance of a conditioned response tendancy.
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Spontaneous recovery
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Is the reappearance of an extinguished response after a period of non-exposure to the conditioned stimulus.
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Stimulus Generalization
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occurs when an organism that has learned a response to a specific stimulus responds in the same way to new stimuli that are similar to the original stimulus
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Stimulus Discrimination
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occurs when an organism that has learned a response to a specific stimulus does not respond in the same way to new stimuli that are similar to the original stimulus.
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Ratio schedules
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require and organism to make the designated response a certain number of times to gain each reinforcer
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Interval schedules
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require a time perioid to pass between the presentation of reinforcers
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Operant Conditioning
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is a form of learning in which responses come to be controlled by their consequences
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Shaping
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the reinforcment of closer and closer approximations of a desired response
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Reinforcement
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occurs when an event following a response increases an organisms tendance to make that response
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Continuous reinforcment
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occurs when every instance of a designated response in reinforced
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Intermittent, or partial, reinforcemnet
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occurs when a designated response is reinforced only some of the time
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Positive Reinforcement
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occurs when a response is strengthend because it is followed by the presentation of a rewarding stimulus
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Negative reinforcement
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occurs when a response is strengthend because it is followed by the removal of an unpleasant (aversive) stimulus
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Punishment
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occurs when an event following a repsonse decreases the tendancy to make that response
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Banduras 4 key processes that are crucial in observational learning
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1- Attention, 2- Retention (remember the behavior), 3- Reproduction, 4- Motivation
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What ALWAYS strengthens a response, whether positive or negative?
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Reinforcement
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What ALWAYS decreases a response
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Punishment
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B. F. Skinnard invented…
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operant conditioning EX. go to work–> get paid! =voluntary action to recieve stimuli.
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Pavalov
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Classical conditioning (a physiologist studying the process the role that saliva plays in digestion)
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Best time to condition?
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Between the conditioned stimulu (CS) and the unconditioned stimulus (UCS)… 1/2 second
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To remove conditioning….
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Present the Conditioned stimulus without the Unconditioned stimulus.
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Aserinsky
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Founded REM sleep after fixing an ECG in 1952