GED-Civics and Government

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Four Types of Political Systems
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Democracy, Dictatorship, Monarchy and Oligarchy
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Democracy
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a political system in which the supreme power lies in a body of citizens who can elect people to represent them
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Pure Democracy
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allows the people to make the decisions directly
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Representative Democracy
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includes election of representatives by the people
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Dictatorship
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form of government in which the leader has absolute power and authority
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Monarchy
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an autocracy governed by a monarch who usually inherits the authority
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Oligarchy
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a form of government in which all power is vested in a few persons or in a dominant class or clique; government by the few.
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Methods of obtaining power
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ancestry,divine right, conquest, revolution and popular vote
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ancestry
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the descendants of one individual
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divine right
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belief that a rulers authority comes directly from god.
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conquest
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capture or taking of something by force
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revolution
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the overthrow of a government by those who are governed
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popular vote
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vote of the people in a \”General Election\”
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federalism
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a system in which power is divided between the national and state governments
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the three branches of the U.S. government
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legislative, executive and judicial
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legislative
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the branch of government that makes the laws
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executive
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the branch of government that enforces and carries out the laws
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judicial
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the branch of government that interprets the laws and determines whether they are constitutional
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U.S. Congress
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The name for the bicameral legislature in the United States, which includes the U.S. House of Representatives and the U.S. Senate. The name for the legislative branch of U.S. government.
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House of Representatives
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One of the two parts of Congress, considered the \”lower house.\” Representatives are elected directly by the people, with the number of representatives for each state determined by the state’s population.
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Senate
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term-6 years, number of members-100, requirements- must be 30 and a U.S. citizen for 4 years, leaders- Vice President, duties- represent each state.
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Census
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official count of the population
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What does the U.S. Congress has the power to do
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levy and collect taxes, approve treaties, borrow money, impeach the president,regulate commerce,introduce bills other than tax bills, coin money, introduce a revenue or tax bill, declare war, approve presidential appointments, provide and maintain an army and navy, admit new states to the union
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enumerated
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Powers granted to government that are expressly written in the Constitution.
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elastic clause
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the part of the Constitution that permits Congress to make any laws \”necessary and proper\” to carrying out its powers
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Who or What does the executive branch of the U.S. government consist of ?
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the president, the vice president, and the agencies and departments that are necessary to administer and enforce the laws of the country
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How long can the president of the U.S. serve >
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Four years with a limit of two terms
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How does the Vice President become President ?
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If the president becomes disabled or dies in office before completing the term
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What are the president’s responsibilities ?
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serves as commander in chief of the armed forces grants reprieves and pardons for offenses against the U.S. appoints judges to the U.S. supreme court and ambassadors with the approval of the senate nominates and appoints major executive officesrs vetoes(refuses to approve) some bills sent by Congress symbolic and political leader
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What is the purpose of the Supreme Court ?
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to rule on the constitutionality of certain laws passed by congress, the president and the states themselves
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Define judicial review
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the authority to decide whtehr or not a lwa is in keeping wihth the spirit of the constituiton
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What is the composition of the supreme court ?
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nine justices appointed for life by the president includes the head of the court called the chief justice.
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What is the compositon of the judicial branch of the government
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U.S. supreme court, 11 circuit courts of appeals and about 90 federal district courts
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What are the supreme courts powers ?
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rule on cases involving a state and citizens of another state, controversies among two or more states, cases between citizens of different states and conflicts over patents and copyrights
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Define judicial restraint
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When supreme court justices lean toward upholding the rights of the states

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